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1.
Cell ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631096

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 431 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 251 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼20% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but they were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, an asymptomatic carrier state can persist following acute infection, promoting NoV spread and evolution. Thus, defining immune correlates of NoV protection and persistence is needed to guide the development of future vaccines and limit viral spread. Whereas antibody responses following NoV infection or vaccination have been studied extensively, cellular immunity has received less attention. Data from the mouse NoV model suggest that T cells are critical for preventing persistence and achieving viral clearance, but little is known about NoV-specific T-cell immunity in humans, particularly at mucosal sites. METHODS: We screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 3 volunteers with an overlapping NoV peptide library. We then used HLA-peptide tetramers to track virus-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral, lymphoid, and intestinal tissues. Tetramer+ cells were further characterized using markers for cellular trafficking, exhaustion, cytotoxicity, and proliferation. RESULTS: We defined 7 HLA-restricted immunodominant class I epitopes that were highly conserved across pandemic strains from genogroup II.4. NoV-specific CD8+ T cells with central, effector, or tissue-resident memory phenotypes were present at all sites and were especially abundant in the intestinal lamina propria. The properties and differentiation states of tetramer+ cells varied across donors and epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are an important step toward defining the breadth, distribution, and properties of human NoV T-cell immunity. Moreover, the molecular tools we have developed can be used to evaluate future vaccines and engineer novel cellular therapeutics.

3.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200143

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 204 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 252 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼23% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but paradoxically these hCoV cross-reactive antibodies were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727884

RESUMO

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669287

RESUMO

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified extensive induction and activation of multiple immune lineages, including T cell activation, oligoclonal plasmablast expansion, and Fc and trafficking receptor modulation on innate lymphocytes and granulocytes, that distinguished severe COVID-19 cases from healthy donors or SARS-CoV-2-recovered or moderate severity patients. We found the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio to be a prognostic biomarker of disease severity and organ failure. Our findings demonstrate broad innate and adaptive leukocyte perturbations that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Seleção Clonal Mediada por Antígeno/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
6.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669297

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676623

RESUMO

Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.

8.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511371

RESUMO

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic. Immune dysregulation has been implicated, but immune responses remain poorly understood. We analyzed 71 COVID-19 patients compared to recovered and healthy subjects using high dimensional cytometry. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and >30 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets, but only in some patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses could reach >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable to uninfected subjects. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. These analyses identified three "immunotypes" associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for therapeutics and vaccines.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511394

RESUMO

Although critical illness has been associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation, the immune correlates of severe COVID-19 remain unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed peripheral blood immune perturbations in 42 SARS-CoV-2 infected and recovered individuals. We identified broad changes in neutrophils, NK cells, and monocytes during severe COVID-19, suggesting excessive mobilization of innate lineages. We found marked activation within T and B cells, highly oligoclonal B cell populations, profound plasmablast expansion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in many, but not all, severe COVID-19 cases. Despite this heterogeneity, we found selective clustering of severe COVID-19 cases through unbiased analysis of the aggregated immunological phenotypes. Our findings demonstrate broad immune perturbations spanning both innate and adaptive leukocytes that distinguish dysregulated host responses in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and warrant therapeutic investigation. One Sentence Summary: Broad immune perturbations in severe COVID-19.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13812, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218032

RESUMO

Intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB) is amongst the leading causes of uveitis in tropical countries. Despite reports on involvement of proinflammatory cytokines, studies on innate immune responses in disease pathogenesis are lacking. Reports from animal models and patients with pulmonary tuberculosis indicate that defects in toll like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR9 signalling predispose them to tuberculosis. In this context, we investigated the role of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in generation of CD4+ T effector (Teff) cell responses during IOTB. Firstly, the cells in vitreous fluids showed lower expression of TLR2 and TLR9 in IOTB as compared to non-uveitis and non-TB uveitis groups. Next, peripheral CD4+ Teff cells of subjects with IOTB showed decreased proliferative responses and lower induction of Tregs following TLR2 and TLR9 stimulation. Further, TLR9 ligation resulted in increased IFN-γ and IL-17a but decreased expression of IL-10 and TGF-ß. Lastly, lower expression of genes involved in TLR9 signalling after direct TLR9 ligation was observed in IOTB. Collectively, our results show that a subdued response to direct TLR2 and TLR9 stimulation in CD4+ T cells is associated with increased proinflammatory responses in IOTB. These findings reveal an important link between innate immune signalling and ensuing adaptive immune responses in IOTB with implications in other forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/imunologia , Tuberculose Ocular/imunologia , Uveíte/imunologia , Adulto , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Tuberculose Ocular/patologia , Uveíte/microbiologia , Uveíte/patologia
11.
Immunity ; 47(4): 723-738.e5, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031786

RESUMO

Noroviruses can establish chronic infections with active viral shedding in healthy humans but whether persistence is associated with adaptive immune dysfunction is unknown. We used genetically engineered strains of mouse norovirus (MNV) to investigate CD8+ T cell differentiation during chronic infection. We found that chronic infection drove MNV-specific tissue-resident memory (Trm) CD8+ T cells to a differentiation state resembling inflationary effector responses against latent cytomegalovirus with only limited evidence of exhaustion. These MNV-specific Trm cells remained highly functional yet appeared ignorant of ongoing viral replication. Pre-existing MNV-specific Trm cells provided partial protection against chronic infection but largely ceased to detect virus within 72 hours of challenge, demonstrating rapid sequestration of viral replication away from T cells. Our studies revealed a strategy of immune evasion by MNV via the induction of a CD8+ T cell program normally reserved for latent pathogens and persistence in an immune-privileged enteric niche.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Norovirus/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Microambiente Celular/genética , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Gastroenterite/genética , Gastroenterite/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/genética , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Norovirus/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos
12.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 12(3): 504-520, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374110

RESUMO

To date, the lack of a suitable small animal model has hindered our understanding of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 chronic infection and associated neuropathogenesis defined as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The host immune response plays a critical role in the outcome of HTLV-1 infection, which could be better tested in the context of humanized (hu) mice. Thus, we employ here the Balb/c-Rag1-/-γc-/- or Rag1 as well as Bone marrow-Liver-Thymic (BLT) mouse models for engraftment of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Flow cytometry and histological analyses confirmed reconstitution of Rag1 and BLT mice with human immune cells. Following HTLV-1 infection, proviral load (PVL) was detected in the blood of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as early as 2 weeks post-infection (wpi) with sustained elevation in the subsequent weeks followed by Tax expression. Additionally, infection was compared between adult and neonatal Rag1 mice with both PVL and Tax expression considerably higher in the adult Rag1 mice as compared to the neonates. Establishment of peripheral infection led to lymphocytic infiltration with concomitant Tax expression and resulting myelin disruption within the central nervous system of infected mice. In addition, up-regulation in the expression of several immune checkpoint mediators such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), T-cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) were observed on CD8+ T cells in various organs including the CNS of infected hu-mice. Collectively, these studies represent the first attempt to establish HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis in the context of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as potential novel tools for understanding HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis and testing of novel therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade in the amelioration of chronic HTLV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por HTLV-I , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout
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