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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444065

RESUMO

University students have high rates of health risk behaviours, and these may be predictive of academic success. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between individual and multiple health risk behaviours and academic achievement in a sample of Australian university students. Data from the University of Newcastle Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2019 were used. Health risk behaviours (diet, physical activity, sitting time, sleep, alcohol consumption, smoking) were assessed, and total number of risk factors calculated. Academic achievement was assessed using self-reported grade point average (GPA). The association between health risk behaviours and GPA was explored using linear regression, adjusted for socio-demographic and student characteristics. The sample included 1543 students (mean age 25.0 ± 7.9 years, 70.6% female). Lower GPA was associated with not meeting fruit consumption recommendations (ß = -0.203), consuming >1 cup of soft drink/week (ß = -0.307), having takeaway foods ≥1 time/week (ß = -0.130), not consuming breakfast daily (ß = -0.261), not meeting sleep recommendations (ß = -0.163), exceeding single occasion alcohol consumption risk (ß = -0.277), smoking (ß = -0.393), and having a higher number of risk factors (ß = -0.105). This study identified modest associations between GPA and health risk behaviours, suggesting that further research is warranted into whether strategies to improve university students' health could modestly improve their academic achievement.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Desjejum , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444989

RESUMO

Healthcare costs are lower for adults who consume more vegetables; however, the association between healthcare costs and fruit and vegetable varieties is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between (i) baseline fruit and vegetable (F&V) varieties, and (ii) changes in F&V varieties over time with 15-year healthcare costs in an Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The data for Survey 3 (n = 8833 women, aged 50-55 years) and Survey 7 (n = 6955, aged 62-67 years) of the 1946-1951 cohort were used. The F&V variety was assessed using the Fruit and Vegetable Variety (FAVVA) index calculated from the Cancer Council of Victoria's Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies food frequency questionnaire. The baseline FAVVA and change in FAVVA were analysed as continuous predictors of Medicare claims/costs by using multiple regression analyses. Healthy weight women made, on average, 4.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-6.8) fewer claims for every 10-point-higher FAVVA. Healthy weight women with higher fruit varieties incurred fewer charges; however, this was reversed for women overweight/obese. Across the sample, for every 10-point increase in FAVVA over time, women made 4.3 (95% CI 1.9-6.8) fewer claims and incurred $309.1 (95% CI $129.3-488.8) less in charges over 15 years. A higher F&V variety is associated with a small reduction in healthcare claims for healthy weight women only. An increasing F&V variety over time is associated with lower healthcare costs.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805030

RESUMO

University food environments are typically dominated by unhealthy food choices. The aim was to investigate associations between on-campus food purchasing behaviours and dietary intake in an Australian university student sample. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017-2018 with students (n = 362, 71.0% female, mean age 27.5 ± 10.5 years) from the University of Newcastle, Australia. On-campus food purchasing behaviours (purchasing frequency and weekly expenditure), dietary intake (diet quality and percentage energy/day from energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods) and sociodemographic and student characteristics (e.g., time spent on campus) were measured. Linear regression was used to explore associations between food purchasing behaviours and dietary intake, adjusted for potential confounders. Mean percentage energy/day from EDNP foods was 31.7 ± 14.4. Mean diet quality score was 32.6 ± 10.2 out of 73. Higher percentage energy/day from EDNP foods was associated with higher weekly expenditure (ß = 0.203, p < 0.001) and more frequent purchase (ß = 18.041, p < 0.001 for ≥4 times a week vs. never) of food/drinks on campus. Diet quality was not significantly associated with purchase frequency or expenditure (p > 0.05). Findings are supportive of changes being made to university food environments, as a strategy to improve dietary intake among university students.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Nutritivo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805076

RESUMO

Lifestyle interventions to reduce second stroke risk are complex. For effective translation into practice, interventions must be specific to end-user needs and described in detail for replication. This study used an Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) approach and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist to co-design and describe a telehealth-delivered diet program for stroke survivors. Stroke survivors and carers (n = 6), specialist dietitians (n = 6) and an IKT research team (n = 8) participated in a 4-phase co-design process. Phase 1: the IKT team developed the research questions, and identified essential program elements and workshop strategies for effective co-design. Phase 2: Participant co-design workshops used persona and journey mapping to create user profiles to identify barriers and essential program elements. Phase 3: The IKT team mapped Phase 2 data to the TIDieR checklist and developed the intervention prototype. Phase 4: Co-design workshops were conducted to refine the prototype for trial. Rigorous IKT co-design fundamentally influenced intervention development. Modifications to the protocol based on participant input included ensuring that all resources were accessible to people with aphasia, an additional support framework and resources specific to outcome of stroke. The feasibility and safety of this intervention is currently being pilot tested (randomised controlled trial; 2019/ETH11533, ACTRN12620000189921).


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Projetos de Pesquisa , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799630

RESUMO

There is a lack of evidence to determine if diet quality is associated with cognitive performance in older adults. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether diet quality is associated with cognitive performance among older adults. A cross-sectional, secondary analysis of baseline data from the Hunter Community Study (HCS), comparing diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), along with validated cognitive performance instruments the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were undertaken in adults aged 55-85 years, living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Adjusted linear regression analyses showed that, compared with the lowest ARFS quintile, those in the highest quintile had an ARCS score 5.883 units greater (p < 0.001; R2 = 0.0098). Furthermore, when quintiles of ARFS score were tested against each ARCS sub-scale score, statistically significant associations were observed with the greatest effect for the Memory (ß = 4.055; p = 0.001; R2 = 0.0065) and Attention (ß = 4.136; p = 0.002; R2 = 0.0047) domains. No statistically significant associations were observed between quintiles of ARFS and MMSE score in the adjusted linear regression analyses. In conclusion, a positive association was observed between diet quality and cognitive performance within this sample of older Australian adults. Further investigation of the above association over time, when follow-up data becomes available, in longitudinal analysis is recommended.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dieta , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a rapid shift to telehealth-delivered physical therapy services. Common impairments after stroke create unique challenges when providing rehabilitation via telehealth, particularly when it involves activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions, including walking training. Our scoping review maps the evidence regarding safety, efficacy, and feasibility of remotely supervised telehealth interventions involving activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions for people after stroke. METHODS: Searches of relevant databases for primary research studies were conducted using keywords relating to exercise and telehealth. Studies of stroke survivors undertaking interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions, supervised in real-time via telehealth were included. Two reviewers independently appraised all studies. Data were charted by one reviewer, checked by another, and results synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Seven studies (2 randomized trials, 1 mixed-methods, and 4 pre-post studies) were included, involving 179 participants. Some studies included stroke survivors with cognitive impairment, and 2 (29%) studies included only participants who walked independently. Adherence (reported in 3 studies) and satisfaction (reported in 4 studies) were good, and no serious adverse events (data from 4 studies) related to interventions were reported. Strategies to overcome technological barriers were used to optimize intervention safety and feasibility, along with physiological monitoring, caregiver assistance, and in-person exercise prescription. However, there is limited high-quality evidence of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: We identified strategies used in research to date that can support current practice. However, urgent research is needed to ensure that stroke survivors are receiving evidence-based, effective services. IMPACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated a rapid shift to telerehabilitation services for people with stroke, but there is little evidence to guide best practice. Our review provides practical guidance and strategies to overcome barriers and optimize safety and adherence for telehealth interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Posição Ortostática , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(4): 655-668, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between diet quality and health care costs is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline diet quality and change in diet quality over time, with 15-year cumulative health care claims/costs. DESIGN: Data from a longitudinal cohort study were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Data for survey 3 (2001) (n = 7,868) and survey 7 (2013) (n = 6,349 both time points) from the 1946-1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diet quality was assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Fifteen-year cumulative Medicare Benefits Schedule (Australia's universal health care coverage) data were reported by baseline ARFS quintile and category of diet quality change ("diet quality worsened" [ARFS change ≤ -4 points], "remained stable" [-3 ≤ change in ARFS ≤3 points], or "improved" [ARFS change ≥4 points]). STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Linear regression analyses were conducted adjusting for area of residence, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and private health insurance status. RESULTS: Consuming a greater variety of vegetables at baseline but fewer fruit and dairy products was associated with lower health care costs. For every 1-point increment in the ARFS vegetable subscale, women made 3.3 (95% CI, 1.6-5.0) fewer claims and incurred AU$227 (95% CI, AU$104-350 [US$158; 95% CI, US$72-243]) less in costs. Women whose diet quality worsened over time made more claims (median, 251 claims; quintile 1, quintile 3 [Q1; Q3], 168; 368 claims) and incurred higher costs (AU$15,519; Q1; Q3, AU$9,226; AU$24,847 [US$10,793; Q1; Q3, US$6,417; US$17,281]) compared with those whose diet quality remained stable (median, 236 claims [Q1; Q3, 158; 346 claims], AU$14,515; Q1; Q3, AU$8,539; AU$23,378 [US$10,095; Q1; Q3, US$5,939; US$16,259]). CONCLUSIONS: Greater vegetable variety was associated with fewer health care claims and costs; however, this trend was not consistent across other subscales. Worsening diet quality over 12 years was linked with higher health care claims and costs.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Dieta/normas , Dieta/tendências , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Benefícios do Seguro/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras , Saúde da Mulher
9.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290076

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet pattern (MEDI) is associated with a lower risk of chronic conditions related to ageing. Adherence research mostly comes from Mediterranean countries with high cultural acceptability. This study examines the feasibility of a MEDI intervention designed specifically for older Australians (AusMed). Phase 1 involved a consumer research group (n = 17) presentation of program materials with surveys after each section. In-depth individual semi-structured interviews (n = 6) were then conducted. All participants reported increased knowledge and confidence in adherence to the MEDI, with the majority preferring a booklet format (70%) and group delivery (58%). Three themes emerged from interviews-1. barriers (complexity, perceived cost and food preferences), 2. additional support and 3. individualisation of materials. Program materials were modified accordingly. Phase 2 was a 2-week trial of the modified program (n = 15). Participants received a group counselling session, program manual and food hamper. Adherence to the MEDI was measured by the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). All participants increased their adherence after the 2-week trial, from a mean score of 5.4 ± 2.4 (low adherence) to a mean score of 9.6 ± 2.0 (moderate to high adherence). All found that text message support helped achieve their goals and were confident to continue the dietary change.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213973

RESUMO

University food environments typically offer an abundance of unhealthy foods, including through vending machines. This review evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in vending machines in the university setting. Ten databases were searched for experimental studies published up to July 2019, evaluating nutrition interventions that aimed to encourage the purchase or consumption of healthier foods and drinks in vending machines in the university setting. In total, 401 articles were identified, and 13 studies were included. Studies were pre-post test (n = 7, 54%), randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 5, 38%), and non-randomized controlled trial (n = 1, 8%). Most studies were from the USA (n = 10, 77%) and were published between 2014 and 2018 (n = 9, 69%). Eight interventions (62%) reported positive change in outcomes, including increased number/proportion of sales or revenue from healthier items (n = 6), improved adherence to guidelines for the ratio of healthy/unhealthy products available (n = 1), and improved consumer perception of items available (n = 1). Effective interventions involved the promotion, reduced pricing, increased availability, and/or optimized product placement of healthier items within vending machines. Strategies to improve the nutritional quality of food and drinks in vending machines are warranted. This may be achieved by making healthier options more available and promoting them; however, more robust intervention studies are needed to determine effectiveness.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta Saudável , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Alimentos Especializados , Promoção da Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Universidades , Comportamento do Consumidor , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
11.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947981

RESUMO

Understanding patterns of dietary change over time can provide important information regarding population nutrition behaviours. The aims were to investigate change in diet quality over 12 years in a nationally representative sample of women born in 1946-1951 and to identify characteristics of women whose diet quality changed over time. The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) was measured in 2001 (n = 10,629, mean age 52.1 years) and 2013 (n = 9115; n = 8161 for both time points) for the mid-aged cohort from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Participants were categorised by tertiles of baseline diet quality and also classified as 'diet quality worsened' (ARFS decrease ≤ -4 points, n = 2361), 'remained stable' (-3 ≤ change in ARFS ≤ 3 points, n = 3077) or 'improved' (ARFS increase ≥ 4 points, n = 2723). On average, ARFS total and subscale scores remained relatively stable over time (mean [SD] change 0.3 [7.6] points) with some regression to the mean. Women whose diet quality worsened were more likely to be highly physically active at baseline compared with women whose diet quality improved (p < 0.001). Among women with poor diet quality initially (lowest baseline ARFS tertile, n = 2451, mean [SD] baseline ARFS 22.8 [4.5] points), almost half (47%, n = 1148) had not improved after 12 years, with women less likely to be in the healthy weight range (41% compared to 44%) and be never smokers (56% versus 62%, p < 0.05) compared with those whose diet improved. Diet quality remained relatively stable over 12 years' follow up among mid-aged women. Almost half of those with poor baseline diet quality remained poor over time, emphasizing the need to target high-risk groups for nutrition interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Saúde da Mulher/tendências , Austrália/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Am Coll Health ; 68(7): 734-741, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140957

RESUMO

Objective: To describe lifestyle behaviors (fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time, smoking, drug use, sleep, sexual health) and health risk factors (body mass index, food insecurity, mental health) in a sample of Australian university students. Participants: 3,077 students from the University of Newcastle (UON), Australia (mean age 27.1 ± 9.8 years, 69.4% female) were surveyed in September-October 2017. Methods: Cross-sectional self-report survey, the UON Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2017. Results: Participants with unhealthy lifestyle behaviors included; 89.5% not meeting vegetable recommendations, 50.3% exceeding lifetime risk guidelines for alcohol intake, and 38.1% insufficiently physically active. Rates of health risk factors included; 39.6% overweight/obese, 37.6% high or very high risk of psychological distress, and 22.0% food insecure. Conclusions: Rates of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and related health risk factors were high within the study population, highlighting the importance of ongoing monitoring and prioritization of effective strategies to improve university student health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Sono , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(5): 882-893, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore if better diet quality scores as a measure of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are associated with a lower incidence of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. DESIGN: Prospective analysis of the 1946-1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). The Australian Recommended Foods Score (ARFS) was calculated as an indicator of adherence to the ADG; the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) measured adherence to the MedDiet. Outcomes included hypertension and non-fatal CVD. Generalised estimating equations estimated OR and 95 % CI across quartiles of diet quality scores. SETTING: Australia, 2001-2016. PARTICIPANTS: 1946-1951 cohort of the ALSWH (n 5324), without CVD, hypertension and diabetes at baseline (2001), with complete FFQ data. RESULTS: There were 1342 new cases of hypertension and 629 new cases of non-fatal CVD over 15 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that women reporting better adherence to the ARFS (≥38/74) had 15 % (95 % CI 1, 28 %; P = 0·05) lower odds of hypertension and 46 % (95 % CI 6, 66 %; P = 0·1) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. Women reporting better adherence to the MDS (≥8/17) had 27 % (95 % CI 15, 47 %; P = 0·0006) lower odds of hypertension and 30 % (95 % CI 2, 50 %; P = 0·03) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Better adherence to diet quality scores is associated with lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. These results support the need for updated evidenced based on the ADG as well as public health nutrition policies in Australia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Política Nutricional , Austrália/epidemiologia , Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(2): 223-232, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most studies measure baseline diet quality exclusively and hence the impact of longitudinal changes in dietary intake in relation to weight change is not considered. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether change in diet quality over nine-years was associated with weight change over the same period in mid-age Australian women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy mid-age (45-49 years) women from the Australian Longitudinal study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were eligible a valid total energy intake (TEI) was reported at baseline (n = 2381), determined using Goldberg cut-offs. Diet quality was measured by the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) using data derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate relationships between change in diet quality and weight in mid-age women (n = 1999). Women in the highest tertile of ARFS change improved diet quality [mean ± SD] [7 ± 4 points], while those in the lowest [-9 ±5 points] and middle [-1±2 points] tertiles had worse diet quality at follow-up. Overall, mean weight gain was 2.3 ± 7.2 kg over nine years. Those in the highest tertile of ARFS change gained significantly less weight, compared to the lowest tertile; ß = -1.2 kg [95% CI: -2.31, -0.11; p = 0.03] after adjustment for changes in confounders and baseline weight, baseline ARFS, and total energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Improving diet quality could be an important strategy for promoting modest weight loss and potentially contribute to preventing weight gain in mid-age women, which is important for metabolic health.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Dieta Saudável , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Ganho de Peso , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Nutr Diet ; 77(3): 331-343, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680432

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to explore clustering among individual eating behaviours in a sample of Australian university students, and explore associations between clustered eating behaviours and demographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the University of Newcastle (UON) Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2017 was conducted. Measures included eating behaviours (eg, vegetables, energy-dense nutrient poor [EDNP] food intakes) assessed using short diet questions, and demographic characteristics (eg, age, undergraduate/postgraduate student). Factor analysis was used to explore clustering of individual eating behaviours (ie, identify factors). Linear regression models were used to explore associations between eating behaviour factors identified and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3062 students (70% female; 56% aged 17-24 years) were included in the analysis. The six eating behaviour factors identified (characterised by higher consumption of the named foods/drinks) were; EDNP snack foods, meat and takeaway foods, fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and breads and cereals. A higher fruit and vegetable factor score was associated with being female (P < .001), and a higher meat and takeaway foods factor score was associated with being male (P < .001) and of younger age (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient-rich foods clustered together and EDNP foods clustered together, that is, the identified factors represent either nutrient-rich or EDNP foods. Interventions in the university setting should target students with the poorest eating behaviours, including males and younger students.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Austrália , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861750

RESUMO

Food insecurity is much higher among university students than the general population, and is linked with poorer mental health, diet and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to explore the level of food insecurity among a sample of Australian university students and determine which socio-demographic and student characteristics predict food insecurity. An online cross-sectional survey with students from the University of Newcastle, Australia was conducted in 2017-2018. Food insecurity was assessed using the 6-item US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module, and socio-demographic (e.g., age, living situation) and student characteristics (e.g., undergraduate/postgraduate student) were captured. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of food insecurity for each of the socio-demographic and student characteristics, and included characteristics of significance in bivariate analyses as potential confounders. Data for 366 students were analysed (mean age 27.3 ± 10.4 years, 27.3% male). Forty-eight percent of participants were food insecure. The odds of food insecurity were higher among students living in rental accommodation compared with their parents' home (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.41, 4.06), and undergraduate compared with postgraduate students (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.83, 6.69). Commencing university and moving away from parents may be key times for intervention. Strategies that can provide longstanding benefit are needed to address the high level of food insecurity among university students.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653026

RESUMO

University students report unhealthy diets and experience poorer mental health than the general population. This study explores the association between psychological distress and resilience with dietary intake in a sample of Australian university students. Cross-sectional data from the University of Newcastle Student Healthy Lifestyle Survey 2017 were analysed. Psychological distress (Kessler Scale), resilience (Brief Resilience Scale) and fruit, vegetable, soft drink, takeaway food and breakfast intakes (short diet questions) were assessed. Socio-demographic (e.g., gender), student (e.g., undergraduate/postgraduate) and health characteristics (e.g., physical activity) were captured. Multivariate linear regression models explored associations between psychological distress and resilience with dietary intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis included 2710 students (mean age 26.9 ± 9.5 years, 30.4% male). In adjusted models, lower psychological distress was associated with higher fruit (ß = -0.37, p = 0.001) and vegetable (ß = -0.37, p < 0.001) serves/day, more frequent breakfast consumption (p < 0.001) and less frequent soft drink and takeaway food consumption (p < 0.001). Higher resilience was associated with higher fruit (ß = 0.03, p = 0.022) and vegetable (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001) serves/day, more frequent breakfast consumption (p = 0.005), and less frequent soft drink (p < 0.001) and takeaway food consumption (p = 0.001). These results highlight a potential link between psychological distress and resilience with diet, and that further research in this area is warranted.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934742

RESUMO

Convincing evidence exists for the positive effect of an improvement in diet quality on age-related cognitive decline, in part due to dietary fatty acid intake. A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Hunter Community Study (HCS) (n = 2750) was conducted comparing dietary data from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) with validated cognitive performance measures, Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Adjusted linear regression analysis found statistically significant associations between dietary intake of total n-6 fatty acids (FA), but no other FAs, and better cognitive performance as measured by the ARCS (RC = 0.0043; p = 0.0004; R² = 0.0084). Multivariate regression analyses of n-6 FA intakes in quartiles showed that, compared with the lowest quartile (179.8⁻1150.3 mg), those in the highest quartile (2315.0⁻7449.4 mg) had a total ARCS score 2.1 units greater (RC = 10.60466; p = 0.006; R² = 0.0081). Furthermore, when n-6 FA intake was tested against each of the ARCS domains, statistically significant associations were observed for the Fluency (RC = 0.0011432; p = 0.007; R² = 0.0057), Visual (RC = 0.0009889; p = 0.034; R² = 0.0050), Language (RC = 0.0010651; p = 0.047; R² = 0.0068) and Attention (RC = 0.0011605; p = 0.017; R² = 0.0099) domains, yet there was no association with Memory (RC = -0.000064; p = 0.889; R² = 0.0083). No statistically significant associations were observed between FA intakes and MMSE. A higher intake of total n-6 FA, but not other types of FA, was associated with better cognitive performance among a representative sample of older aged Australian adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , New South Wales
19.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018565

RESUMO

Young adult university students are a priority population for nutrition intervention. This study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the EATS (Eating Advice to Students) brief (i.e., single use) web-based nutrition intervention for young adult university students. A 3-month pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with 124 students aged 17-35 from the University of Newcastle, Australia. Participants were randomized to EATS (n = 62) or attention control (n = 62). EATS aimed to improve four target eating behaviors (vegetables, fruit, discretionary foods, breakfast). Primary outcomes were feasibility (recruitment, retention, usage, program acceptability). Recruitment and retention numbers were recorded, the program acceptability was assessed by a process evaluation survey and the website usage was objectively tracked. Preliminary efficacy was assessed via changes in diet quality (primary), fruit, vegetables, discretionary foods and breakfast intake, measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Recruitment was completed in five weeks. Retention was 73% (90/124) at 3-months. Intervention participants used EATS 1.5 ± 1.0 times. Satisfaction with EATS was rated at 4.04 ± 0.74 (maximum five). Intervention participants significantly decreased the percentage energy/day from discretionary foods compared with control (-4.8%, 95%CI -8.6, -1.1, p = 0.012, d = -0.34). No significant between-group differences were observed for diet quality, fruit, vegetable or breakfast intakes. EATS demonstrated high feasibility, particularly for reach and acceptability. The university setting and a brief web-based intervention show promise in engaging young adults to improve their eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Aconselhamento , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Nutr ; 121(7): 831-838, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670112

RESUMO

The consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables can acutely lower blood pressure and improve mediators shown to optimise vascular health. However, we do not yet understand the impact of long-term habitual dietary nitrate intake and its association with CVD. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the relationship between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and risk of CHD in women from the Nurses' Health Study. We prospectively followed 62 535 women who were free from diabetes, CVD and cancer at baseline in 1986. Information on diet was updated every 4 years with validated FFQ. The main outcome was CHD defined by the occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. During 26 years of follow-up, 2257 cases of CHD were identified. When comparing the highest quintile of nitrate intake with the lowest quintile, in aged-adjusted analysis there was a protective association for CHD (RR=0·77, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·97; P=0·0002) which dissipated after further adjustment for smoking, physical activity, BMI and race (RR=0·91; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·04; P=0·27). This magnitude of association was further attenuated once we adjusted for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index excluding vegetable and fruit consumption (RR=1·04, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·20; P=0·34). Dietary nitrate intake was not related to the risk of CHD after adjustment for other lifestyle and non-vegetable dietary factors in a large group of US women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Nitratos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
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