Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
1.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 110, 2021 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether advanced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be deployed outside of large, research-oriented academic hospitals and into community care settings to predict eventual pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. METHODS: Patients with stage II/III breast cancer (N = 28) were enrolled in a multicenter study performed in community radiology settings. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI data were acquired at four time points during the course of NAT. Estimates of the vascular perfusion and permeability, as assessed by the volume transfer rate (Ktrans) using the Patlak model, were generated from the DCE-MRI data while estimates of cell density, as assessed by the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were calculated from DW-MRI data. Tumor volume was calculated using semi-automatic segmentation and combined with Ktrans and ADC to yield bulk tumor blood flow and cellularity, respectively. The percent change in quantitative parameters at each MRI scan was calculated and compared to pathological response at the time of surgery. The predictive accuracy of each MRI parameter at different time points was quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Tumor size and quantitative MRI parameters were similar at baseline between groups that achieved pCR (n = 8) and those that did not (n = 20). Patients achieving a pCR had a larger decline in volume and cellularity than those who did not achieve pCR after one cycle of NAT (p < 0.05). At the third and fourth MRI, changes in tumor volume, Ktrans, ADC, cellularity, and bulk tumor flow from baseline (pre-treatment) were all significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the cohort who achieved pCR compared to those patients with non-pCR. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI and DW-MRI can be implemented in the community care setting to accurately predict the response of breast cancer to NAT. Dissemination of quantitative MRI into the community setting allows for the incorporation of these parameters into the standard of care and increases the number of clinical community sites able to participate in novel drug trials that require quantitative MRI.

2.
Nat Protoc ; 16(11): 5309-5338, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552262

RESUMO

This protocol describes a complete data acquisition, analysis and computational forecasting pipeline for employing quantitative MRI data to predict the response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant therapy in a community-based care setting. The methodology has previously been successfully applied to a heterogeneous patient population. The protocol details how to acquire the necessary images followed by registration, segmentation, quantitative perfusion and diffusion analysis, model calibration, and prediction. The data collection portion of the protocol requires ~25 min of scanning, postprocessing requires 2-3 h, and the model calibration and prediction components require ~10 h per patient depending on tumor size. The response of individual breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant therapy is forecast by application of a biophysical, reaction-diffusion mathematical model to these data. Successful application of the protocol results in coregistered MRI data from at least two scan visits that quantifies an individual tumor's size, cellularity and vascular properties. This enables a spatially resolved prediction of how a particular patient's tumor will respond to therapy. Expertise in image acquisition and analysis, as well as the numerical solution of partial differential equations, is required to carry out this protocol.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
4.
Tomography ; 7(3): 253-267, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201654

RESUMO

This study characterizes the error that results when performing quantitative analysis of abbreviated dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data of the breast with the Standard Kety-Tofts (SKT) model and its Patlak variant. More specifically, we used simulations and patient data to determine the accuracy with which abbreviated time course data could reproduce the pharmacokinetic parameters, Ktrans (volume transfer constant) and ve (extravascular/extracellular volume fraction), when compared to the full time course data. SKT analysis of simulated abbreviated time courses (ATCs) based on the imaging parameters from two available datasets (collected with a 3T MRI scanner) at a temporal resolution of 15 s (N = 15) and 7.23 s (N = 15) found a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) greater than 0.80 for ATCs of length 3.0 and 2.5 min, respectively, for the Ktrans parameter. Analysis of the experimental data found that at least 90% of patients met this CCC cut-off of 0.80 for the ATCs of the aforementioned lengths. Patlak analysis of experimental data found that 80% of patients from the 15 s resolution dataset and 90% of patients from the 7.27 s resolution dataset met the 0.80 CCC cut-off for ATC lengths of 1.25 and 1.09 min, respectively. This study provides evidence for both the feasibility and potential utility of performing a quantitative analysis of abbreviated breast DCE-MRI in conjunction with acquisition of current standard-of-care high resolution scans without significant loss of information in the community setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
5.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(9): 546-564, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319760

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide standards and practice recommendations specific to telehealth in oncology. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on telehealth in oncology was performed, including the use of technologies and telecommunications systems, and other electronic methods of care delivery and sharing of information with patients. The evidence base was combined with the opinion of the ASCO Telehealth Expert Panel to develop telehealth standards and guidance. Public comments were solicited and considered in preparation of the final manuscript. RESULTS: The Expert Panel determined that general guidance on implementing telehealth across general and specialty settings has been published previously and these resources are endorsed. A systematic search for studies on topics specific to oncology resulted in the inclusion of two clinical practice guidelines, 12 systematic reviews, and six primary studies. STANDARDS AND GUIDANCE: Standards and guidance are provided for which patients in oncology can be seen via telehealth, establishment of the doctor-physician relationship, role of allied health professionals, role of advanced practice providers, multidisciplinary cancer conferences, and teletrials in oncology. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/standards.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Telemedicina , Humanos
6.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 615-621, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among patients receiving chemotherapy, symptom monitoring with electronic patient-reported outcomes (ePROs) is associated with improved clinical outcomes, satisfaction, and compliance with therapy. Standard approaches for ePRO implementation are not established, warranting evaluation in community cancer practices. We present implementation findings of ePRO symptom monitoring across a large multisite community oncology practice network. METHODS: Patients initiating a new systemic therapy at one of the 210 practice sites at Texas Oncology were invited to use the Navigating Cancer ePRO platform, with stepped-wedge implementation from July to December 2020. Participating patients received a weekly prompt by text message or e-mail to self-report common symptoms and well-being. Severe self-reported symptoms triggered a real-time notification to nursing triage to address the symptom. Enrollment and compliance were systematically tracked weekly with evaluation of barriers and facilitators to adoption and sustainability. RESULTS: Four thousand three hundred seventy-five patients planning systemic treatment were enrolled and participated. Seventy-three percent (1,841 of 2,522) of enrolled patients completed at least one ePRO assessment. Among these individuals, 64% (16,299 of 25,061) of available weekly ePRO assessments were completed. Over a 10-week period, compliance declined from 72% to 52%. Barriers currently being addressed include lack of a second reminder text or e-mail prompt, inconsistent discussion of reported ePROs by clinicians at visits, and COVID-related changes in workflow. Facilitators included ease of use and patient and staff engagement on the importance of PROs for symptom management. CONCLUSION: ePROs can be effectively implemented in community oncology practice. Utilization of ePROs is high but diminishes over time without attention to barriers. Ongoing work to address barriers and optimize compliance are underway.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Eletrônica , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(11): 3061-3068, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As monotherapies, eribulin (chemotherapy) and pembrolizumab (immunotherapy) have shown promise for patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). This phase Ib/II study examined eribulin plus pembrolizumab as a potential mTNBC treatment in first-line and later-line settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm, phase Ib/II study, eligible patients had mTNBC, measurable disease, and ≤2 prior systemic anticancer therapies in the metastatic setting. Patients were enrolled by number of prior systemic anticancer therapies (stratum 1: 0 vs stratum 2: 1-2) in the metastatic setting and further analyzed by tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status. All patients received intravenous eribulin 1.4 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8, plus intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg on day 1, of 21-day cycles. The primary objectives were the safety, tolerability, and objective response rate (ORR) of this combination. RESULTS: The study included 167 patients (phase Ib, n = 7; phase II, n = 160). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were fatigue (66%), nausea (58%), peripheral sensory neuropathy (41%), alopecia (40%), and constipation (37%). ORRs were 25.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.8-38.0] for stratum 1 (n = 66) and 21.8% (95% CI: 14.2-31.1) for stratum 2 (n = 101). Patients with PD-L1-positive tumors (combined positive score ≥1) had numerically higher ORR than those with PD-L1-negative tumors, particularly in stratum 1 [stratum 1: 34.5% (95% CI: 17.9-54.3) vs 16.1% (95% CI: 5.5-33.7); stratum 2, 24.4% (95% CI: 12.9-39.5) vs 18.2% (95% CI: 8.2-32.7)]. CONCLUSIONS: Eribulin plus pembrolizumab was generally well tolerated and showed promising antitumor activity in mTNBC. Efficacy outcomes appeared influenced by line of therapy and PD-L1 status.

9.
Eur J Radiol ; 136: 109534, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assesses the rate of enhancement of breast fibroglandular tissue after administration of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gadolinium-based contrast agent and determines its relationship with response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in women with breast cancer. METHOD: Women with locally advanced breast cancer (N = 19) were imaged four times over the course of NAT. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was acquired after administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent with a temporal resolution of 7.27 s. The tumor, fibroglandular tissue, and adipose tissue were semi-automatically segmented using a manually drawn region of interest encompassing the tumor followed by fuzzy c-means clustering. The rate and relative intensity of signal enhancement were calculated for each voxel within the tumor and fibroglandular tissue. RESULTS: The rate of fibroglandular tissue enhancement after contrast agent injection declined by an average of 29 % over the course of NAT. This decline was present in 16 of the 19 patients in the study. The rate of enhancement is significantly higher in women who achieve pathological complete response (pCR) after both 1 cycle (68 % higher, p < 0.05) and after 3-5 cycles of NAT (58 % higher; p < 0.05). The relative intensity of fibroglandular enhancement correlates with the rate of enhancement (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.001) and is higher in women who achieve pCR after both 1 cycle and after 3-5 cycles of NAT (p < 0.05, both timepoints). CONCLUSION: The rate of fibroglandular tissue enhancement declines over the course of therapy, provides novel information not reflected by tumoral measures, and may predict pathological response early in the course of therapy, with smaller declines in enhancement in women who achieve favorable response.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 17(1): e11-e15, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434450

RESUMO

COVID-19 places unprecedented demands on the oncology ecosystem. The extensive pressure of managing health care during the pandemic establishes the need for rapid implementation of telemedicine. Across our large statewide practice of 640 practitioners at 221 sites of service, an aggressive multidisciplinary telemedicine strategy was implemented in March by coordinating and training many different parts of our healthcare delivery system. From March to September, telemedicine grew to serve 15%-20% of new patients and 20%-25% of established patients, permitting the practice to implement safety protocols and reduce volumes in clinic while continuing to manage the acute and chronic care needs of our patient population. We surveyed practice leaders, queried for qualitative feedback, and established 76% were satisfied with the platform. The common challenges for patients were the first-time use and technology function, and patients were, in general, grateful and happy to have the option to visit their clinicians on a telemedicine platform. In addition to conducting new and established visits remotely, telemedicine allows risk assessments, avoidance of hospitalization, family education, psychosocial care, and improved pharmacy support. The implementation has limitations including technical complexity; increased burden on patients and staff; and broadband access, particularly in rural communities. For telemedicine to improve as a solution to enhance the longitudinal care of patients with cancer, payment coverage policies need to continue after the pandemic, technologic adoption needs to be easy for patients, and broadband access in rural areas needs to be a policy priority. Further research to optimize the patient and clinician experience is required to continue to make progress.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Telemedicina , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
12.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(2): 155-169, 2021 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290128

RESUMO

This report presents the American Society of Clinical Oncology's (ASCO's) evaluation of the adaptations in care delivery, research operations, and regulatory oversight made in response to the coronavirus pandemic and presents recommendations for moving forward as the pandemic recedes. ASCO organized its recommendations for clinical research around five goals to ensure lessons learned from the COVID-19 experience are used to craft a more equitable, accessible, and efficient clinical research system that protects patient safety, ensures scientific integrity, and maintains data quality. The specific goals are: (1) ensure that clinical research is accessible, affordable, and equitable; (2) design more pragmatic and efficient clinical trials; (3) minimize administrative and regulatory burdens on research sites; (4) recruit, retain, and support a well-trained clinical research workforce; and (5) promote appropriate oversight and review of clinical trial conduct and results. Similarly, ASCO also organized its recommendations regarding cancer care delivery around five goals: (1) promote and protect equitable access to high-quality cancer care; (2) support safe delivery of high-quality cancer care; (3) advance policies to ensure oncology providers have sufficient resources to provide high-quality patient care; (4) recognize and address threats to clinician, provider, and patient well-being; and (5) improve patient access to high-quality cancer care via telemedicine. ASCO will work at all levels to advance the recommendations made in this report.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19/terapia , Oncologia , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sociedades Médicas
13.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 21(1): 80-91.e7, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ExteNET trial demonstrated improved invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) with neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, versus placebo in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+)/hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early-stage breast cancer (eBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ExteNET was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of 2840 patients with HER2+ eBC after neoadjuvant/adjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy. Patients were stratified by HR status and randomly assigned 1-year oral neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo. The primary endpoint was iDFS. Descriptive analyses were performed in patients with HR+ eBC who initiated treatment ≤ 1 year (HR+/≤ 1-year) and > 1 year (HR+/> 1-year) post-trastuzumab. RESULTS: HR+/≤ 1-year and HR+/> 1-year populations comprised 1334 (neratinib, n = 670; placebo, n = 664) and 297 (neratinib, n = 146; placebo, n = 151) patients, respectively. Absolute iDFS benefits at 5 years were 5.1% in HR+/≤ 1-year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.82) and 1.3% in HR+/>1-year (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.29-1.84). In HR+/≤ 1-year, neratinib was associated with a numerical improvement in overall survival (OS) at 8 years (absolute benefit, 2.1%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.55-1.13). Of 354 patients in the HR+/≤ 1-year group who received neoadjuvant therapy, 295 had residual disease, and results showed absolute benefits of 7.4% at 5-year iDFS (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33-1.07) and 9.1% at 8-year OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.92). There were fewer central nervous system events with neratinib. Adverse events were similar to those previously reported. CONCLUSION: Neratinib significantly improved iDFS in the HER2+/HR+/≤ 1-year population, and a similar trend was observed in patients with residual disease following neoadjuvant treatment. Numerical improvements in central nervous system events and OS were consistent with iDFS benefits and suggest long-term benefit for neratinib in this population.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Neoplasia ; 22(12): 820-830, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197744

RESUMO

The ability to accurately predict response and then rigorously optimize a therapeutic regimen on a patient-specific basis, would transform oncology. Toward this end, we have developed an experimental-mathematical framework that integrates quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data into a biophysical model to predict patient-specific treatment response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant therapy. Diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data is collected prior to therapy, after 1 cycle of therapy, and at the completion of the first therapeutic regimen. The model is initialized and calibrated with the first 2 patient-specific MRI data sets to predict response at the third, which is then compared to patient outcomes (N = 18). The model's predictions for total cellularity, total volume, and the longest axis at the completion of the regimen are significant within expected measurement precision (P< 0.05) and strongly correlated with measured response (P < 0.01). Further, we use the model to investigate, in silico, a range of (practical) alternative treatment plans to achieve the greatest possible tumor control for each individual in a subgroup of patients (N = 13). The model identifies alternative dosing strategies predicted to achieve greater tumor control compared to the standard of care for 12 of 13 patients (P < 0.01). In summary, a predictive, mechanism-based mathematical model has demonstrated the ability to identify alternative treatment regimens that are forecasted to outperform the therapeutic regimens the patients clinically. This has important implications for clinical trial design with the opportunity to alter oncology care in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Teóricos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Medicina de Precisão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Análise de Dados , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 1059-1071, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253013

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the immediate care and access disruptions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have received growing attention in certain areas, the full range of gaps in cancer screenings and treatment is not yet well understood or well documented throughout the country comprehensively. METHODS: This study used a large medical claims clearinghouse database representing 5%-7% of the Medicare fee-for-service population to characterize changes in the utilization of cancer care services and gain insight into the impact of COVID-19 on the US cancer population, including identification of new patients, gaps in access to care, and disruption of treatment journeys. RESULTS: In March-July 2020, in comparison with the baseline period of March-July 2019, there is a substantial decrease in cancer screenings, visits, therapy, and surgeries, with variation by cancer type and site of service. At the peak of the pandemic in April, screenings for breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancers were lower by 85%, 75%, 74%, and 56%, respectively. Significant utilization reductions were observed in April for hospital outpatient evaluation and management (E&M) visits (-74%), new patient E&M visits (-70%), and established patient E&M visits (-60%). A decrease in billing frequency was observed for the top physician-administered oncology products, dropping in both April (-26%) and July (-31%). Mastectomies were reduced consistently in April through July, with colectomies similarly reduced in April and May and prostatectomies dipping in April and July. CONCLUSION: The current impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer care in the United States has resulted in decreases and delays in identifying new cancers and delivery of treatment. These problems, if unmitigated, will increase cancer morbidity and mortality for years to come.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Oncologia/tendências , Medicare , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1808-1812, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885823

RESUMO

Defining patient-to-patient similarity is essential for the development of precision medicine in clinical care and research. Conceptually, the identification of similar patient cohorts appears straightforward; however, universally accepted definitions remain elusive. Simultaneously, an explosion of vendors and published algorithms have emerged and all provide varied levels of functionality in identifying patient similarity categories. To provide clarity and a common framework for patient similarity, a workshop at the American Medical Informatics Association 2019 Annual Meeting was convened. This workshop included invited discussants from academics, the biotechnology industry, the FDA, and private practice oncology groups. Drawing from a broad range of backgrounds, workshop participants were able to coalesce around 4 major patient similarity classes: (1) feature, (2) outcome, (3) exposure, and (4) mixed-class. This perspective expands into these 4 subtypes more critically and offers the medical informatics community a means of communicating their work on this important topic.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Informática Médica , Terminologia como Assunto
17.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 41: 101228, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Many breast cancer survivors (BCS) experience persistent cognitive and psychological changes associated with their cancer and/or treatment and that have limited treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and effects of a Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) intervention on cognitive and psychological symptoms compared to an attention control condition, classical music listening (ML), in BCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized control trial design was used. Participants completed eight-week interventions. Cognitive function and psychological symptoms were measured at baseline and post-intervention. Mixed analysis of variance models were examined for all cognitive and psychological outcomes. RESULTS: 27 BCS completed the study. Intervention adherence was 88%. Both groups improved in perceived cognitive impairments, cognition related quality of life, verbal memory, and verbal fluency (p's < 0.01). There were no significant group by time effects for cognitive and psychological outcomes, except stress. The ML group reported lower stress at time 2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: KK and ML are feasible, acceptable, and cost-effective interventions that may be beneficial for survivors' cognition and psychological symptoms. Both interventions were easy to learn, low cost, and required just 12 min/day. Meditation or music listening could offer providers evidence-based suggestions to BCS experiencing cognitive symptoms. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03696056.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Meditação , Música , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Cognição , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes
18.
Yearb Med Inform ; 29(1): 243-246, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize significant research contributions on cancer informatics published in 2019. METHODS: An extensive search using PubMed/Medline and manual review was conducted to identify the scientific contributions published in 2019 that address topics in cancer informatics. The selection process comprised three steps: (i) 15 candidate best papers were first selected by the two section editors, (ii) external reviewers from internationally renowned research teams reviewed each candidate best paper, and (iii) the final selection of two best papers was conducted by the editorial committee of the Yearbook. RESULTS: The two selected best papers demonstrate the clinical utility of deep learning in two important cancer domains: radiology and pathology. CONCLUSION: Cancer informatics is a broad and vigorous subfield of biomedical informatics. Applications of new and emerging computational technologies are especially notable in 2019.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Informática Médica , Oncologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/patologia , Radiografia
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(1): 161-172, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In MONARCH 1 (NCT02102490), single-agent abemaciclib demonstrated promising efficacy activity and tolerability in a population of heavily pretreated women with refractory HR+, HER2- metastatic breast cancer (MBC). To help interpret these results and put in clinical context, we compared overall survival (OS) and duration of therapy (DoT) between MONARCH 1 and a real-world single-agent chemotherapy cohort. METHODS: The real-world chemotherapy cohort was created from a Flatiron Health electronic health records-derived database based on key eligibility criteria from MONARCH 1. The chemotherapies included in the cohort were single-agent capecitabine, gemcitabine, eribulin, or vinorelbine. Results were adjusted for baseline demographics and clinical differences using Mahalanobis distance matching (primary analysis) and entropy balancing (sensitivity analysis). OS and DoT were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A real-world single-agent chemotherapy cohort (n = 281) with eligibility criteria similar to the MONARCH 1 population (n = 132) was identified. The MONARCH 1 (n = 108) cohort was matched to the real-world chemotherapy cohort (n = 108). Median OS was 22.3 months in the abemaciclib arm versus 13.6 months in the matched real-world chemotherapy cohort with an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54. The median DoT was 4.1 months in MONARCH 1 compared to 2.9 months in the real-world chemotherapy cohort with HR of 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an approach to create a real-world chemotherapy cohort suitable to serve as a comparator for trial data. These exploratory results suggest a survival advantage and place the benefit of abemaciclib monotherapy in clinical context.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptor ErbB-2 , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370195

RESUMO

Optimal control theory is branch of mathematics that aims to optimize a solution to a dynamical system. While the concept of using optimal control theory to improve treatment regimens in oncology is not novel, many of the early applications of this mathematical technique were not designed to work with routinely available data or produce results that can eventually be translated to the clinical setting. The purpose of this review is to discuss clinically relevant considerations for formulating and solving optimal control problems for treating cancer patients. Our review focuses on two of the most widely used cancer treatments, radiation therapy and systemic therapy, as they naturally lend themselves to optimal control theory as a means to personalize therapeutic plans in a rigorous fashion. To provide context for optimal control theory to address either of these two modalities, we first discuss the major limitations and difficulties oncologists face when considering alternate regimens for their patients. We then provide a brief introduction to optimal control theory before formulating the optimal control problem in the context of radiation and systemic therapy. We also summarize examples from the literature that illustrate these concepts. Finally, we present both challenges and opportunities for dramatically improving patient outcomes via the integration of clinically relevant, patient-specific, mathematical models and optimal control theory.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...