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1.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-3, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653811

RESUMO

Spinal cord intramedullary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have classically been considered congenital lesions that are present from birth. The reason for this dogmatic principal is the fact that a vast majority of these lesions present in pediatric and young adult patients. Interestingly, while many authors have demonstrated the development of de novo nidus-type brain AVMs, there have been no reported cases of a de novo intramedullary or perimedullary AVM of the spine. In this paper the authors describe what they believe to be the first reported case of a de novo AVM of the spinal cord in a young patient who underwent serial imaging from birth for evaluation of a syrinx. Potential pathophysiological mechanisms for the development of de novo vascular malformations of the spinal cord are discussed.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00712, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficiency in the enzyme ß-mannosidase was described over three decades ago. Although rare in occurrence, the presentation of childhood-onset ß-mannosidase deficiency consists of hypotonia in the newborn period followed by global development delay, behavior problems, and intellectual disability. No effective pharmacologic treatments have been available. METHODS: We report 2-year outcomes following the first umbilical cord blood transplant in a 4-year-old boy with early childhood-onset disease. RESULTS: We show restoration of leukocyte ß-mannosidase activity which remained normal at 2 years posttransplant, and a simultaneous increase in plasma ß-mannosidase activity and dramatic decrease in urine-free oligosaccharides were also observed. MRI of the brain remained stable. Neurocognitive evaluation revealed test point gains, although the magnitude of improvement was less than expected for age, causing lower IQ scores that represent a wider developmental gap between the patient and unaffected peers. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that hematopoietic cell transplant can correct the biochemical defect in ß-mannosidosis, although preservation of the neurocognitive trajectory may be a challenge.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 20, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare and ultra-rare diseases (URDs) are often chronic and life-threatening conditions that have a profound impact on sufferers and their families, but many are notoriously difficult to detect. Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) serves to illustrate the challenges, benefits and pitfalls associated with screening for ultra-rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs). A comprehensive, non-systematic review of published information from NP-C screening studies was conducted, focusing on diagnostic methods and study designs that have been employed to date. As a key part of this analysis, data from both successful studies (where cases were positively identified) and unsuccessful studies (where the chosen approach failed to identify any cases) were included alongside information from our own experiences gained from the planning and execution of screening for NP-C. On this basis, best-practice recommendations for ultra-rare IEM screening are provided. Twenty-six published screening studies were identified and categorised according to study design into four groups: 1) prospective patient cohort and family-based secondary screenings (18 studies); 2) analyses of archived 'biobank' materials (one study); 3) medical chart review and bioinformatics data mining (five studies); and 4) newborn screening (two studies). NPC1/NPC2 sequencing was the most common primary screening method (Sanger sequencing in eight studies and next-generation sequencing [gene panel or exome sequencing] in five studies), followed by biomarker analyses (usually oxysterols) and clinical surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Historically, screening for NP-C has been based on single-patient studies, small case series, and targeted cohorts, but the emergence of new diagnostic methods over the last 5-10 years has provided opportunities to screen for NP-C on a larger scale. Combining clinical, biomarker and genetic diagnostic methods represents the most effective way to identify NP-C cases, while reducing the likelihood of misdiagnosis. Our recommendations are intended as a guide for planning screening protocols for ultra-rare IEMs in general.


Assuntos
Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Clin Invest ; 129(3): 1240-1256, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620337

RESUMO

Sphingolipid imbalance is the culprit in a variety of neurological diseases, some affecting the myelin sheath. We have used whole-exome sequencing in patients with undetermined leukoencephalopathies to uncover the endoplasmic reticulum lipid desaturase DEGS1 as the causative gene in 19 patients from 13 unrelated families. Shared features among the cases include severe motor arrest, early nystagmus, dystonia, spasticity, and profound failure to thrive. MRI showed hypomyelination, thinning of the corpus callosum, and progressive thalamic and cerebellar atrophy, suggesting a critical role of DEGS1 in myelin development and maintenance. This enzyme converts dihydroceramide (DhCer) into ceramide (Cer) in the final step of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. We detected a marked increase of the substrate DhCer and DhCer/Cer ratios in patients' fibroblasts and muscle. Further, we used a knockdown approach for disease modeling in Danio rerio, followed by a preclinical test with the first-line treatment for multiple sclerosis, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya). The enzymatic inhibition of Cer synthase by fingolimod, 1 step prior to DEGS1 in the pathway, reduced the critical DhCer/Cer imbalance and the severe locomotor disability, increasing the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes in a zebrafish model. These proof-of-concept results pave the way to clinical translation.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(3): 301-309, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575890

RESUMO

Importance: Recognizing the characteristics of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody (MOG-IgG) myelitis is essential for early accurate diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To evaluate the clinical, radiologic, and prognostic features of MOG-IgG myelitis and compare with myelitis with aquaporin-4-IgG (AQP4-IgG) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Design, Setting, and Participants: We retrospectively identified 199 MOG-IgG-positive Mayo Clinic patients from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2017, through our neuroimmunology laboratory. Fifty-four patients met inclusion criteria of (1) clinical myelitis; (2) MOG-IgG positivity; and (3) medical records available. We excluded 145 patients without documented myelitis. Myelitis of AQP4-IgG (n = 46) and MS (n = 26) were used for comparison. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome variables included modified Rankin score and need for gait aid. A neuroradiologist analyzed spine magnetic resonance imaging of patients with MOG-IgG and control patients blinded to diagnosis. Results: Of 54 included patients with MOG-IgG myelitis, the median age was 25 years (range, 3-73 years) and 24 were women (44%). Isolated transverse myelitis was the initial manifestation in 29 patients (54%), and 10 (19%) were initially diagnosed as having viral/postviral acute flaccid myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid-elevated oligoclonal bands occurred in 1 of 38 (3%). At final follow-up (median, 24 months; range, 2-120 months), 32 patients (59%) had developed 1 or more relapses of optic neuritis (n = 31); transverse myelitis (n = 7); or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 1). Clinical features favoring MOG-IgG myelitis vs AQP4-IgG or MS myelitis included prodromal symptoms and concurrent acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging features favoring MOG-IgG over AQP4-IgG or MS myelitis were T2-signal abnormality confined to gray matter (sagittal line and axial H sign) and lack of enhancement. Longitudinally extensive T2 lesions were of similar frequency in MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG myelitis (37 of 47 [79%] vs 28 of 34 [82%]; P = .52) but not found in MS. Multiple spinal cord lesions and conus involvement were more frequent with MOG-IgG than AQP4-IgG but not different from MS. Wheelchair dependence at myelitis nadir occurred in one-third of patients with MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG but never with MS, although patients with MOG-IgG myelitis recovered better than those with AQP4-IgG. Conclusions and Relevance: Myelitis is an early manifestation of MOG-IgG-related disease and may have a clinical phenotype of acute flaccid myelitis. We identified a variety of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features that may help clinicians identify those at risk in whom MOG-IgG should be tested.

7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 140, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease associated with a wide variety of progressive neurological manifestations. Miglustat is indicated for the treatment of progressive neurological manifestations in both adults and children. Since approval in 2009 there has been a vast growth in clinical experience with miglustat. The effectiveness of miglustat has been assessed using a range of measures. METHODS: Comprehensive review of published data from studies of cellular neuropathological markers and structural neurological indices in the brain, clinical impairment/disability, specific clinical neurological manifestations, and patient survival. RESULTS: Cranial diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have shown reduced levels of choline (a neurodegeneration marker), and choline/N-acetyl aspartate ratio (indicating increased neuronal viability) in the brain during up to 5 years of miglustat therapy, as well as a slowing of reductions in fractional anisotropy (an axonal/myelin integrity marker). A 2-year immunoassay study showed significant reductions in CSF-calbindin during treatment, indicating reduced cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated a protective effect of miglustat on cerebellar and subcortical structure that correlated with clinical symptom severity. Numerous cohort studies assessing core neurological manifestations (impaired ambulation, manipulation, speech, swallowing, other) using NP-C disability scales indicate neurological stabilization over 2-8 years, with a trend for greater benefits in patients with older (non-infantile) age at neurological onset. A randomized controlled trial and several cohort studies have reported improvements or stabilization of saccadic eye movements during 1-5 years of therapy. Swallowing was also shown to improve/remain stable during the randomized trial (up to 2 years), as well as in long-term observational cohorts (up to 6 years). A meta-analysis of dysphagia - a potent risk factor for aspiration pneumonia and premature death in NP-C - demonstrated a survival benefit with miglustat due to improved/stabilized swallowing function. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of miglustat on neurological NP-C manifestations has been assessed using a range of approaches, with benefits ranging from cellular changes in the brain through to visible clinical improvements and improved survival.

8.
Pediatr Neurol ; 86: 46-51, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jeavons syndrome is an underreported epileptic syndrome characterized by eyelid myoclonia, eyelid closure-induced seizures or electroencephalography paroxysms, and photosensitivity. Drug-resistant epilepsy is common, but the prognostic factors and clinical course leading to drug resistance have not been well characterized. METHODS: We identified 30 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Jeavons syndrome at a single institution between January 1, 2000 and December 15, 2016. Criteria for Jeavons syndrome included all of the following: (1) eyelid myoclonia with or without absences, (2) eye-closure-induced seizures or electroencephalography paroxysms, and (3) seizure onset after 12 months of age. We reviewed and described the epilepsy history, antiepileptic drug trials, and response to treatments. RESULTS: Mean age at seizure onset was 7.3 years, and 80% were female. Absence seizures (63%) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (23%) were most common at onset. Diagnosis was delayed by an average of 9.6 years. After a median follow-up of two years, 80% of patients had drug resistant epilepsy and 70% experienced generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures and seizure types other than absence seizures increased the risk of drug-resistant epilepsy (P values 0.049 and 0.03, respectively). Valproic acid, lamotrigine, ethosuximide, and levetiracetam were the most effective in reducing seizures by more than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of Jeavons syndrome is often delayed. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures and seizure types other than absence seizures may be predictors of drug-resistant epilepsy among patients with Jeavons syndrome.

9.
Ann Neurol ; 84(3): 473-480, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076629

RESUMO

The clinical phenotype of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated proteinlike 2 (CASPR2) autoimmunity is well defined in adults. Data for children are limited (<10 cases). Among 13,319 pediatric patients serologically tested for autoimmune neurological disorders (2010-2017), 264 were seropositive for voltage-gated potassium channel-complex-IgG (radioimmunoprecipitation). Only 13 (4.9%) were positive by transfected cell-binding assay for LGI1-IgG (n = 7), CASPR2-IgG (n = 3), or both (n = 3). This is significantly less than in adults. Encephalopathy, seizures, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability were common, as was coexisting autoimmunity. No faciobrachial dystonic seizures or cancers were identified. Functional neurologic disorders were frequently the initial diagnosis, and immunotherapy appeared beneficial. Ann Neurol 2018;84:473-480.

11.
J Child Neurol ; 33(10): 651-658, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dynamin 1-like gene ( DNM1L) encodes a GTPase that mediates mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission and fusion. We report a new clinical presentation associated with a DNM1L pathogenic variant and review the literature. RESULTS: A 13-year-old boy with mild developmental delays and paroxysmal dystonia presented acutely with multifocal myoclonic super-refractory status epilepticus. Despite sustained and aggressive treatment, seizures persisted and care was ultimately withdrawn in the context of extensive global cortical atrophy. Rapid trio-whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous c.1207C>T (p.R403C) pathogenic variant in DNM1L. Immunofluorescence staining of fibroblast mitochondria revealed abnormally elongated and tubular morphology. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the diagnostic importance of rapid whole exome sequencing within a critical care setting and reveals the expanding phenotypic spectrum associated with DNM1L variants. This now includes progressive paroxysmal dystonia and adolescent-onset super-refractory myoclonic status epilepticus contributing to strikingly rapid and progressive cortical atrophy and death.

12.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 72(2): 302-308, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395486

RESUMO

The diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) relies on imaging criteria in the setting of a positive familial history. Molecular analysis, seldom used in clinical practice, identifies a causative mutation in >90% of cases in the genes PKD1, PKD2, or rarely GANAB. We report the clinical and genetic dissection of a 7-generation pedigree, resulting in the diagnosis of 2 different cystic disorders. Using targeted next-generation sequencing of 65 candidate genes in a patient with an ADPKD-like phenotype who lacked the familial PKD2 mutation, we identified a COL4A1 mutation (p.Gln247*) and made the diagnosis of HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome. While 4 individuals had ADPKD-PKD2, various COL4A1-related phenotypes were identified in 5 patients, and 3 individuals with likely digenic PKD2/COL4A1 disease reached end-stage renal disease at around 50 years of age, significantly earlier than observed for either monogenic disorder. Thus, using targeted next-generation sequencing as part of the diagnostic approach in patients with cystic diseases provides differential diagnoses and identifies factors underlying disease variability. As specific therapies are rapidly developing for ADPKD, a precise etiologic diagnosis should be paramount for inclusion in therapeutic trials and optimal patient management.

13.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-10, 2017 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare inherited neurovisceral disease that should be recognised by psychiatrists as a possible underlying cause of psychiatric abnormalities. This study describes NP-C patients who had psychiatric manifestations at enrolment in the international NPC Registry, a unique multicentre, prospective, observational disease registry. METHODS: Treating physicians' data entries describing psychiatric manifestations in NPC patients were coded and grouped by expert psychiatrists. RESULTS: Out of 386 NP-C patients included in the registry as of October 2015, psychiatric abnormalities were reported to be present in 34% (94/280) of those with available data. Forty-four patients were confirmed to have identifiable psychiatric manifestations, with text describing these psychiatric manifestations. In these 44 patients, the median (range) age at onset of psychiatric manifestations was 17.9 years (2.5-67.9; n = 15), while the median (range) age at NP-C diagnosis was 23.7 years (0.2-69.8; n = 34). Almost all patients (43/44; 98%) had an occurrence of ≥1 neurological manifestation at enrolment. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that substantial delays in diagnosis of NP-C are long among patients with psychiatric symptoms and, moreover, patients presenting with psychiatric features and at least one of cognitive impairment, neurological manifestations, and/or visceral symptoms should be screened for NP-C.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is one of the most prevalent de novo mutated genes in syndromic autism spectrum disorders, driving a general interest in the gene and the syndrome. AIM: The aim of this study was to provide a detailed developmental case study of ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation toward improvements in (1) diagnostic procedures, (2) phenotypic scope, and (3) interventions. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical and parental reports. RESULTS: AD (currently 11-year-old) had several rare congenital anomalies including imperforate anus that was surgically repaired at 2 days of age. Her findings were craniofacial asymmetries, global developmental delay, autistic behaviors (loss of smile and inability to make eye contact at the age of 15 months), and slow thriving as she gradually matures. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures at 3 years resulted in no definitive diagnosis. With parental persistence, AD began walking at 3.5 years (skipping crawling). At the age of 8.5 years, AD was subjected to whole exome sequencing, compared to the parents and diagnosed as carrying an ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation, a causal recurring mutation in ADNP (currently ~17/80 worldwide). Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated mild generalized cerebral volume loss with reduced posterior white matter. AD is non-verbal, communicating with signs and word approximations. She continues to make slow but forward developmental progress, and her case teaches newly diagnosed children within the ADNP Kids Research Foundation. CONCLUSION: This case study emphasizes the importance of diagnosis and describes, for the first time, early motor intervention therapies. Detailed developmental profile of selected cases leads to better treatments.

15.
J Child Neurol ; 32(7): 647-649, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349775

RESUMO

In Christina's World, one of the most beloved works of American art, Andrew Wyeth painted Christina Olson crawling crablike across the field below her house, raised on emaciated arms, with a swollen knob for an elbow, and hands clenched and gnarled. The significance of these physical abnormalities, and the message Wyeth endeavored to convey via the portrait, are considered here in light of Christina's medical history and the disorder it most likely signifies.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth , Medicina nas Artes , Pinturas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Mol Genet Metab ; 120(1-2): 34-37, 2017 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923544

RESUMO

The Niemann-Pick family of diseases was poorly understood until Roscoe Brady and his colleagues began their investigations in the 1960s. Following Brady's discovery of the defect in acid sphingomyelinase in Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B, Peter Pentchev, a senior scientist in the group, launched a series of investigations of an unusual lipid storage disease in a spontaneous mouse model. These led initially to identification of the cholesterol trafficking defect in the mouse, and then in human Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC). This discovery formed the basis of the standard diagnostic test for NPC for the next three decades. Subsequently, an international collaboration was established, based at the Brady lab at NIH, which culminated in discovery of the NPC1 gene. Roscoe Brady, Peter Pentchev and their colleagues defined and refined the clinical biochemical and pathological phenotypes of NPC in a series of elegant parallel studies. They also identified abnormal oxysterols in NPC; later work has proved such compounds to be sensitive biomarkers of the disease. The dedication of the Brady lab to NPC, and the discoveries that flowed therefrom, provided critical foundations for the current explosion of progress in this disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Oxisteróis
17.
Mol Genet Metab ; 120(1-2): 1-7, 2017 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866832

RESUMO

To celebrate the research visions and accomplishments of the late Roscoe O. Brady (1923-2016), remembrance commentaries were requested from several of his postdoctoral research fellows and colleagues. These commentaries not only reflect on the accomplishments of Dr. Brady, but they also share some of the backstories and experiences working in the Brady laboratory. They provide insights and perspectives on Brady's research activities, and especially on his efforts to develop an effective treatment for patients with Type 1 Gaucher disease. These remembrances illuminate Brady's efforts to implement the latest scientific advances with an outstanding team of young co-investigators to develop and demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the first enzyme replacement therapy for a lysosomal storage disease. Brady's pursuit and persistence in accomplishing his research objectives provide insights into this remarkably successful physician scientist who paved the way for the development of treatments for patients with other lysosomal storage diseases.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/história , Doenças por Armazenamento dos Lisossomos/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Doença de Gaucher/tratamento farmacológico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pesquisadores
18.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 7(6): 499-511, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431164

RESUMO

Purpose of review: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a neurovisceral disorder that may be more prevalent than earlier estimates. Diagnosis of NP-C is often delayed; a key aim for clinical practice is to reduce this delay. Recently, substantial progress has been made in the field of NP-C screening and diagnosis, justifying an update to the existing recommendations for clinical practice. Recent findings: New biomarker profiling and genetic analysis technologies are included as first-line diagnostic tests for NP-C. Most diagnoses can now be confirmed by combination of biomarker and genetic analyses. Filipin staining may facilitate diagnosis in uncertain cases. Recommendations are provided for psychiatrists, neuro-ophthalmologists, and radiologists, and on screening within specific at-risk patient cohorts. The NP-C diagnostic algorithm has been updated and simplified. Summary: This publication provides expert recommendations for clinicians who may see patients presenting with the signs and symptoms of NP-C, including general practitioners, pediatricians, neurologists, and psychiatrists.

19.
Front Neurol ; 8: 711, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379464

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the function of the oculomotor and vestibular systems and to correlate these findings with the clinical status of patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3). The goal of this cross-sectional and longitudinal study was to find oculomotor biomarkers for future clinical trials. Methods: Twenty-six patients with GD3 were assessed for eligibility and 21 were able to perform at least one task. Horizontal and vertical reflexive saccades, smooth pursuit, gaze-holding, optokinetic nystagmus, and horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were examined by video-oculography/video-head impulse test and compared concurrently with 33 healthy controls. The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the modified Severity Scoring Tool (mSST), and Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were administered to assess overall neurological function. Eleven patients were also re-assessed after 1 year. Results: Nine out of 17 patients exhibited gaze-holding deficits. One patient had upbeat nystagmus. Three patients presented with bilateral abducens palsy in combination with central oculomotor disorders, suggesting a bilateral involvement of the abducens nucleus. Horizontal angular VOR gain was reduced in all patients (0.66 ± 0.37) compared with controls (1.1 ± 0.11, p < 0.001). Most strongly correlated with clinical rating scales were peak velocity of downward saccades (SARA: ρ = -0.752, p < 0.0005; mSST: ρ = -0.611, p = 0.003; GPT: ρ = -0.649, p = 0.005) and duration of vertical saccades (SARA: ρ = 0.806, p < 0.001; mSST: ρ = 0.700, p < 0.0005; GPT: ρ = 0.558, p = 0.02) together with the VOR gain (SARA: ρ = -0.63, p = 0.016; mSST: ρ = -0.725, p = 0.003; GPT: ρ = -0.666, p = 0.004). Vertical smooth pursuit gain decreased significantly at follow-up. Interpretation: This study shows neuronal degeneration of the brainstem and cerebellum with combined involvement of both supranuclear and nuclear oculomotor structures and the vestibular system in GD3. We also identified oculomotor parameters that correlate with the neurological status and can be used as biomarkers in future clinical trials.

20.
Nature ; 537(7621): S151, 2016 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27652781
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