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1.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 1-8, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744027

RESUMO

The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy has raised concerns about negative coping behaviours to offset financial losses. We used a subset of a longitudinal study of UK adults (N = 19,963) to examine a range of predictors of (i) gambling during the first strict lockdown, (ii) gambling more frequently during this strict lockdown compared to before lockdown, and (iii) continued increased frequency of gambling during the relaxation of restrictions. Results from logistic regressions indicated that amongst other factors, those with progressively lower levels of education, were stressed due to boredom, frequently drank alcohol, and had high risk-taking tendencies were more likely to gamble during strict lockdown. Individuals who were more likely to have increased their frequency of gambling during strict lockdown compared to before the lockdown were stressed by boredom, employed, frequently drank alcohol, and had depression and anxiety, whilst men and current smokers were less likely. As lockdown restrictions eased, individuals of ethnic minority backgrounds, who were current smokers, and with lower educational attainment were more likely to continue gambling more than usual. Findings contribute to knowledge of who is most at risk for increasing their gambling during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Front Psychol ; 12: 688472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349705

RESUMO

Background: Research has identified functions of non-suicidal self-harm/self-injury (NSSH) but whether functions change over time, from adolescence to early adulthood, or predict the continuation of the behavior prospectively remains unclear. This study aimed to prospectively explore whether intrapersonal and interpersonal NSSH functions in adolescence predict repetition of self-harm (regardless of suicidal intent) and incident suicide attempts in early adulthood. Methods: Participants were 528 individuals with NSSH at age 16 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based birth cohort in the UK. Descriptive statistics were used to explore changes in functions over time from age 16 to 21, and logistic regression used to examine associations between NSSH functions and repeat self-harm and suicide attempts at age 21, 24, and 25 years. Findings: The majority of 16-year-olds with NSSH endorsed intrapersonal (e.g., affect regulatory) functions only (73% at 16 years and 64% at 21 years). Just under half of adolescents (42%) and three quarters of 21 years olds reported more than one function simultaneously. A greater number of intrapersonal functions at 16 years independently predicted future repetition of self-harm at ages 21-25 years, over and above interpersonal functions (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.01). Interpersonal functions during adolescence did not predict repeat self-harm or suicide attempts in adulthood. Discussion: Our findings suggest that intrapersonal but not interpersonal NSSH functions are a prospective risk factor for future self-harm and might also predict incident suicide attempts. The results highlight the central role of underlying affective difficulties and motivations in self-harm maintenance.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1349, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engaging in the arts is a health-related behavior that may be influenced by social inequalities. While it is generally accepted that there is a social gradient in traditional arts and cultural activities, such as attending classical music performances and museums, previous studies of arts engagement in the US have not adequately investigated whether similar demographic and socioeconomic factors are related to other forms of arts engagement. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the General Social Survey (GSS) in the US, we examined which demographic, socioeconomic, residential, and health factors were associated with attendance at arts events, participation in arts activities, membership of creative groups, and being interested in (but not attending) arts events. We combined data from 1993 to 2016 in four analytical samples with a sample size of 8684 for arts events, 4372 for arts activities, 4268 for creative groups, and 2061 for interested non-attendees. Data were analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: More education was associated with increased levels of all types of arts engagement. Parental education demonstrated a similar association. Being female, compared to male, was also consistently associated with higher levels of engagement. Attendance at arts events was lower in participants with lower income and social class, poorer health, and those living in less urban areas. However, these factors were not associated with participation in arts activities or creative groups or being an interested non-attendee. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found evidence for a social gradient in attendance at arts events, which was not as pronounced in participation in arts activities or creative groups or interest in arts events. Given the many benefits of engagement in the arts for education, health, and wider welfare, our findings demonstrate the importance of identifying factors to reduce barriers to participation in the arts across all groups in society.


Assuntos
Arte , Música , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 422-428, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression and self-harm are leading causes of disability in young people, but prospective data on how maternal depression and self-harm thoughts contribute to these outcomes, and how they may interact is lacking. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 8,425 mothers and offspring from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an ongoing birth cohort study. Exposures were maternal self-harm ideation and depression measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, collected at eleven time points over the period 18 weeks' gestation to 18 years post-partum. Outcomes were offspring past-year major depressive disorder and lifetime self-harm assessed at age 24. RESULTS: Nearly one-fifth (16.7%) of mothers reported thoughts of self-harm on at least one of the eleven assessment points. The frequency of maternal self-harm ideation was related to both outcomes in a dose-response manner. Young adults whose mothers had self-harm ideation on 5-11 occasions were over three times more likely (Odds ratio (OR), 3.32; 95% CI, 1.63-6.76) to be depressed and over 1.5 times as likely (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.73, 3.29) to have self-harmed than their peers whose mothers had never reported self-harm thoughts. Maternal self-harm thoughts remained associated with both offspring outcomes independent of maternal depression, and no evidence was found for an interaction between the two exposures. DISCUSSION: Clinicians collecting data on maternal depression may consider paying attention to questions about self-harm ideation in assessments. Examining accumulated maternal self-harm ideation over time may provide insights into which children are most at risk for later self-harm and depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
5.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(6): 68, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961131

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we synthesise recent research on the association between loneliness and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We present evidence for mechanisms underlying this association and propose directions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Loneliness is related to increased risk of early mortality and CVD comparable to other well-established risk factors such as obesity or smoking. Loneliness has been linked to higher rates of incident CVD, poorer CVD patient outcomes, and early mortality from CVD. Loneliness likely affects risk for these outcomes via health-related behaviours (e.g. physical inactivity and smoking), biological mechanisms (e.g. inflammation, stress reactivity), and psychological factors (e.g. depression) to indirectly damage health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Solidão , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 1: 100012, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954296

RESUMO

Background: Negative attitudes towards vaccines and an uncertainty or unwillingness to receive vaccinations are major barriers to managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the long-term. We estimate predictors of four domains of negative attitudes towards vaccines and identify groups most at risk of uncertainty and unwillingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in a large sample of UK adults. Methods: Data were cross-sectional and from 32,361 adults in the UCL COVID-19 Social Study. Ordinary least squares regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors on four types of negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors, negative vaccine attitudes, and prior vaccine behaviour on uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for COVID-19. Findings: 16% of respondents displayed high levels of mistrust about vaccines across one or more domains. Distrustful attitudes towards vaccination were higher amongst individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds, with lower levels of education, lower annual income, poor knowledge of COVID-19, and poor compliance with government COVID-19 guidelines. Overall, 14% of respondents reported unwillingness to receive a vaccine for COVID-19, whilst 23% were unsure. The largest predictors of both COVID-19 vaccine uncertainty and refusal were low-income groups (< £16,000, a year), having not received a flu vaccine last year, poor adherence to COVID-19 government guidelines, female gender, and living with children. Amongst vaccine attitudes, intermediate to high levels of mistrust of vaccine benefit and concerns about future unforeseen side effects were the most important determinants of both uncertainty and unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19. Interpretation: Negative attitudes towards vaccines are a major public health concern in the UK. General mistrust in vaccines and concerns about future side effects in particular will be barriers to achieving population immunity to COVID-19 through vaccination. Public health messaging should be tailored to address these concerns and specifically to women, ethnic minorities, and people with lower levels of education and incomes. Funding: The Nuffield Foundation [WEL/FR-000022583], the MARCH Mental Health Network funded by the Cross-Disciplinary Mental Health Network Plus initiative supported by UK Research and Innovation [ES/S002588/1], and the Wellcome Trust [221400/Z/20/Z and 205407/Z/16/Z].

7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(9): 1623-1628, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751125

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined differences in negative attitudes toward vaccines in general, and intentions to vaccinate against Covid-19 specifically, by smoking status in a large sample of adults in the UK. METHOD: Data were from 29 148 adults participating in the Covid-19 Social Study in September-October 2020. Linear regression analyses examined associations between smoking status (current/former/never) and four types of general negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between smoking status and uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for Covid-19. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics and diagnosed health conditions. RESULTS: Relative to never and former smokers, current smokers reported significantly greater mistrust of vaccine benefit, were more worried about unforeseen future effects, had greater concerns about commercial profiteering, and had a stronger preference for natural immunity (Badjs 0.16-0.36, p < .001). Current smokers were more likely to be uncertain (27.6% vs. 22.7% of never smokers, RRadj 1.43 [95% confidence interval = 1.31-1.56]; vs. 19.3% of former smokers, RRadj 1.55 [1.41-1.73]) or unwilling (21.5% vs. 11.6% of never smokers, RRadj 2.12 [1.91-2.34]; vs. 14.7% of former smokers, RRadj 1.53 [1.37-1.71]) to receive a Covid-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers hold more negative attitudes toward vaccines in general, and are more likely to be undecided or unwilling to vaccinate against Covid-19, compared with never and former smokers. With a disproportionately high number of smokers belonging to socially clustered and disadvantaged socioeconomic groups, lower vaccine uptake in this group could also exacerbate health inequalities. IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that without intervention, smokers will be less likely than nonsmokers to take up the offer of a Covid-19 vaccine when offered. Targeted policy action may be required to ensure that low uptake of Covid-19 vaccination programs does not compound health inequalities between smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Atitude , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Intenção , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação
8.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 244, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internalising problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common and represent an important economical and societal burden. The effectiveness of parenting interventions in reducing the risk of internalising problems in children and adolescents has not yet been summarised. The aims of this review are to assess the effectiveness of parenting interventions in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of internalising problems in children and adolescents and to determine which intervention components and which intervention aspects are most effective for reducing the risk of internalising problems in children and adolescents. METHODS: Electronic searches in OVID SP versions of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; EBSCO version of ERIC and ClinicalTrials.gov have been performed to identify randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of parenting interventions. At least two independent researchers will assess studies for inclusion and extract data from each paper. The risk of bias assessment will be conducted independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Statistical heterogeneity is anticipated given potential variation in participant characteristics, intervention type and mode of delivery, and outcome measures. Random effects models, assuming a common between-study variability, will be used to account for statistical heterogeneity. Results will be analysed using a network meta-analysis (NMA). If appropriate, we will also conduct a component-level NMA, where the 'active ingredients' of interventions are modelled using a network meta-regression approach. DISCUSSION: Preventing and reducing internalising problems could have major beneficial effects at the economic and societal level. Informing policy makers on the effectiveness of parenting interventions and on which intervention's component is driving the effect is important for the development of treatment strategies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42020172251.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Metanálise em Rede , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(12): 1050-1055, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide rates are often higher in Indigenous than in non-Indigenous peoples. This systematic review assessed the effects of suicide prevention interventions on suicide-related outcomes in Indigenous populations worldwide. METHODS: We searched CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Web of Science from database inception to April 2020. Eligible were English language, empirical and peer-reviewed studies presenting original data assessing the primary outcomes of suicides and suicide attempts and secondary outcomes of suicidal ideation, intentional self-harm, suicide or intentional self-harm risk, composite measures of suicidality or reasons for life in experimental and quasi-experimental interventions with Indigenous populations worldwide. We assessed the risk of bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Risk of Bias Assessment for Non-randomised Studies. FINDINGS: We included 24 studies from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA, comprising 14 before-after studies, 4 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 3 non-randomised controlled trials, 2 interrupted time-series designs and 1 cohort study. Suicides decreased in four and suicide attempts in six before-after studies. No studies had a low risk of bias. There was insufficient evidence to confirm the effectiveness of any one suicide prevention intervention due to shortage of studies, risk of bias, and population and intervention heterogeneity. Review limitations include language bias, no grey literature search and data availability bias. CONCLUSION: For the primary outcomes of suicides and suicide attempts, the limited available evidence supports multilevel, multicomponent interventions. However, there are limited RCTs and controlled studies.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas , Grupos Populacionais , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Canadá , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estados Unidos
10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766456

RESUMO

Depression is a leading cause of disability and is associated with a number of adverse offspring outcomes with it occurs in parents. Depression is present in men and women at different rates, and recent research suggests that symptom profiles between the sexes may differ. Longitudinal data are needed to answer remaining questions about the long-term course, gender differences, antecedents and outcomes of depression. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a large birth cohort study in England which administered one of the most commonly used depression instruments, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 11 timepoints in mothers and at 10 timepoints in their partners. In addition to repeated measurements of the EPDS, ALSPAC has a wealth of participant data on biological, social, demographic, and lifestyle factors. The purpose of this data note is to introduce potential users of the data to the characteristics of the EPDS in ALSPAC, as well as some key considerations when using the data.

11.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(10): 1311-1319, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783774

RESUMO

Informed by diathesis-stress models of suicide risk, this longitudinal study examines the psychopathological mechanisms through which early maltreatment increases the risk for suicidal ideation and self-harm in middle childhood. The sample included 2958 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, who participated in interviews at child's ages of 3 and/or 5, and 9. Via the Child Behavior Checklist, primary caregivers reported on the child's suicidal ideation and self-harm at age 9 and on clinically elevated depressive/anxious symptoms, aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and comorbid aggression and depressive/anxious symptoms at age 5. Past year neglect and physical/psychological abuse were measured via the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale at age 3. Multivariate structural equation models indicated that early neglect had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation via clinically elevated depressive/anxious symptoms (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.09-2.25) and comorbid symptomatology (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.62), and on self-harm also via clinically elevated depressive/anxious symptoms (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.04-1.84) and comorbid symptomatology (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43). Early physical/psychological abuse had a significant indirect effect on self-harm via clinically elevated attention problems (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.21). Unique developmental pathways for suicidal ideation and self-harm emerged among children exposed to abuse or neglect. For those exposed to early neglect, interventions should target depressive/anxious symptoms, especially when comorbid with aggression, to prevent suicidal ideation and self-harm. For children exposed to early physical/psychological abuse, problems with attention and impulsivity may be targets for reducing the risk for self-harm.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
12.
Arch Suicide Res ; 23(1): 134-150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study provides prevalence and persistence rates of suicidal ideation and self-harm, and examines how child maltreatment types, mental health symptoms, and age 4 suicidal ideation and self-harm are associated with each suicidal outcome among 6-year-old children. METHODS: Participants were 1,090 caregivers assessed when their children were 4 and 6 years old from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Data were collected from the Child Behavior Checklist, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and Child Protective Services. RESULTS: Persistence rates within each suicidal outcome were high. Failure to provide -a physical neglect subtype- was the only maltreatment type that independently predicted self-harm. Depressive/anxious symptoms and age 4 suicidal ideation were independently associated with age 6 suicidal ideation, whereas attention problems and age 4 self-harm predicted age 6 self-harm. CONCLUSION: Our findings align with the consensus emerging from adolescent studies that risk factors associate differentially with suicidal ideation and self-harm.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Ideação Suicida , Fatores Etários , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 499-504, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informed by diathesis-stress models of suicide risk, this paper investigated the role of proximally-occurring stressful life events in the first transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in adolescence. Interactions between stressful life events and psychiatric disorders in relation to this progression were also examined. METHODS: Data are from a subsample (N = 928) of adolescents with lifetime suicidal ideation from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Logistic regression analyses compared adolescents who had transitioned to a first suicide attempt (n = 81) in the year prior to the study to adolescents with suicidal ideation only (n = 847). RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regressions implicated increased risk for progression from suicidal ideation to a first suicide attempt in the presence of a recent romantic break-up as well as more recent stressful life events. However, among adolescents with suicidal ideation and either a recent romantic break-up or above-average recent stressors, neither a disruptive behavior disorder, mood disorder, nor a substance use disorder intensified the risk for progressing to a first suicide attempt. LIMITATIONS: Analyses are cross-sectional and therefore limit causal inferences. CONCLUSIONS: Findings underscore the importance of comprehensive suicide risk evaluations that consider proximally-occurring interpersonal stressors which may influence the first transition from thinking about suicide to acting in adolescence.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Violência
14.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0190136, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284015

RESUMO

Suicide rates in Germany consistently decreased from 1991 to 2006, but this trend was reversed in 2007. Underlying this reversal were large increases in suicides due to gassing in females and in being overrun in males. During a similar time period (2005-2013), Asian and some Western countries have also observed abrupt increases in suicides due to certain gasses, and the availability of "how-to" information on the Internet about these painless methods of suicide is thought to play a role in their increased use. This study used data from the Federal Statistics Office of Germany to examine current trends in overall suicide mortality in Germany (2007-2015) as well by age, gender, and suicide methods. Also assessed was whether suicides via newly emergent methods are associated with the frequency of corresponding Internet searches using data from Google Trends. Joinpoint regression analyses indicated significant increases in the overall suicide rate (Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) = 2.37%) for females, but not males. The largest annual increases were observed in gassing self-intoxication suicides (AAPC = 13.93%), the majority of which involved carbon monoxide. The increase in gassing suicides was larger in females (500%), compared to males (164%). The frequency of suicides by gassing was significantly associated with Internet searches for "carbon monoxide poisoning" for both male and female subgroups, independent of age group. This study provides the updated suicide surveillance data that are necessary for suicide prevention activities. Results are congruent with the recent abrupt rises in carbon monoxide suicides in other countries.


Assuntos
Internet , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 65: 32-43, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26773988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite consistently greater rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs; i.e., suicidal ideation, method/plan, and attempts) in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, prevalence, characteristics, and relations between these dangerous thoughts and behaviors are equivocal. The present study sought to examine and compare the rates of NSSI and STBs in a large sample of sexual minority and majority young adults. METHODS: Participants were 12,422 college students (ages 18-29; 57.3% female) who self-reported demographic characteristics, NSSI frequency, the number of NSSI forms used, the number of NSSI functions, as well as STB history (i.e., ideation, method/plan, and attempts). Each participant's degree of SA was assessed via a 7-point scale (i.e., K0-K6) from Alfred Kinsey's research of sexual attraction and sexual experiences. This scale was collapsed to create five categories of SA: exclusively other SA (K0), mostly other SA (K1/2), equally other and same SA (K3), mostly same SA (K4/5), and exclusively same SA (K6). RESULTS: Consistent with previous research, we found that being a sexual minority young adult was associated with significantly higher odds of STBs compared to being a heterosexual young adult. In addition, compared to the exclusively other SA group (K0), being in the mostly other SA group (K1/2), equally other and same SA group (K3), or mostly same SA group (K4/5) was associated with significantly higher odds of NSSI engagement. Among those with NSSI, we found that the number of NSSI forms was significantly associated with suicide attempts, but was not associated with either suicidal ideation or suicide method/plan in the mostly other SA group (K1/2) or in the equally other and same SA group (K3). We also found a significant curvilinear relation between NSSI frequency and STBs in the mostly other SA group (K1/2) and between NSSI frequency and suicide method/plan and attempt in the exclusively other SA group (K0). In addition, we revealed specificity with regard to the relation between the number of lifetime NSSI episodes and risk for STBs among the equally other and same SA (K3), mostly same SA (K4/5), and exclusively same SA (K6) groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that among sexual minority young adults, equally other and same SA individuals may be at higher risk of NSSI and STBs than their sexual minority counterparts. In addition, these findings extend previous research by suggesting that the relations between NSSI frequency, number of forms, and number of functions and STBs might vary according to SA. A multi-theory based explanation is provided to explain the key findings and the study implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade , Grupos Minoritários , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 47: 38-47, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26105164

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 225(3): 276-82, 2015 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25592979

RESUMO

Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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