Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 14 de 14
Filtrar
1.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(6S): S41-S50, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761003

RESUMO

This article analyzes the relevance of the comprehensive definition of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) to adolescents and identifies adolescent-specific implications for the implementation of an essential package of SRHR interventions. The delivery of a comprehensive approach to SRHR targeting adolescents is underpinned by five principles-equity, quality, accountability, multisectorality, and meaningful engagement. All SRHR interventions included in the package are relevant to adolescents, given the diversity of adolescents' SRHR needs and considering their specific attributes, circumstances, and experiences. Ensuring that this package is available, accessible, and acceptable to adolescents requires an approach that looks at adolescents as being biologically and socially distinct from other age groups and acknowledges that they face some specific barriers when accessing SRHR services. This article provides cross-cutting strategies for the implementation of a comprehensive approach to SRHR for adolescents and specific considerations in delivering each intervention in the package of essential SRHR interventions. To further implement the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action, a prerequisite for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, SRHR interventions must be adolescent responsive, delivered through multiple platforms, leveraging multisectoral collaboration, and strengthening accountability and participation.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Direitos Civis/tendências , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual/tendências , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(6S): S16-S40, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761001

RESUMO

Among the ground-breaking achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was its call to place adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) on global health and development agendas. This article reviews progress made in low- and middle-income countries in the 25 years since the ICPD in six areas central to ASRH-adolescent pregnancy, HIV, child marriage, violence against women and girls, female genital mutilation, and menstrual hygiene and health. It also examines the ICPD's contribution to the progress made. The article presents epidemiologic levels and trends; political, research, programmatic and social responses; and factors that helped or hindered progress. To do so, it draws on research evidence and programmatic experience and the expertise and experiences of a wide number of individuals, including youth leaders, in numerous countries and organizations. Overall, looking across the six health topics over a 25-year trajectory, there has been great progress at the global and regional levels in putting adolescent health, and especially adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights, higher on the agenda, raising investment in this area, building the epidemiologic and evidence-base, and setting norms to guide investment and action. At the national level, too, there has been progress in formulating laws and policies, developing strategies and programs and executing them, and engaging communities and societies in moving the agenda forward. Still, progress has been uneven across issues and geography. Furthermore, it has raced ahead sometimes and has stalled at others. The ICPD's Plan of Action contributed to the progress made in ASRH not just because of its bold call in 1994 but also because it provided a springboard for advocacy, investment, action, and research that remains important to this day.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Direitos Civis/tendências , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Saúde Sexual/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Qual Health Res ; 27(3): 311-324, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26531879

RESUMO

The societal changes in India and the available variety of reproductive health services call for evidence to inform health systems how to satisfy young women's reproductive health needs. Inspired by Foucault's power idiom and Bandura's agency framework, we explore young women's opportunities to practice reproductive agency in the context of collective social expectations. We carried out in-depth interviews with 19 young women in rural Rajasthan. Our findings highlight how changes in notions of agency across generations enable young women's reproductive intentions and desires, and call for effective means of reproductive control. However, the taboo around sex without the intention to reproduce made contraceptive use unfeasible. Instead, abortions were the preferred method for reproductive control. In conclusion, safe abortion is key, along with the need to address the taboo around sex to enable use of "modern" contraception. This approach could prevent unintended pregnancies and expand young women's agency.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Negociação/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adolescente , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , População Rural , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 1087, 2016 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27745552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-abortion contraceptive use in India is low and the use of modern methods of contraception is rare, especially in rural areas. This study primarily compares contraceptive use among women whose abortion outcome was assessed in-clinic with women who assessed their abortion outcome at home, in a low-resource, primary health care setting. Moreover, it investigates how background characteristics and abortion service provision influences contraceptive use post-abortion. METHODS: A randomized controlled, non-inferiority, trial (RCT) compared clinic follow-up with home-assessment of abortion outcome at 2 weeks post-abortion. Additionally, contraceptive-use at 3 months post-abortion was investigated through a cross-sectional follow-up interview with a largely urban sub-sample of women from the RCT. Women seeking abortion with a gestational age of up to 9 weeks and who agreed to a 2-week follow-up were included (n = 731). Women with known contraindications to medical abortions, Hb < 85 mg/l and aged below 18 were excluded. Data were collected between April 2013 and August 2014 in six primary health-care clinics in Rajasthan. A computerised random number generator created the randomisation sequence (1:1) in blocks of six. Contraceptive use was measured at 2 weeks among women successfully followed-up (n = 623) and 3 months in the sub-set of women who were included if they were recruited at one of the urban study sites, owned a phone and agreed to a 3-month follow-up (n = 114). RESULTS: There were no differences between contraceptive use and continuation between study groups at 3 months (76 % clinic follow-up, 77 % home-assessment), however women in the clinic follow-up group were most likely to adopt a contraceptive method at 2 weeks (62 ± 12 %), while women in the home-assessment group were most likely to adopt a method after next menstruation (60 ± 13 %). Fifty-two per cent of women who initiated a method at 2 weeks chose the 3-month injection or the copper intrauterine device. Only 4 % of women preferred sterilization. Caste, educational attainment, or type of residence did not influence contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified follow-up after early medical abortion will not change women's opportunities to access contraception in a low-resource setting, if contraceptive services are provided as intra-abortion services as early as on day one. Women's postabortion contraceptive use at 3 months is unlikely to be affected by mode of followup after medical abortion, also in a low-resource setting. Clinical guidelines need to encourage intra-abortion contraception, offering the full spectrum of evidence-based methods, especially long-acting reversible methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01827995.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Assistência ao Convalescente/psicologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
Glob Health Action ; 9: 30283, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27174861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies among young women force girls to compromise education, resulting in low educational attainment with subsequent poverty and vulnerability. A pronounced focus is needed on contraceptive use, pregnancy, and unsafe abortion among young women. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore healthcare providers' (HCPs) perceptions and practices regarding contraceptive counselling to young people. DESIGN: We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with doctors and midwives working in seven health facilities in central Uganda. Interviews were open-ended and allowed the participant to speak freely on certain topics. We used a topic guide to cover areas topics of interest focusing on post-abortion care (PAC) but also covering contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The main theme, HCPs' ambivalence to providing contraceptive counselling to sexually active young people is based on two sub-themes describing the challenges of contraceptive counselling: A) HCPs echo the societal norms regarding sexual practice among young people, while at the same time our findings B) highlights the opportunities resulting from providers pragmatic approach to contraceptive counselling to young women. Providers expressed a self-identified lack of skill, limited resources, and inadequate support from the health system to successfully provide appropriate services to young people. They felt frustrated with the consultations, especially when meeting young women seeking PAC. CONCLUSIONS: Despite existing policies for young people's sexual and reproductive health in Uganda, HCPs are not sufficiently equipped to provide adequate contraceptive counselling to young people. Instead, HCPs are left in between the negative influence of social norms and their pragmatic approach to address the needs of young people, especially those seeking PAC. We argue that a clear policy supported by a clear strategy with practical guidelines should be implemented alongside in-service training including value clarification and attitude transformation to equip providers to be able to better cater to young people seeking sexual and reproductive health advice.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Normas Sociais , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 95(2): 173-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26565074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although home use of misoprostol for early medical abortion is considered to be safe, effective and feasible, it has not become standard service delivery practice. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of home use of misoprostol with clinic misoprostol in a low-resource setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted in six primary care clinics in India. Women seeking medical abortion within up to nine gestational weeks (n = 731) received mifepristone in the clinic and were allocated either to home or clinic administration of misoprostol. Follow-up contact was after 10-15 days. RESULTS: Of 731 participants, 73% were from rural areas and 55% had no formal education. Complete abortion rates in the home and clinic misoprostol groups were 94.2 and 94.4%, respectively. The rate of adverse events was similar in both groups (0.3%). A greater proportion of home users (90.2%) said that they would opt for misoprostol at home in the event of a future abortion compared with clinic users (79.7%) who would opt for misoprostol at the clinic in a similar situation (p = 0.0002). Ninety-six percent women using misoprostol at home or in the clinic were satisfied with their abortion experience. CONCLUSIONS: Home-use of misoprostol for early medical abortion is as effective and acceptable as clinic use, in low resource settings. Women should be offered a choice of this option regardless of distance of their residence from the clinic and communication facilities.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Aborto Induzido , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoadministração
9.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0133354, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26327217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating acceptability of simplified follow-up after medical abortion have focused on high-resource or urban settings where telephones, road connections, and modes of transport are available and where women have formal education. OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's acceptability of home-assessment of abortion and whether acceptability of medical abortion differs by in-clinic or home-assessment of abortion outcome in a low-resource setting in India. DESIGN: Secondary outcome of a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. SETTING: Outpatient primary health care clinics in rural and urban Rajasthan, India. POPULATION: Women were eligible if they sought abortion with a gestation up to 9 weeks, lived within defined study area and agreed to follow-up. Women were ineligible if they had known contraindications to medical abortion, haemoglobin < 85 mg/l and were below 18 years. METHODS: Abortion outcome assessment through routine clinic follow-up by a doctor was compared with home-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet. A computerized random number generator generated the randomisation sequence (1:1) in blocks of six. Research assistants randomly allocated eligible women who opted for medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol), using opaque sealed envelopes. Blinding during outcome assessment was not possible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's acceptability of home-assessment was measured as future preference of follow-up. Overall satisfaction, expectations, and comparison with previous abortion experiences were compared between study groups. RESULTS: 731 women were randomized to the clinic follow-up group (n = 353) or home-assessment group (n = 378). 623 (85%) women were successfully followed up, of those 597 (96%) were satisfied and 592 (95%) found the abortion better or as expected, with no difference between study groups. The majority, 355 (57%) women, preferred home-assessment in the event of a future abortion. Significantly more women, 284 (82%), in the home-assessment group preferred home-assessment in the future, as compared with 188 (70%) of women in the clinic follow-up group, who preferred clinic follow-up in the future (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Home-assessment is highly acceptable among women in low-resource, and rural, settings. The choice to follow-up an early medical abortion according to women's preference should be offered to foster women's reproductive autonomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01827995.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Satisfação do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 3(9): e537-45, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26275330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need for multiple clinical visits remains a barrier to women accessing safe legal medical abortion services. Alternatives to routine clinic follow-up visits have not been assessed in rural low-resource settings. We compared the effectiveness of standard clinic follow-up versus home assessment of outcome of medical abortion in a low-resource setting. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was done in six health centres (three rural, three urban) in Rajasthan, India. Women seeking early medical abortion up to 9 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned (1:1) to either routine clinic follow-up or self-assessment at home. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated randomisation sequence, with a block size of six. The study was not blinded. Women in the home-assessment group were advised to use a pictorial instruction sheet and take a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test at home, 10-14 days after intake of mifepristone, and were contacted by a home visit or telephone call to record the outcome of the abortion. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was complete abortion without continuing pregnancy or need for surgical evacuation or additional mifepristone and misoprostol. The non-inferiority margin for the risk difference was 5%. All participants with a reported primary outcome and who followed the clinical protocol were included in the analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01827995. FINDINGS: Between April 23, 2013, and May 15, 2014, 731 women were recruited and assigned to clinic follow-up (n=366) or home assessment (n=365), of whom 700 were analysed for the main outcomes (n=336 and n=364, respectively). Complete abortion without continuing pregnancy, surgical intervention, or additional mifepristone and misoprostol was reported in 313 (93%) of 336 women in the clinic follow-up group and 347 (95%) of 364 women in the home-assessment group (difference -2·2%, 95% CI -5·9 to 1·6). One case of haemorrhage occurred in each group (rate of adverse events 0·3% in each group); no other adverse events were noted. INTERPRETATION: Home assessment of medical abortion outcome with a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test is non-inferior to clinic follow-up, and could be introduced instead of a clinic follow-up visit in a low-resource setting.


Assuntos
Abortivos/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
Glob Health Action ; 8: 27512, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25828071

RESUMO

With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arguments would impede the intention of improving access to safe abortion care in India.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 14: 98, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25127545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation suggests that simplification of the medical abortion regime will contribute to an increased acceptability of medical abortion, among women as well as providers. It is expected that a home-based follow-up after a medical abortion will increase the willingness to opt for medical abortion as well as decrease the workload and service costs in the clinic. METHODS/DESIGN: This study protocol describes a study that is a randomised, controlled, non-superiority trial. Women screened to participate in the study are those with unwanted pregnancies and gestational ages equal to or less than nine weeks. The randomisation list will be generated using a computerized random number generator and opaque sealed envelopes with group allocation will be prepared. Randomization of the study participants will occur after the first clinical encounter with the doctor. Eligible women randomised to the home-based assessment group will use a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet at home, while the women in the clinic follow-up group will return to the clinic for routine follow-up carried out by a doctor. The primary objective of the study this study protocol describes is to evaluate the efficacy of home-based assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test and a pictorial instruction sheet 10-14 days after an early medical abortion. Providers or research assistants will not be blinded during outcome assessment. To ensure feasibility of the self-assessment intervention an adaption phase took place at the selected study sites before study initiation. This resulted in an optimized, tailor-made intervention and in the development of the pictorial instruction sheet with a guide on how to use the low-sensitivity pregnancy test and the danger signs after a medical abortion. DISCUSSION: In this paper, we will describe the study protocol for a randomised control trial investigating the efficacy of simplified follow-up in terms of home-based assessment, 10-14 days after a medical abortion. Moreover, a description of the adaptation phase is included for a better understanding of the implementation of the intervention in a setting where literacy is low and the road-connections are poor. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01827995. Registered 04 May 2013.


Assuntos
Abortivos/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Mifepristona/uso terapêutico , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 14: 28, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24447321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians' and midwives' perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care. METHODS: In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. RESULTS: Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be included in the educational curricula of nurses and midwives. Scaled-up task sharing in post-abortion care, along with misoprostol use for uterine evacuation would provide a systematic approach to improving the quality of care and accessibility of services, with the aim of reducing abortion-related mortality and morbidity in Uganda.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Tocologia , Papel do Médico , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Tocologia/métodos , Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda
14.
J Immunol ; 186(1): 73-82, 2011 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21106852

RESUMO

Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles released from a wide variety of cells, formed in endosomes by inward budding of the endosomal limiting membrane. They have immune stimulatory-, inhibitory-, or tolerance-inducing effects, depending on their cellular origin, which is why they are investigated for use in vaccine and immune therapeutic strategies. In this study, we explored whether exosomes of different origins and functions can selectively target different immune cells in human peripheral blood. Flow cytometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and multispectral imaging flow cytometry (ImageStream) revealed that exosomes derived from human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and breast milk preferably associated with monocytes. In contrast, exosomes from an EBV-transformed B cell line (LCL1) preferentially targeted B cells. This was not observed for an EBV(-) B cell line (BJAB). Electron microscopy, size-distribution analysis (NanoSight), and a cord blood transformation assay excluded the presence of virions in our LCL1 exosome preparations. The interaction between LCL1-derived exosomes and peripheral blood B cells could be blocked efficiently by anti-CD21 or anti-gp350, indicating an interaction between CD21 on B cells and the EBV glycoprotein gp350 on exosomes. The targeting of LCL1-derived exosomes through gp350-CD21 interaction strongly inhibited EBV infection in B cells isolated from umbilical cord blood, suggesting a protective role for exosomes in regulating EBV infection. Our finding also suggests that exosome-based vaccines can be engineered for specific B cell targeting by inducing gp350 expression.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/prevenção & controle , Exossomos/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Complemento 3d/fisiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Membrana Celular/imunologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/virologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/virologia , Humanos , Lactação , Leite Humano/imunologia , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Leite Humano/virologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/virologia , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Receptores de Complemento 3d/biossíntese , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...