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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1436-1449, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216551

RESUMO

Despite widespread clinical genetic testing, many individuals with suspected genetic conditions lack a precise diagnosis, limiting their opportunity to take advantage of state-of-the-art treatments. In some cases, testing reveals difficult-to-evaluate structural differences, candidate variants that do not fully explain the phenotype, single pathogenic variants in recessive disorders, or no variants in genes of interest. Thus, there is a need for better tools to identify a precise genetic diagnosis in individuals when conventional testing approaches have been exhausted. We performed targeted long-read sequencing (T-LRS) using adaptive sampling on the Oxford Nanopore platform on 40 individuals, 10 of whom lacked a complete molecular diagnosis. We computationally targeted up to 151 Mbp of sequence per individual and searched for pathogenic substitutions, structural variants, and methylation differences using a single data source. We detected all genomic aberrations-including single-nucleotide variants, copy number changes, repeat expansions, and methylation differences-identified by prior clinical testing. In 8/8 individuals with complex structural rearrangements, T-LRS enabled more precise resolution of the mutation, leading to changes in clinical management in one case. In ten individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions lacking a precise genetic diagnosis, T-LRS identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in six and variants of uncertain significance in two others. T-LRS accurately identifies pathogenic structural variants, resolves complex rearrangements, and identifies Mendelian variants not detected by other technologies. T-LRS represents an efficient and cost-effective strategy to evaluate high-priority genes and regions or complex clinical testing results.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Genet Med ; 21(2): 361-372, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genotyping CYP2D6 is important for precision drug therapy because the enzyme it encodes metabolizes approximately 25% of drugs, and its activity varies considerably among individuals. Genotype analysis of CYP2D6 is challenging due to its highly polymorphic nature. Over 100 haplotypes (star alleles) have been defined for CYP2D6, some involving a gene conversion with its nearby nonfunctional but highly homologous paralog CYP2D7. We present Stargazer, a new bioinformatics tool that uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to call star alleles for CYP2D6 ( https://stargazer.gs.washington.edu/stargazerweb/ ). Stargazer is currently being extended for other pharmacogenes. METHODS: Stargazer identifies star alleles from NGS data by detecting single nucleotide variants, insertion-deletion variants, and structural variants. Stargazer detects structural variation, including gene deletions, duplications, and conversions, by calculating paralog-specific copy numbers from read depths. RESULTS: We applied Stargazer to the NGS data of 32 ethnically diverse HapMap trios that were genotyped by TaqMan assays, long-range polymerase chain reaction, quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting analysis, and/or Sanger sequencing. CYP2D6 genotyping by Stargazer was 99.0% concordant with the data obtained by these methods, and showed that 28.1% of the samples had structural variation including CYP2D6/CYP2D7 hybrids. CONCLUSION: Accurate genotyping of pharmacogenes with NGS and subsequent allele calling with Stargazer will aid the implementation of precision drug therapy.


Assuntos
Alelos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Software , Criança , Biologia Computacional , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Pai , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Mães
3.
Birth Defects Res ; 109(16): 1257-1267, 2017 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases appear as an isolated, nonsyndromic entity (NSCLP). With the advent of next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES) has been used to identify single nucleotide variants and insertion/deletions which cause or increase the risk of NSCLP. However, to our knowledge, there are no published studies using WES in NSCLP to investigate copy number changes (CNCs), which are a major component of human genetic variation. Our study aimed to identify CNCs associated with NSCLP in a Honduran population using WES. METHODS: WES was performed on two to four members of 27 multiplex Honduran families. CNCs were identified using two algorithms, CoNIFER and XHMM. Priority was given to CNCs that were identified in more than one patient and had variant frequencies of less than 5% in reference data sets. RESULTS: WES completion was defined as >90% of the WES target at >8 × coverage and >80% of the WES target at >20 × coverage. Twenty-four CNCs that met our inclusion criteria were identified by both CoNIFER and XHMM. These CNCs were confirmed using quantitative PCR. Pedigree analysis produced three CNCs corresponding to ADH7, AHR, and CRYZ segregating with NSCLP. Two of the three CNCs implicate genes, AHR and ADH7, whose known biological functions could plausibly play a role in NSCLP. CONCLUSION: WES can be used to detect candidate CNCs that may be involved in the pathophysiology of NSCLP. Birth Defects Research 109:1257-1267, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Família , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Honduras/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
4.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(4): 381-389, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332277

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has high heritability; however, studies of common variation account for <5% of ADHD variance. Using data from affected participants without a family history of ADHD, we sought to identify de novo variants that could account for sporadic ADHD. Considering a total of 128 families, two analyses were conducted in parallel: first, in 11 unaffected parent/affected proband trios (or quads with the addition of an unaffected sibling) we completed exome sequencing. Six de novo missense variants at highly conserved bases were identified and validated from four of the 11 families: the brain-expressed genes TBC1D9, DAGLA, QARS, CSMD2, TRPM2, and WDR83. Separately, in 117 unrelated probands with sporadic ADHD, we sequenced a panel of 26 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to evaluate whether variation in ASD/ID-associated genes were also present in participants with ADHD. Only one putative deleterious variant (Gln600STOP) in CHD1L was identified; this was found in a single proband. Notably, no other nonsense, splice, frameshift, or highly conserved missense variants in the 26 gene panel were identified and validated. These data suggest that de novo variant analysis in families with independently adjudicated sporadic ADHD diagnosis can identify novel genes implicated in ADHD pathogenesis. Moreover, that only one of the 128 cases (0.8%, 11 exome, and 117 MIP sequenced participants) had putative deleterious variants within our data in 26 genes related to ID and ASD suggests significant independence in the genetic pathogenesis of ADHD as compared to ASD and ID phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
5.
Genet Med ; 18(8): 788-95, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26656649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The pace of Mendelian gene discovery is slowed by the "n-of-1 problem"-the difficulty of establishing the causality of a putatively pathogenic variant in a single person or family. Identification of an unrelated person with an overlapping phenotype and suspected pathogenic variant in the same gene can overcome this barrier, but it is often impeded by lack of a convenient or widely available way to share data on candidate variants/genes among families, clinicians, and researchers. METHODS: Social networking among families, clinicians, and researchers was used to identify three children with variants of unknown significance in KDM1A and similar phenotypes. RESULTS: De novo variants in KDM1A underlie a new syndrome characterized by developmental delay and distinctive facial features. CONCLUSION: Social networking is a potentially powerful strategy to discover genes for rare Mendelian conditions, particularly those with nonspecific phenotypic features. To facilitate the efforts of families to share phenotypic and genomic information with each other, clinicians, and researchers, we developed the Repository for Mendelian Genomics Family Portal (RMD-FP; http://uwcmg.org/#/family). Design and development of MyGene2 (http://www.mygene2.org), a Web-based tool that enables families, clinicians, and researchers to search for gene matches based on analysis of phenotype and exome data deposited into the RMD-FP, is under way.Genet Med 18 8, 788-795.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Rede Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Navegador
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(2): 199-215, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166479

RESUMO

Discovering the genetic basis of a Mendelian phenotype establishes a causal link between genotype and phenotype, making possible carrier and population screening and direct diagnosis. Such discoveries also contribute to our knowledge of gene function, gene regulation, development, and biological mechanisms that can be used for developing new therapeutics. As of February 2015, 2,937 genes underlying 4,163 Mendelian phenotypes have been discovered, but the genes underlying ∼50% (i.e., 3,152) of all known Mendelian phenotypes are still unknown, and many more Mendelian conditions have yet to be recognized. This is a formidable gap in biomedical knowledge. Accordingly, in December 2011, the NIH established the Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) to provide the collaborative framework and infrastructure necessary for undertaking large-scale whole-exome sequencing and discovery of the genetic variants responsible for Mendelian phenotypes. In partnership with 529 investigators from 261 institutions in 36 countries, the CMGs assessed 18,863 samples from 8,838 families representing 579 known and 470 novel Mendelian phenotypes as of January 2015. This collaborative effort has identified 956 genes, including 375 not previously associated with human health, that underlie a Mendelian phenotype. These results provide insight into study design and analytical strategies, identify novel mechanisms of disease, and reveal the extensive clinical variability of Mendelian phenotypes. Discovering the gene underlying every Mendelian phenotype will require tackling challenges such as worldwide ascertainment and phenotypic characterization of families affected by Mendelian conditions, improvement in sequencing and analytical techniques, and pervasive sharing of phenotypic and genomic data among researchers, clinicians, and families.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genética Médica/métodos , Genética Médica/tendências , Fenótipo , Proteínas/genética , Humanos
7.
Nature ; 515(7526): 216-21, 2014 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25363768

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the genetic architecture of human disease. Here we apply it to more than 2,500 simplex families, each having a child with an autistic spectrum disorder. By comparing affected to unaffected siblings, we show that 13% of de novo missense mutations and 43% of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations contribute to 12% and 9% of diagnoses, respectively. Including copy number variants, coding de novo mutations contribute to about 30% of all simplex and 45% of female diagnoses. Almost all LGD mutations occur opposite wild-type alleles. LGD targets in affected females significantly overlap the targets in males of lower intelligence quotient (IQ), but neither overlaps significantly with targets in males of higher IQ. We estimate that LGD mutation in about 400 genes can contribute to the joint class of affected females and males of lower IQ, with an overlapping and similar number of genes vulnerable to contributory missense mutation. LGD targets in the joint class overlap with published targets for intellectual disability and schizophrenia, and are enriched for chromatin modifiers, FMRP-associated genes and embryonically expressed genes. Most of the significance for the latter comes from affected females.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Genes , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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