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1.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617904

RESUMO

Antithrombotic treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is still debated. We conducted a meta-analysis of recent randomized controlled trials to evaluate the benefit of different antithrombotic strategies. Data were analyzed between May and September 2019. Efficacy outcomes were trial-defined major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); its individual components; stent thrombosis. Safety outcomes were trial-defined primary bleeding outcome; TIMI and ISTH major bleeding; clinically relevant non-major bleeding; intracranial hemorrhage. Differences in outcomes among groups were expressed as pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Four randomized studies were included (10,969 patients). The mean age ranged from 69 to 72 years, prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) varied from 48 to 62%. Comparing dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) with a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) versus triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) with vitamin K antagonist (VKA), OR for trial-defined MACE and primary bleeding outcome were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.86-1.24) and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.41-0.86), respectively. There was a 68% lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage and a non-statistically significant higher risk of stent thrombosis with DAT. DAT was as effective and safer than TAT in patients with stable coronary artery disease, while a trend towards increased ischemic events was seen in ACS patients. DAT with a DOAC showed similar efficacy and less bleeding than TAT with a VKA. However, increased stent thrombosis with DAT may be present, and TAT should be considered in patients at high ischemic risk, such as ACS patients.

2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(7): 537-545, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555573

RESUMO

The evaluation and application of antithrombotic strategies able to reduce total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with documented vascular disease have an important clinical and epidemiological role and may also impact on health costs. In the COMPASS trial, the association of rivaroxaban at the dose of 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin in a population with stable vascular disease has significantly reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events compared to the standard regimen of aspirin alone; this reduction translated into greater cardiovascular and total survival. Such mortality benefit was not observed in previous randomized trials that in this setting of patients had previously evaluated antiplatelet strategies alternative to aspirin (with clopidogrel) or had compared a dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin plus clopidogrel, vorapaxar, or ticagrelor vs a single antiplatelet treatment with aspirin. The results of the COMPASS trial strengthen the role of antithrombotic strategies that, beside the platelet phase, also involve the coagulative phase with the aim at preventing the recurrence of cardiovascular, atherothrombotic events at the site of polyvascular beds, with a degree of benefit proportional to the baseline risk of the patient.

3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557093

RESUMO

Optimal dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) strategy in high-bleeding risk (HBR) patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome remains debated. We sought to investigate the use of clopidogrel versus ticagrelor in HBR patients with acute coronary syndrome and their impact on ischemic and bleeding events at 1 year. In the START-ANTIPLATELET registry (NCT02219984), consecutive patients with ≥ 1 HBR criteria were stratified by DAPT type in clopidogrel versus ticagrelor groups. The primary endpoint was net adverse clinical endpoints (NACE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleeding. Of 1209 patients with 1-year follow-up, 553 were defined at HBR, of whom 383 were considered eligible for the study as on DAPT with clopidogrel (174 or 45.4%) or ticagrelor (209 or 54.6%). Clopidogrel was more often administered in patients at increased ischemic and bleeding risk, while ticagrelor in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Mean DAPT duration was longer in the ticagrelor group. At 1 year, after multivariate adjustment, no difference in NACEs was observed between patients on clopidogrel versus ticagrelor (19% vs. 11%, adjusted hazard ratio 1.27 [95% CI 0.71-2.27], p = 0.429). Age, number of HBR criteria, and mean DAPT duration were independent predictors of NACEs. In a real-world registry of patients with acute coronary syndrome, 45% were at HBR and frequently treated with clopidogrel. After adjustment for potential confounders, the duration of DAPT, but not DAPT type (stratified by clopidogrel vs. ticagrelor), was associated with the risk of ischemic and bleeding events at 1 year.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(7): 489-501, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555564

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence of preexisting cardiovascular diseases and the increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the identification of optimal antithrombotic approaches in terms of risk/benefit ratio and outcome improvement appears crucial in this setting. In the present position paper we collected current evidence from the literature to provide practical recommendations on the management of antithrombotic therapies (antiplatelet and anticoagulant) in various clinical contexts prevalent during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: in-home management of oral anticoagulant therapy; interactions between drugs used in the SARS-CoV-2 infection and antithrombotic agents; in-hospital management of antithrombotic therapies; diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment of in-hospital thrombotic complications.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between body mass index (BMI), thromboembolic events (TEE) and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are controversial, and further evidence on the risk of such events in obese patients with AF receiving different anticoagulant therapies (OAC) is needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided a total of 9330 participants from the prospective PREFER in AF and PREFER in AF PROLONGATION registries into BMI quartiles at baseline. Outcome measures were TEE and major bleeding complications at the 1-year follow-up. Without OAC, there was a ≥6-fold increase of TEE in the 4th vs other BMI quartiles (P = .019). OAC equalized the rates of TEE across different BMI strata. The occurrence of major bleeding was highest in patients with BMI in the 1st as well as in the 4th BMI quartile [OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.03-2.78, P = .039 and OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.13-3.04, P = .014 vs those in the 3rd quartile, respectively]. At propensity score-adjusted analysis, the incidence of TEE and major bleeding in obese patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) or vitamin K-antagonist anticoagulants (VKAs) was similar (P ≥ .34). CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world data suggest no obesity paradox for TEE in patients with AF. Obese patients are at higher risk of TEE, and here OAC dramatically reduces the risk of events. We here found a comparable clinical outcome with NOACs and VKAs in obese patients. Low body weight and obesity were also associated with bleeding, and therefore OAC with the best safety profile should be considered in this setting.

7.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 8703627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284734

RESUMO

Antiplatelet therapy is the mainstay of treatment and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including acute coronary syndrome (ACS), transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, and peripheral artery disease (PAD). The P2Y12 inhibitors, of which clopidogrel was the first, play an integral role in antiplatelet therapy and therefore in the treatment and secondary prevention of CVD. This review discusses the available evidence concerning antiplatelet therapy in patients with CVD, with a focus on the role of clopidogrel. In combination with aspirin, clopidogrel is often used as part of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for the secondary prevention of ACS. Although newer, more potent P2Y12 inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) show a greater reduction in ischemic risk compared with clopidogrel in randomized trials of ACS patients, these newer P2Y12 inhibitors are often associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Deescalation of DAPT by switching from prasugrel or ticagrelor to clopidogrel may be required in some patients with ACS. Furthermore, real-world studies of ACS patients have not confirmed the benefits of the newer P2Y12 inhibitors over clopidogrel. In patients with very high-risk TIA or stroke, short-term DAPT with clopidogrel plus aspirin for 21-28 days, followed by clopidogrel monotherapy for up to 90 days, is recommended. Clopidogrel monotherapy may also be used in patients with symptomatic PAD. In conclusion, there is strong evidence supporting the use of clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy in several clinical settings, which emphasizes the importance of this medication in clinical practice.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 751-758, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889526

RESUMO

Recent findings in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients receiving oral anticoagulation showed that diabetes without insulin therapy has a thromboembolic risk comparable to nondiabetic patients, whereas only diabetic patients on insulin have a heightened thromboembolic risk. We explored possible pathophysiological correlates of such finding on 90 AF patients on oral anticoagulation, divided according to diabetes status (n = 30 without diabetes; n = 29 with diabetes on oral antidiabetic drugs; n = 31 with insulin-requiring diabetes). We assessed von Willebrand Factor (VWF) concentration (VWF:Ag) and activity (VWF R:Co) as measures of endothelial dysfunction; and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2) levels as markers of fibrinolytic activity and thrombin generation. Values of VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, and TAFI were similar in the 3 groups. Patients with diabetes requiring insulin had significantly higher levels of F1+2 (median 23.1 pg/ml [interquartile range 17.6; 33.5]) than those without diabetes (16.3 pg/ml [11.5; 22.5], p = 0.036) and diabetic patients on oral antidiabetic drugs (20.6 pg/ml [13.3; 29], p = 0.046). Thus, in AF patients receiving oral anticoagulation, those with diabetes, regardless of the diabetes type (with or without insulin therapy), and those without diabetes have comparable indices of the explored parameters of endothelial dysfunction and fibrinolytic activity. Despite anticoagulant therapy, thrombin generation is selectively higher in diabetic patients' on insulin than in those without diabetes or with diabetes on oral antidiabetic drugs, with no differences between these latter 2 conditions. Thrombin generation might thus be a predominant contributor to the excess of thromboembolic risk in AF patients on insulin-requiring diabetes.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidase B2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Protrombina/metabolismo , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
10.
Shock ; 53(4): 391-399, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090679

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a state of critical end-organ hypoperfusion primarily due to cardiac dysfunction. This condition is the most common cause of death in patients affected by acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Despite early revascularization, prompt optimal medical therapy, and up-to-date mechanical circulatory supports, mortality of patients with CS remains high.The objective of this review is to summarize epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options of CS in light of the new European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommendations. The latest European guidelines on myocardial revascularization have reviewed the previous guidelines with respect to early multivessel revascularization and routine use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in patients with AMI-related CS.Most of the current evidences come partly from randomized trials, but mostly from observational registries because of the difficulty to test different treatments in this life-threatening clinical setting.Some of the latest studies highlight the potential crucial benefit of newly introduced mechanical circulatory support devices, although evidences are not sufficient to definitely assess the benefit/risk ratio of the different systems.Many questions remain unanswered in this field, and further trials are advocated to better elucidate the best medical, reperfusion, and circulatory support approaches aimed to improve the poor prognosis of patients with CS after AMI.

12.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(2): 314-321, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study-level meta-analysis, we evaluated the clinical outcome with nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with cancer. BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation in AF patients with cancer is challenging given the coexistence of elevated thrombotic and bleeding risk. The efficacy and safety of NOACs in this setting remain unclear. METHODS: We included three randomized trials in our primary analysis (N = 2,661 patients) and three observational studies in our secondary, confirmatory analysis (N = 21,112 patients). Outcome measures were: the composite of any stroke or systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding; and all-cause death. Mean follow-up duration was 2.2 years. RESULTS: In the primary analysis, the use of NOACs was associated with similar incidence of stroke/systemic embolism (odds ratio [OR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.09; p = 0.11), ischemic stroke (OR 0.71, 0.31-1.64; p = 0.42), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.91, 0.33-2.53; p = 0.86), all-cause death (OR 1.02, 0.72-1.42; p = 0.93), and major bleeding (OR 0.81, 0.61-1.06; p = 0.13) compared with VKAs. The occurrence of intracranial bleeding was significantly lower in the NOACs versus VKAs group (OR 0.11, 0.02-0.63; p = 0.01). These results were overall confirmed in the secondary analysis, where there was additionally a significant reduction of stroke/systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism with NOACs. CONCLUSION: In AF patients with malignancy, NOACs appear at least as effective as VKAs in preventing thrombotic events and reduce intracranial bleeding. NOACs may represent a valid and more practical alternative to VKAs in this setting of high-risk patients.

13.
Angiology ; 71(3): 235-241, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867981

RESUMO

Optimal medical therapy (OMT) at discharge is recommended after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Few studies report the impact of OMT on long-term clinical outcome in a real-world scenario. We evaluated the impact of discharge OMT on top of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on clinical outcome in the real-world ACS population of the Survey on anTicoagulated pAtients RegisTer ANTIPLATELET registry. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or target vessel revascularization. The co-primary end point was net adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (NACE), based on MACCE plus major bleeding. Consecutive patients with ACS with 1-year follow-up were enrolled. They were evaluated at discharge for the use of a ß-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins. Optimal medical therapy was defined as the use of ≥2 of 3 medications. At multivariate analysis, both MACCE and NACE were significantly higher in non-OMT patients than in OMT patients (MACCE 18 [19] vs 59 [9], hazard ratio [HR] = 0.44 [0.26-0.75], P = .002, NACE 19 [20] vs 67 [10], HR = 0.47 [0.28-0.79], P = .004). In this real-world scenario, OMT at discharge on top of DAPT seems associated with a better clinical outcome compared with patients discharged on non-OMT.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1662-1668, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585697

RESUMO

The protective effect of obesity on mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients remains debated. We aimed at evaluating the impact of obesity on ischemic and bleeding events as possible explanations to the obesity paradox in ACS patients. For the purpose of this substudy, patients enrolled in the START-ANTIPLATELET registry were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) into 3 groups: normal, BMI <25 kg/m2; overweight, BMI: 25 to 29.9 kg/m2; obese, BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The primary end point was net adverse clinical end points (NACE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleeding. In n = 1,209 patients, n = 410 (33.9%) were normal, n = 538 (44.5%) were overweight and n = 261 (21.6%) were obese. Compared to the normal weight group, obese and overweight patients had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors but were younger, with a better left ventricular ejection fraction and lower PRECISE-DAPT score. At 1-year follow-up net adverse clinical endpoints was more frequently observed in normal than in overweight and obese patients (15.1%, 8.6%, and9.6%, respectively; p = 0.004), driven by a significantly higher rate of all-cause death (6.3%, 2.6%, and 3.8%, respectively; p = 0.008), whereas no significant differences were noted in terms of myocardial infarction, stroke, and major bleeding. When correcting for confounding variables, BMI loses its power in independently predicting outcomes, failing to confirm the obesity paradox in a real-world ACS population. In conclusion, our study conflicts the obesity paradox in real-world ACS population, and suggest that the reduced rate of adverse events and mortality in obese patients may be explained by relevant differences in the clinical risk profile and medications rather than BMI per se.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hemorragia/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(11): 1773-1784, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430798

RESUMO

Studies evaluating the relationship between platelet indices and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes yielded conflicting results. We assessed the incidence of adverse events according to baseline quintiles of platelet indices in the prospective cohort of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. A total of 30,314 individuals (age 57 ± 8 years) were followed for a median of 16 years (468,490 person-years). Outcome measures included all-cause death, CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke. The fifth quintile of platelet count (> 274.6 × 109/L) was associated with higher incidence of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.32, p < 0.001), CV death (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.42; p = 0.044), MI (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12-1.54; p = 0.001), and ischemic stroke (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.50, p = 0.004) compared with the first quintile (≤ 185 × 109/L), and also associated with a lower survival, regardless of previous history of MI (p for interaction = 0.58) or stroke (p for interaction = 0.42). In the highest quintile, history of stroke had a higher risk of CV death (HR 3.18, 95% CI 1.54-6.54) compared with no previous stroke (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.96-1.31). The risk of MI and stroke was greatest in the fifth quintile, regardless of previous MI or previous stroke, respectively. The risk of all adverse events was similar across different quintiles of mean platelet volume. In conclusion, elevated platelet count is associated with higher mortality and risk of CV events, regardless of previous MI and stroke. Platelet count may thus be a useful marker for further stratification of CV risk, and especially of death.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(18): 1987-1997, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409109

RESUMO

AIMS: The CHA2DS2VASc score is used to evaluate the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We assessed the prognostic yield of CHA2DS2VASc for new-onset atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a non-atrial fibrillation population. METHODS: We analysed a population-based cohort of 22,179 middle-aged individuals with (n = 3542) and without (n = 18,367) a history of atrial fibrillation; we grouped the population into five CHA2DS2VASc strata (0-1-2-3-≥4), and compared the risk of major adverse cerebro-cardiovascular events and mortality. Furthermore, we analysed the annual incidence of atrial fibrillation across different CHA2DS2VASc strata. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 15 years, 1572 patients (6.9%) had ischaemic strokes, 2162 (9.5%) coronary events and 5899 (26%) died. The cumulative incidence of ischaemic stroke in CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 4 subjects without atrial fibrillation was similar to patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2VASc 2, with a 10-year crude incidence rate of 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.19) and 1.13 (95% CI 0.93-1.36) ischaemic strokes per 100 patient-years, respectively. CHA2DS2VASc in a non-atrial fibrillation population showed higher predictive accuracy for ischaemic stroke compared with an atrial fibrillation population (area under the curve 0.60 vs. 0.56; P = 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 2 was an independent predictor of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.58; 95% CI 2.42-2.76), cardiovascular death (aHR 3.40; 95% CI 2.98-3.89), ischaemic stroke (aHR 2.20; 95% CI 1.92-2.53) and coronary events (aHR 1.83; 95% CI 1.63-2.04). The cumulative incidence of atrial fibrillation was greater with increasing CHA2DS2VASc strata, with an absolute annual incidence of more than 2% per year if CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 4. CONCLUSION: The CHA2DS2VASc score is a sensitive tool for predicting new-onset atrial fibrillation and adverse outcomes in subjects both with and without atrial fibrillation.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219676, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite great advances with the introduction of ticagrelor and prasugrel in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the risk of thrombosis and bleeding remains significant and affects the choice of clinicians in the treatment of the single patient. Large registries are effective tools to explore patterns of drug administration and adherence to guideline recommendations in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: START- antiplatelet is a prospective, observational registry carried out by seven Italian cardiology institutions on patients admitted for ACS aimed to document the real world treatment of ACS patients, adding also data on 12-month follow-up. We present data on the first 1050 patients who have completed 1-year follow-up on a total of 1537 patients. Primary end-points were: 1) MACCE (Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events) including all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, non fatal MI, urgent revascularization, TIA and ischemic stroke; 2) Major and minor bleeding according to TIMI, GUSTO and ISTH classifications. RESULTS: The dual antiplatelet treatment most prescribed was aspirin plus ticagrelor (47.9%) and aspirin plus clopidogrel (32.1%). At a mean follow-up was 335±131 days, both ticagrelor and prasugrel are associated with a statistically significant reduced total and cardiovascular mortality. Both prasugrel and ticagrelor do not show a significant increased incidence of major and minor bleedings with respect to clopidogrel. Patients with monotherapy had significantly higher incidence of both ischemic stroke and major bleedings. DISCUSSION: The analysis of the register has documented that both ticagrelor and prasugrel are associated with a statistically significant reduced total and cardiovascular mortality but both do not show a significant increased incidence of major and minor bleedings with respect to clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(4): 627-635, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248591

RESUMO

The patient's profile drawing the greatest benefit from dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after a noncardioembolic, ischemic cerebrovascular event is not well characterized. Aim of this metaregression analysis was to compare DAPT versus single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We searched randomized trials evaluating clinical outcome with aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor versus SAPT in patients with noncardioembolic stroke or TIA. Primary end point was the incidence of recurrent stroke; safety outcome measure was major bleeding. Eleven trials were included in the analysis, enrolling 24,175 patients treated with DAPT (aspirin plus clopidogrel, n = 12,074) or SAPT (n = 12,101) after a stroke or TIA event. In the DAPT group the rates of recurrent stroke were lower (7.1% vs 8.8% with SAPT; odds ratios [OR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.88; p = 0.0007) and the incidence of major bleeding was twofold higher (OR 2.01, 1.35 to 3.01; p = 0.0006). Metaregression indicated a positive correlation between prevention of recurrent stroke by DAPT and baseline stroke severity (p = 0.019), baseline risk profile (p = 0.0001), or prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (p = 0.040). DAPT was more effective when initiated ≤7 days (OR 0.67, 0.58 to 0.77; p < 0.00001) and used for ≤3 months (OR 0.66, 0.58 to 0.76; p < 0.00001) after the event. In conclusion, in patients with stroke or TIA, the highest benefit of DAPT was observed in patients with higher baseline risk profile, greater stroke severity, or concomitant carotid disease, and when DAPT was initiated early and given for ≤3 months.


Assuntos
Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Seleção de Pacientes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombectomia
20.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 20(6): 374-383, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184324

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing, partly due to the progressive aging of the population. AF predisposes to thrombus formation in the atria and the atrial appendage through a complex interaction among local, systemic and hemodynamic factors, significantly increasing the risk for cerebral and systemic thromboembolic events. These complications have a major impact in terms of morbidity and mortality, and numerous therapeutic strategies have been proposed to reduce such risk. Systemic anticoagulation is the main strategy in the prevention of atrial and left atrial appendage thrombosis, and the advent of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has been a significant step forward, especially for safety, compared to warfarin. While prevention of atrial appendage thrombosis with NOACs has been widely explored, their role in the resolution of thrombi is less clear. The use of NOACs in this setting is largely unexplored, and some studies are underway to clarify their effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on atrial and left atrial appendage thrombosis, describing pathophysiological mechanisms and current treatment strategies using NOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Átrios do Coração , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Humanos
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