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1.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237267

RESUMO

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Anesth Essays Res ; 10(1): 33-7, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional anesthesia has been the choice of preference for elective cesarean sections. This study was designed to determine whether preoperative administration of 6% hetastarch decreases the incidence of hypotension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 nonlaboring American Society of Anesthesiologists class I and II women undergoing elective cesarean section. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and were preloaded either with 1000 ml Ringer's lactate (RL) or 500 ml of 6% hetastarch 30 min prior to the surgery. Spinal anesthesia was performed with patients in the left lateral position and 2 cc (10 mg) of 0.5% of bupivacaine injected into subarachnoid space. Hemodynamic variables (heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and SpO2) were recorded from prior to preloading until the recovery from the subarachnoid blockade. RESULTS: Our study showed the incidence of hypotension to be 28% in the hetastarch group and 80% in the RL group. Rescue ephedrine requirements for the treatment of hypotension were significantly less in patients who were preloaded with 6% hetastarch prior to cesarean section. The neonatal outcome, as determined by Apgar scores was good and similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Hence, we conclude that 6% hydroxyl ethyl starch is more effective than lactated Ringers solution and that its routine use for preloading prior to spinal anesthesia should be considered.

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