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1.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(9): 3866-3876, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175505

RESUMO

We systematically reviewed evidence from observational studies on the associations between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and early-life antibiotic exposure. Eleven articles were included in the review. Prenatal antibiotic exposure was associated with a slightly increased risk of ASD in two cohort studies on overlapping populations and in one case-control study; in three other case-control studies, no significant association was found. One cohort study found a slightly reduced risk of ASD after postnatal antibiotic exposure, while two other cohort studies on overlapping populations and three case-control studies reported an increased risk. Meta-analysis of the eligible studies showed no significant associations. Current data are conflicting and do not conclusively support the hypothesis that early-life antibiotic exposure is associated with subsequent ASD development.

2.
Arch Dis Child ; 104(11): 1083-1089, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of coeliac disease (CD) is unclear. We systematically reviewed studies on the association between early life antibiotic exposure and the risk of CD or CD autoimmunity. DESIGN: Systematic review of observational studies. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to December 2018, with no language restrictions. Additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies that assessed the association between prenatal and/or postnatal antibiotic exposure and the odds of developing CD (as defined by authors of the original studies) or CD autoimmunity were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Six studies were included. In two large cohort studies that focused on prenatal antibiotic exposure, no association with the risk of CD was found (adjusted OR=1.16; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.43 and adjusted HR=1.33; 95% CI 0.69 to 2.56) in the Norwegian and Swedish cohorts, respectively. In three studies that evaluated the association of postnatal antibiotic exposure with the risk of CD, the results were contradictory, with only the Italian cohort study reporting a significant positive association (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.24; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43). A large, multicentre cohort study that evaluated the association between postnatal antibiotic exposure and CD autoimmunity in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-positive subjects found no association. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of an association between prenatal or postnatal antibiotic exposure and CD.

3.
Breastfeed Med ; 14(4): 218-229, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835494

RESUMO

Introduction: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants differ, but the influence of breastfeeding duration on early growth remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate current evidence on the association of exclusive and partial breastfeeding duration with different growth parameters during infancy. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and additional sources from January 2011 until March 2018 to identify relevant cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results: Twenty studies that recruited infants from the general population were included. In the developed setting, exclusive breastfeeding duration was inversely associated with weight and length gain during infancy in observational studies. Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was also associated with an earlier peak in infant body mass index (BMI). Inconsistent results were observed for the associations of exclusive breastfeeding duration with other infant BMI characteristics. In an RCT conducted in Iceland, exclusive breastfeeding for 4 versus 6 months did not affect infant growth patterns. In the developing setting, conflicting findings on the associations of exclusive breastfeeding duration with infant weight and length parameters were shown in observational studies. Shorter partial breastfeeding duration was associated with higher weight gain during infancy, with limited or inconclusive data regarding other growth parameters. Conclusions: Longer duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding tended to be associated with slower growth rates during infancy in the developed setting only. These associations seem to be dose dependent and more pronounced in exclusively versus partially breastfed infants.

4.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 74(2): 93-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable body of evidence accumulated especially during the last decade, demonstrating that early nutrition and lifestyle have long-term effects on later health and disease ("developmental or metabolic programming"). METHODS: Researchers involved in the European Union funded international EarlyNutrition research project consolidated the scientific evidence base and existing recommendations to formulate consensus recommendations on nutrition and lifestyle before and during pregnancy, during infancy and early childhood that take long-term health impact into account. Systematic reviews were performed on published dietary guidelines, standards and recommendations, with special attention to long-term health consequences. In addition, systematic reviews of published systematic reviews on nutritional interventions or exposures in pregnancy and in infants and young children aged up to 3 years that describe effects on subsequent overweight, obesity and body composition were performed. Experts developed consensus recommendations incorporating the wide-ranging expertise from additional 33 stakeholders. FINDINGS: Most current recommendations for pregnant women, particularly obese women, and for young children do not take long-term health consequences of early nutrition into account, although the available evidence for relevant consequences of lifestyle, diet and growth patterns in early life on later health and disease risk is strong. INTERPRETATION: We present updated recommendations for optimized nutrition before and during pregnancy, during lactation, infancy and toddlerhood, with special reference to later health outcomes. These recommendations are developed for affluent populations, such as women and children in Europe, and should contribute to the primary prevention of obesity and associated non-communicable diseases.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(2): 392-401, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fat mass development in infancy contributes to later adiposity, but its relation to ectopic fat depots is unknown. We examined the associations of infant subcutaneous fat with childhood general and organ-specific fat. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 593 children from a population-based prospective cohort study, we obtained total subcutaneous fat mass (as sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfolds thickness), central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thickness/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5, 6 and 24 months of age. At 10 years, we assessed BMI, fat mass index (FMI) based on total body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal subcutaneous, visceral and pericardial fat mass indices, and liver fat fraction by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. RESULTS: A higher central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months only and higher total subcutaneous fat at 6 and 24 months were associated with higher BMI, FMI and subcutaneous fat mass index at 10 years. The observed associations were the strongest between total subcutaneous fat at 24 months and these childhood outcomes (difference per 1-SDS increase in total subcutaneous fat: 0.15 SDS (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.08, 0.23), 0.17 SDS (95% CI 0.10, 0.24), 0.16 SDS (95% CI 0.08, 0.23) for BMI, FMI and childhood subcutaneous fat mass index, respectively). Infant subcutaneous fat measures at any time point were not associated with visceral and pericardial fat mass indices, and liver fat fraction at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that infant subcutaneous fat is associated with later childhood abdominal subcutaneous fat and general adiposity, but not with other organ-specific fat depots.

7.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(11): 812-821, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes and gestational hypertensive disorders are associated with offspring obesity, but the role of maternal adiposity in these associations remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether these pregnancy complications affect the odds of offspring obesity independently of maternal obesity. METHODS: We did an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of mother-offspring pairs from prospective birth cohort studies that had IPD on mothers with singleton liveborn children born from 1989 onwards and had information available about maternal gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia, and childhood body-mass index (BMI). We applied multilevel mixed-effects models to assess associations of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and pre-eclampsia with BMI SD scores and the odds of overweight and obesity throughout childhood, adjusting for lifestyle characteristics (offspring's sex, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, parity, and smoking during pregnancy). We then explored the extent to which any association was explained by maternal pre-pregnancy or early-pregnancy BMI. FINDINGS: 160 757 mother-offspring pairs from 34 European or North American cohorts were analysed. Compared with uncomplicated pregnancies, gestational diabetes was associated with increased odds of overweight or obesity throughout childhood (odds ratio [OR] 1·59 [95% CI 1·36 to 1·86] for early childhood [age 2·0-4·9 years], 1·41 [1·26 to 1·57] for mid childhood [5·0-9·9 years], and 1·32 [0·97 to 1·78] for late childhood [10·0-17·9 years]); however, these associations attenuated towards the null following adjustment for maternal BMI (OR 1·35 [95% CI 1·15 to 1·58] for early childhood, 1·12 [1·00 to 1·25] for mid childhood, and 0·96 [0·71 to 1·31] for late childhood). Likewise, gestational hypertension was associated with increased odds of overweight throughout childhood (OR 1·19 [95% CI 1·01 to 1·39] for early childhood, 1·23 [1·15 to 1·32] for mid childhood, and 1·49 [1·30 to 1·70] for late childhood), but additional adjustment for maternal BMI largely explained these associations (1·01 [95% CI 0·86 to 1·19] for early childhood, 1·02 [0·95 to 1·10] for mid childhood, and 1·18 [1·03 to 1·36] for late childhood). Pre-eclampsia was associated with decreased BMI in early childhood only (difference in BMI SD score -0·05 SD score [95% CI -0·09 to -0·01]), and this association strengthened following additional adjustment for maternal BMI. INTERPRETATION: Although lowering maternal risk of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and pre-eclampsia is important in relation to maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes, such interventions are unlikely to have a direct impact on childhood obesity. Preventive strategies for reducing childhood obesity should focus on maternal BMI rather than on pregnancy complications. FUNDING: EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (LifeCycle Project).

8.
Obes Rev ; 17(12): 1245-1257, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749991

RESUMO

This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (http://www.project-earlynutrition.eu), provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity, overweight and adiposity. Electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched up until September 2015. Forty systematic reviews were included. A consistent association of breastfeeding with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood was found (the odds decreased by 13% based on high-quality studies), but residual confounding cannot be excluded. Lowering the protein content of infant formula is a promising intervention to reduce the risk of later overweight and obesity in children. There is no consistent evidence of an association of the age of introducing complementary foods, sugar-sweetened beverage or energy intake in early childhood with later overweight/obesity, but there are some indications of an association of protein intake during the complementary feeding period with later overweight/obesity. There was inadequate evidence to determine the effects of other nutritional interventions or exposures, including modifications of infant formula composition, fat intake or consumption of different food groups.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adiposidade , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Humanos , Lactente , Metanálise como Assunto , Política Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Cooperação do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Nutr ; 146(3): 551-64, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26865649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein intake may influence important health outcomes in later life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate current evidence on the effects of infant formulas and follow-on formulas with different protein concentrations on infants' and children's growth, body composition, and later risk of overweight and obesity. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) up until November 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eligible studies had to include children aged 0-3 y who represented the general population and were fed cow milk-based infant formulas with variations in protein concentration. Control groups received lower-protein cow milk-based formulas (as defined by the authors). The primary outcomes were growth, overweight, obesity, and adiposity. Various time points for outcomes assessment were accepted for inclusion. If possible, a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twelve RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Different formula protein concentrations did not affect linear growth other than a transient effect on mean length at 3 mo observed in a meta-analysis of 4 studies (mean difference, - 0.27 cm; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.02). Lower mean weight and weight z scores obtained from the infants fed lower-protein formulas were observed only from 6 to 12 mo of age. Data from one large RCT showed that consumption of a lower-protein infant formula may reduce body mass index at 12 mo of age and later (12 mo, 24 mo, and 6y) and the risk of obesity at 6 y. Effects on body composition remained unclear. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence is insufficient for assessing the effects of reducing the protein concentration in infant formulas on long-term outcomes, but, if confirmed, this could be a promising intervention for reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in children. In view of the limited available evidence, more studies replicating effects on long-term health outcomes are needed.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Leite , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nutrition ; 31(6): 796-800, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25933485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication in individuals treated with antibiotics. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the efficacy of yogurt consumption for the prevention of AAD. METHODS: In this systematic review, a number of databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, with no language restrictions, were searched up to September 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of yogurt consumption in adults and children who were receiving antibiotics. The risk for bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Two RCTs, both low in methodological quality, were included. Compared with no intervention, yogurt consumption reduced the risk for diarrhea in the fixed effect model (two RCTs, n = 314, relative risk [RR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-1.00). Significant heterogeneity between the trials was detected (I(2) = 67%). The significant reduction in the risk for diarrhea was lost in the random effects model (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.11-1.75). CONCLUSIONS: Given the simple nature of the intervention, the scarcity of data is noteworthy. No consistent effect of yogurt consumption for preventing AAD was shown. However, the data are limited and the included trials had methodological limitations. Results from large, rigorously designed RCTs are needed to assess the effect of yogurt consumption on AAD prevention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Diarreia , Probióticos , Iogurte , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/etiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Streptococcus thermophilus , Iogurte/microbiologia
11.
Clin Nutr ; 34(5): 818-24, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25267702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In May 2014, the updated guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) were published. The use of yogurt in the nutritional management of AGE was not addressed, although it is frequently used in many countries for this purpose. We aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of yogurt consumption for the management of AGE in children. DESIGN: In this systematic review, a number of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, with no language restrictions, were searched up to July 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of yogurt consumption in children with AGE. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Four RCTs (n = 448) that were generally low in methodological quality, all performed in hospital setting, were included. Compared with placebo/no intervention, yogurt consumption had no significant effect on stool volume. The data on the effect of yogurt consumption on the duration of diarrhea and stool frequency were not consistent. The chance of treatment success (or failure) was similar in both groups. Compared with placebo, the duration of hospitalization was shorter in children who received yogurt, but the difference was of a borderline significance. Total weight gain increased for those treated with yogurt. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of yogurt had a positive effect on weight gain, but no consistent effect on AGE outcomes in hospitalized children. Given the limited data and the methodological limitations of the included trials, the evidence should be viewed with caution. The effect of yogurt consumption in the ambulatory setting is unknown.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/terapia , Iogurte , Doença Aguda , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fezes/química , Hospitalização , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
12.
World Rev Nutr Diet ; 108: 11-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24029782

RESUMO

Observational studies, which are often performed, play a meaningful role in nutritional research. They provide the best answers to questions regarding prevalence, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment harms. Moreover, they generate hypotheses and prompt further, adequately designed research. However, despite their many advantages, observational nutritional studies have important limitations. These are factors that are strictly bound to the specific study design, nutrition-related, or performance-quality dependent. Potential advantages and disadvantages determine each study's strengths and weaknesses. Thus, knowledge of these advantages and disadvantages is crucial for proper planning, satisfactory study performance, and reasonable interpretation of the results.


Assuntos
Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
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