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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During a soccer game, the most diversified stimuli occur all the time, the physical condition level plays a determinant role, and there may be variations according to the competitive level. In this sense, the present study aimed to verify differences in body composition, lower limbs power, and anaerobic power, comparing senior soccer players of different competitive levels. METHODS: Participants were 81 players belonging to six soccer teams, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a mean age of 23.14 ± 4.23 years, who were divided into three distinct competitive levels: Elite, Sub-Elite and Non-Elite. The players performed bioimpedance evaluations on a tetrapolarInbody270 scale (body composition), the Countermovement Jump (CMJ) through the ChronoJump (lower limbs power), and Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) (anaerobic power). RESULTS: Based on the competitive level analysis, we verified that the players present body composition values similar to each other regardless of the competitive level in which they play. Concerning the performance evaluations, we verified that the elite players present higher values of highest jump (p = 0.012; d = 0.76, moderate; and p = 0.022; d = 0.71, moderate) and maximum force produced (p = 0.05; d = 0.64, moderate; and p = 0.002; d = 1.00, moderate), together with higher values of anaerobic power (p < 0.001; d = 2.43, very large; and p < 0.001; d = 2.22, very large), compared to the others. CONCLUSIONS: We can thus conclude that there is a homogeneity regarding the body composition of soccer players, regardless of their competitive level; in turn, elite players show better performance indicators in all variables.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kinematic analysis aimed toward scientific investigation or professional purposes is commonly unaffordable and complex to use. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify concurrent validation between a cycling-specific 3D camera and the gold-standard 3D general camera systems. METHODS: Overall, 11 healthy amateur male triathletes were filmed riding their bicycles with Vicon 3D cameras and the Retul 3D cameras for bike fitting analysis simultaneously. All 18 kinematic measurements given by the bike fitting system were compared with the same data given by Vicon cameras through Pearson correlation (r), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error measurements (SEM), and Bland-Altman (BA) analysis. Confidence intervals of 95% are given. RESULTS: A very high correlation between cameras was found on six of 18 measurements. All other presented a high correlation between cameras (between 0.7 and 0.9). In total, six variables indicate a SEM of less than one degree between systems. Only two variables indicate a SEM higher than two degrees between camera systems. Overall, four measures indicate bias tendency according to BA. CONCLUSIONS: The cycling-specific led-emitting 3D camera system tested revealed a high or very high degree of correlation with the gold-standard 3D camera system used in laboratory motion capture. In total, 14 measurements of this equipment could be used in sports medicine clinical practice and even by researchers of cycling studies.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Esportes , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física)
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are few or even rare studies conducted in Cabo Verde that address the issue of physical fitness and body composition in the juvenile population. This investigation aims to study the Physical Fitness in children in Cabo Verde: differences between gender, eutrophic and overweight subjects, between practitioners and non-practitioners of sports. METHODS: The sample consisted of 93 individuals aged between 10 and 15 years, from the 2nd and 3rd cycles and secondary school of the Portuguese College based in Cabo Verde. The instruments used for data collection were the FITescola® test battery, and the questionnaire (QAPACE) (Quantification de l'activite physique en altitude chez les enfants) for assessment of physical activity level. Regarding the statistical analysis using the SPSS 23.0 Software, the first analysis was performed to verify the distribution of the sample (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-wilk). Then, for variables with normal distribution we used the t-test and for the remaining variables with nonnormal distribution we used the Mann-Whitney test, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Gender differences were found, in which the male gender obtained more favorable mean values in the "sit-ups", "push-ups", "horizontal impulsion", "shuttle" and "agility" variables, while the females showed superiority in the variables "sit and reach"; differences between the eutrophic and overweight group where, as expected, more favorable mean values for eutrophics than the overweight group in all PF tests. Finally, differences between practitioners and nonpractitioners of sports, with the best results being attributed to practitioners of sports. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that male subjects have greater proficiency in strength and aerobic fitness tests while female subjects have greater flexibility. High BMI values in overweight children have been found to be associated with increased abdominal fat as well as a reduction in overall PF. As expected, sports practitioners show better results in motor performance on PF tests.

4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 26(6): 487-492, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144194

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Muscle activity in the pedal stroke movement on a cycle ergometer can be measured by surface electromyography, as an effective and improved method for studying muscle action and objectively determining the different action potentials of the muscles involved in specific movements. Heart rate behavior is an important factor during exercise with load. Objective: To identify heart rate behavior and pattern of muscle activity of the rectus femoris and vastus medialis in healthy subjects in the pedaling dynamic at different loads, submaximal test, on an instrumented cycle ergometer. Methods: 20 healthy adults were evaluated. Heart rate measurement was performed, together with electromyographic analysis, in the time domain, of the rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles during incremental exercise of the lower limbs on the cycle ergometer. Results: Heart rate behavior presented significant difference for p≥0.05 in relation to increased loads. The EMG signal intensity from the vastus medialis muscle (normalized RMS value) in each quadrant of the pedaling cycle showed significant difference for p≥0.05 in relation to quadrants I, II and IV and significant difference for p≥0.05 in relation to quadrants III and IV. In the rectus femoris (RF) muscle, there was significant difference for p≥0.05 in relation to quadrants I, II and IV and significant difference for p≥0.05 in relation to quadrants I, II and III. Conclusion: An increase in heart rate proportional to the increase in load was observed, as well as an increase in the amplitude of the electromyographic signal proportional to the increase in load. It was possible to identify the pattern of muscle activation in the studied quadrants during pedal stroke movements, independent of load. Level of evidence III; Study of non-consecutive patients; without uniform application of the "gold" standard reference.


RESUMO Introdução: A atividade muscular no gesto motor da pedalada no cicloergômetro pode ser mensurada por meio da eletromiografia de superfície. A eletromiografia de superfície tem sido um método efetivo e aprimorado para estudar a ação muscular, determinando com objetividade os diferentes potenciais de ação dos músculos empenhados em movimentos específicos. O comportamento da frequência cardíaca tem relação importante durante o exercício com carga. Objetivo: Identificar o comportamento da frequência cardíaca e o padrão da atividade muscular do reto femoral e vasto medial em indivíduos saudáveis na dinâmica da pedalada em diferentes cargas, teste submáximo, no cicloergômetro instrumentado. Métodos: Foram avaliados 20 adultos saudáveis, realizando-se a mensuração da frequência cardíaca e a análise eletromiográfica no domínio do tempo dos músculos reto femoral e vasto medial durante o exercício incremental dos membros inferiores em cicloergômetro. Resultados: O comportamento da frequência cardíaca apresentou diferença significante para p ≥ 0,05 com relação ao incremento das cargas. A intensidade do sinal EMG do músculo vasto medial (valor RMS normalizado) em cada quadrante do ciclo da pedalada mostrou diferença significativa para p ≥ 0,05 com relação aos quadrantes I, II e IV e diferença significativa para p ≥ 0,05 com relação aos quadrantes III e IV. No músculo reto femoral (RF) verificou-se diferença significativa para p ≥ 0,05 com relação aos quadrantes I, II e IV e diferença significativa para p ≥ 0,05 com relação aos quadrantes I, II e III. Conclusão: Constatou-se aumento da frequência cardíaca proporcional ao incremento das diferentes cargas e também se evidenciou um aumento na amplitude do sinal eletromiográfico proporcional ao incremento da carga. Foi possível identificar o padrão da ativação dos músculos com relação ao ciclo da pedalada nos quadrantes estudados, independentemente do nível da carga. Nível de evidência III; Estudo de pacientes não consecutivos; sem padrão de referência "ouro" aplicado uniformemente.


RESUMEN Introducción: La actividad muscular en el gesto motor de la pedaleada en el cicloergómetro se puede medir por medio de la electromiografía de superficie. La electromiografía de superficie ha sido un método efectivo y mejorado para estudiar la acción muscular, determinando con objetividad los diferentes potenciales de acción de los músculos empeñados en movimientos específicos. El comportamiento de la frecuencia cardíaca tiene relación importante durante el ejercicio con carga. Objetivo: Identificar el comportamiento de la frecuencia cardíaca y el patrón de la actividad muscular del recto femoral y vasto medial en individuos en la dinámica de la pedaleada en el cicloergómetro instrumentado. Métodos: Se evaluaron 20 adultos saludables, realizándose la medición de la frecuencia cardíaca y el análisis electromiográfico en el dominio del tiempo de los músculos recto femoral y vasto medial durante el ejercicio incremental de los miembros inferiores en cicloergómetro. Resultados: El comportamiento de la frecuencia cardíaca presentó una diferencia significativa para p ≥ 0,05 con relación al incremento de las cargas. La intensidad de la señal EMG del músculo vasto medial (valor RMS normalizado) en cada cuadrante del ciclo de la pedaleada mostró diferencia significativa para p ≥ 0,05 con relación a los cuadrantes I, II y IV y diferencia significativa para p ≥ 0,05 con relación a los cuadrantes III y IV. En el músculo recto femoral (RF) se verificó diferencia significativa para p ≥ 0,05 con relación a los cuadrantes I, II y IV, y diferencia significativa para p ≥ 0,05 con relación a los cuadrantes I, II y III. Conclusión: Se constató aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca proporcional al incremento de las diferentes cargas y también se evidenció un aumento en la amplitud de la señal electromiográfica proporcional al incremento de la carga. Fue posible identificar el patrón de la activación de los músculos con relación al ciclo de la pedaleada en los cuadrantes estudiados, independientemente del nivel de la carga. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio de pacientes no consecutivos; sin patrón de referencia "oro" aplicado uniformemente.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485909

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify whether the presence of siblings and the type of delivery had an influence on the motor skills development of children in the first 48 months of life. We developed a quantitative study with a sample of 405 children of both genders, divided according to the studied variables: children with siblings, children without siblings, children born via eutocic delivery, and children born via dystocic delivery. The instrument used in the study was the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2. Overall, the results indicated that children who had siblings had, on average, better outcomes regarding all motor skills (global and fine). Furthermore, those born via eutocic delivery, on average, had better outcomes regarding all motor skills (global and fine) when compared to children born via dystocic delivery. Thus, the presence of siblings in the family context and the type of delivery positively influenced motor development, especially after 24 months of age, showing that the presence of siblings providing cooperative activities through play and challenges improved cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Furthermore, a eutocic delivery, in addition to providing a better recovery from labor and the immediate affective bond between mother and child, also led to better results in terms of global and fine motor skills.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Destreza Motora , Irmãos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
6.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(6): 756-764, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107152

RESUMO

Cartilage defects resultant from trauma or degenerative diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis) can potentially be repaired using tissue engineering (TE) strategies combining progenitor cells, biomaterial scaffolds and bio-physical/chemical cues. This work examines promoting chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) by combining the effects of modified poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds hydrophilicity and chondroitin sulfate (CS) supplementation in a hypoxic 5% oxygen atmosphere. 3D-extruded PCL scaffolds, characterized by µCT, featured a 21 mm-1 surface area to volume ratio, 390 µm pore size and approximately 100% pore interconnectivity. Scaffold immersion in sodium hydroxide solutions for different periods of time had major effects in scaffold surface morphology, wettability and mechanical properties, but without improvements on cell adhesion. In-situ chondrogenic differentiation of BM-MSC seeded in 3D-extruded PCL scaffolds resulted in higher cell populations and ECM deposition along all scaffold structure, when chondrogenesis was preceded by an expansion phase. Additionally, CS supplementation during BM-MSC expansion was crucial to enhance aggrecan gene expression, known as a hallmark of chondrogenesis. Overall, this study presents an approach to tailor the wettability and mechanical properties of PCL scaffolds and supports the use of CS-supplementation as a biochemical cue in integrated TE strategies for cartilage regeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliésteres/química , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Porosidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963123

RESUMO

Background: Sports athletes, namely high-intensity practitioners, suffer from vascular remodeling overtime. The purpose of this study was to analyze the systolic and diastolic velocities' variation between non-athletes and futsal athletes by means of arterial lower limb doppler ultrasound. Additionally, we intended to verify if the velocity variations occur primarily at the systolic or the diastolic level and in which arteries. Methods: Seventy-six young males (mean ± SD: 24.9 ± 2.8 years old) volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study and were divided into two groups: a futsal athletes group (n = 38; 24 ± 2.78 years) in the central region of Portugal playing on the 2nd national league with the same level of practice (16 ± 2.4 years of practice) and a non-athletes group (n = 38: 26 ± 1.8 years) who did not practice sports regularly and were not federated in any sport. All the subjects agreed to participate in the study with the aim of assessing the arterial lower limb through doppler ultrasound (Philips HD7 echograph with linear transducer 7-12 MHz). Results: Differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05) in the systolic velocity of the left deep femoral artery (p = 0.022; d = 0.546, small) and in the right superficial femoral artery (p = 0.028; d = -0.515, small) were found. We also found differences in the diastolic velocity: in the left common femoral artery (p = 0.002; d = -0.748, moderate), in the right deep femoral artery (p = 0.028; d = -0.521, small), in the right superficial femoral artery (p = 0.026; d = -0.522, small), in the right popliteal artery (p = 0.002; d = -0.763, moderate), and in the left popliteal artery (p = 0.007; d = -0.655, moderate). Moreover, the athletes' group presented the highest mean values, with the exception of the systolic velocity of the left deep femoral artery. In intragroup analysis of variance referring to systolic and diastolic velocities in arterial levels in the right and left arteries, differences were found in all analyses (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that futsal athletes of our sample go through a process of changes such as increased blood flow velocity in systolic and diastolic cardiac phase in all studied lower limb arteries, showing that the remodeling occurs regardless of vessel radius. Our results reinforce the existence of vascular remodeling that may vary with the sport and its intensity.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Futebol , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(1): 75-85, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-194670

RESUMO

O presente estudo sobre o desenvolvimento Motor da criança nos primeiros meses de vida, teve como objetivo verificar a relação entre as Habilidades Motoras Globais, as Habilidades Motoras Finas e a Idade das crianças. Estudo transversal, com uma amostra de 405 crianças com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 46 meses, de ambos os géneros. Os instrumentos usados no estudo foram as Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Em termos globais os resultados indicam que existe uma tendência para correlações positivas entre as variáveis Idade, Habilidades Motoras Globais e Habilidades Motoras Finas, salientando a correlação positiva moderada (p≤0.05; r2=0.265; 0.5≤ r ≤0.7) entre a Idade e a Motricidade Fina, e uma correlação positiva pequena (p≤0.05; r2=0.217; 0.1≤ r ≤ 0.3) entre a Idade e a Motricidade Global. Podemos assim constatar, uma melhoria destas habilidades à medida que as crianças vão crescendo, evidenciando melhores resultados na Motricidade Fina. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a importância da relação entre a idade e as habilidades motoras, focando a necessidade de desenvolver com mais ênfase as Habilidades Motoras Globais


El presente estudio sobre el desarrollo Motor del niño en los primeros meses de vida, tuvo como objetivo verificar la relación entre las Habilidades Motoras Globales, las Habilidades Motoras Finas y la Edad de los niños. Para ello, desarrollamos un estudio de naturaleza cuantitativa, con una muestra de 405 niños de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 46 meses, de ambos géneros. Los instrumentos utilizados en el estudio fueron las Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). En términos globales los resultados indican que existe una tendencia a correlaciones positivas entre las variables Edad, Habilidades Motoras Globales y Habilidades Motoras Finas, resaltando la correlación positiva moderada (p≤0.05, r2=0.265, 0.5≤ r ≤ 0.7) entre la Edad y la Motricidad Fina a su vez una pequeña correlación positiva (p≤0.05, r2=0.217, 0.1≤ r ≤ 0.3) entre la Edad y la Motricidad Global. Podemos así constatar, una mejora de esas habilidades a medida que los niños crecen, evidenciando mejores resultados en la Motricidad Fina. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la importancia de la relación entre la edad y las habilidades motoras, enfocando la necesidad de desarrollar con más énfasis las Habilidades Motoras Globales


The present study on motor development of the child in the first months of life, at verifying the relationship between Global Motor Skills, Fine Motor Skills and the Age of children. For this purpose, we developed a quantitative study, with a sample of 405 children between the ages of 12 and 46 months of both genders. The instruments used in the study were the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Overall, the results indicate that there is a tendency for positive correlations between the variables Age, Global Motor Skills and Fine Motor Skills, emphasizing the moderate positive correlation (p≤0.05; r2=0.265; 0.5≤ r ≤ 0.7) between Age and Fine Motricity in turn a small positive correlation (p≤0.05; r2=0.217; 0.1≤ r ≤ 0.3) between Age and Global Motricity. We can thus see an improvement of these abilities as children grow, evidencing better results in Fine Motor. The results suggest the importance of the relationship between age and motor skills, focusing on the need to develop with more emphasis the Global Motor Skills


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing is a life-long process characterized by a progressive loss of physical fitness compromising strength, flexibility, and agility. The purpose of this study was to use accelerometry to examine the relationship between sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the elderly's physical fitness. Additionally, we aimed to examine the association between the aforementioned variables on older adults who fulfilled global recommendations on physical activity for health and on those who did not fulfil these recommendations. METHODS: Eighty-three elderly (mean ± SD: 72.14 ± 5.61 years old) of both genders volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study, being divided into an active group (n = 53; 71.02 ± 5.27 years old) and an inactive group (n = 30; 74.13 ± 5.72 years old) according to the established guidelines. Sedentary and physical activity times were assessed using an ActiGraph® GT1M accelerometer, whereas physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test. RESULTS: MVPA time was correlated with lower body mass index (BMI) ((rs = -0.218; p = 0.048; -0.3 < r ≤ -0.1 (small)) and shorter time to complete the agility test ((rs = -0.367; p = 0.001; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)). Moreover, MVPA time was positively correlated with aerobic endurance ((rs = 0.397; p = 0.000; 0.5 < r ≤ 0.3 (low)) and strength ((rs = 0.243; p = 0.027; 0.3 < r ≤ 0.1 (small)). In the inactive group, MVPA time was positively correlated with upper limb flexibility ((rs = 0.400; p = 0.028; 0.5 < r ≤ 0.3 (low)); moreover, sedentary time was negatively correlated with upper limb flexibility ((r = -0.443; p = 0.014; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)), and LPA time was negatively correlated with BMI ((r = -0.423; p = 0.020; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)). In the active group, MVPA time was correlated with lower BMI ((rs = -0.320; p = 0.020; -0.5 < r ≤ -0.3 (low)), and shorter time to complete agility test ((rs = -0.296; p = 0.031; -0.3 < r ≤ -0.1 (small)). CONCLUSIONS: Our results reinforce the importance of promoting MVPA practice among the elderly, thereby allowing physical fitness maintenance or improvement.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 19(2): 124-134, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183274

RESUMO

The ability to generate and control mental images is present in all of us, but it differs from person to person. Therefore, it is important to understand that imagery ability can be changed through training and experimentation, it is not a fixed ability (Cumming & Williams, 2012). The aim of this study is to compare imagery ability in elite, sub-elite and non-elite athletes in a sport which involves closed and continuous motor skills, such as swimming. 79 swimmers (male N = 37; female N = 42) at an average age of 17 took part in this study. In order to assess imagery ability, the Movement Imagery Questionnaire 3 was used, Portuguese version (Mendes et al., 2016). After analysis of the results, these show that in each and every imagery modality, the scores in the three groups differ significantly. In kinesthetic and external visual imagery the elite and sub-elite groups' scores, although not statistically different from each other, are significantly higher than those of the non-elite group. In internal visual imagery, the differences between all the compared pairs of groups are statistically significant. The elite group got the highest scores, followed by the sub-elite group average scores and finally the non-elite group average scores. According to these results, the conclusion is that athletes with better performance show greater imagery ability and that apparently the external visual imagery proved to be the best intervention method among swimming athletes


La capacidad de controlar y generar imágenes mentales está presente en todos los individuos, pero varía de sujeto a sujeto, por lo tanto, es importante entender que la habilidad de visualización mental es una capacidad que se puede modificar con el entrenamiento y la experimentación, y no una habilidad fija (Cumming & Williams, 2012; Hall, 2001). El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue el de comparar la habilidad de visualización mental en practicantes de Elite, Sub-Elite y No-Elite, en una modalidad deportiva con habilidades motoras cerradas y continuas, la natación. En este estudio participaron 79 sujetos practicantes de Natación (N = 76) (género masculino N = 37, género femenino N = 42) con una edad media de 17 años (DE = 3,1). Se definieron tres niveles de práctica, el grupo de Elite (N = 29), el grupo Sub-Elite (N = 27) y No-Elite (N = 23). Para evaluar la habilidad de visualización mental se utilizó el Movement Imagery Questionnaire - 3, versión portuguesa (Mendes et al., 2015). Después de analizar los resultados verificamos que en todas y cada una de las modalidades de visualización mental, las medias obtenidas en los tres grupos (Elite, Sub-Elite y No-Elite) muestran diferencias significativas. De acuerdo con estos resultados podemos concluir que los atletas con mejor rendimiento deportivo muestran una mejor capacidad de visualización mental y que, aparentemente, la modalidad visual externa resultó como el mejor método de intervención para practicantes de Natación


A habilidade de controlar e gerar imagens mentais está presente em todos os indivíduos, mas varia de sujeito para sujeito. Consequentemente, é importante entender que a habilidade de imagery é uma capacidade que pode ser modificável com o treino e a experimentação, e não uma habilidade fixa (Cumming & Williams, 2012; Hall, 2001). O objetivo do nosso estudo foi comparar a habilidade de imagery em praticantes de Elite, Sub-Elite e Não-Elite, numa modalidade com habilidades motoras fechadas e contínuas, a Natação. Neste estudo, participaram 79 sujeitos praticantes de Natação (N = 76) (sexo masculino N = 37; sexo feminino N = 42), com uma média de idades de 17 anos (SD = 3.1). Foram definidos três níveis de prática, sendo o grupo de Elite (N = 29), o grupo Sub-Elite (N = 27) e Não-Elite (N = 23). Para avaliar a habilidade de imagery, foi utilizado o Movement Imagery Questionnaire - 3, versão portuguesa (Mendes et al., 2015). Após a análise dos resultados, verificámos que em todas e em cada uma das modalidades do imagery, as médias obtidas nos três grupos (Elite, Sub-Elite e Não-Elite) apresentam diferenças significativas. De acordo com estes resultados, podemos concluir que atletas com melhor performance desportiva revelam uma melhor capacidade de imagery e que aparentemente a modalidade visual externa se revelou como melhor método de intervenção em praticantes de Natação


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Percepção Visual , Processos Mentais , Natação/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Aptidão , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Competitivo , Estratégias de Saúde
11.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 26(1): 48-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922010

RESUMO

Evaluating performance validity is essential in neuropsychological and forensic assessments. Nonetheless, most psychological assessment tests are unable to detect performance validity and other methods must be used for this purpose. A new Performance Validity Test (DETECTS - Memory Performance Validity Test) was developed with several characteristics that enhance test utility. Moreover, precise response time measurement was added to DETECTS. Two groups of participants (normative and simulator group) completed DETECTS and three memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale III. Simulators achieved considerably lower scores (hits) and higher response times in DETECTS compared with the normative group. All participants in the normative group were classified correctly and no simulator was classified as having legitimate memory deficits. Thus, DETECTS seems to be a valuable computerized Performance Validity Test with reduced application time and effective cut-off scores as well as high sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power values. Lastly, response time may be a very useful measure for detecting memory malingering.


Assuntos
Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem/normas , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Escala de Memória de Wechsler/normas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 28(supl.1): 106-112, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-190229

RESUMO

No presente estudo, procuramos conhecer as áreas de saber e os elementos específicos que quatro Treinadores Experts (TEs) utilizam no processo de alto rendimento desportivo, assim como estas os orientam quer direta quer indiretamente. A metodologia utilizada foi qualitativa, a técnica de recolha de dados foi a entrevista semiestruturada, os dados foram tratados de forma indutiva com suporte do programa Nvivo2. Os treinadores entrevistados pertenciam à Liga profissional de basquetebol em Portugal com mais títulos, experiência internacional e reconhecidos pelos seus pares. Os nossos resultados confirmam a multiplicidade de áreas de conhecimento que os TEs dominam no alto rendimento, fruto de uma larga experiência e reflexão que permitiram aos treinadores identificar, aplicar e otimizar os saberes necessários para obter o sucesso desportivo, neste sentido, realçam a Metodologia do Treino, Psicologia, Sociologia e Filosofia do desporto


En el presente estudio, buscamos conocer las áreas de saber y sus elementos específicos que cuatro Entrenadores Expertos (TEs) utilizan en el proceso de alto rendimiento deportivo, y así como éstos los orientan directa o indirectamente. La metodología utilizada fue cualitativa, la técnica de recogida de datos fue la entrevista semiestructurada, los datos fueron tratados de forma inductiva con soporte del programa Nvivo2. Los participantes eran entrenadores en la liga de baloncesto profesional en Portugal, los entrenadores con más títulos, experiencia internacional y reconocidos por sus pares. Nuestros resultados confirman la multiplicidad de áreas de conocimiento que los TEs dominan en el alto rendimiento, fruto de una larga experiencia y reflexión que permitieron a los entrenadores identificar, aplicar y optimizar los saberes necesarios para obtener el éxito deportivo, en este sentido, realzan la Metodología del Entrenamiento, Psicología, Sociología y Filosofía del deporte"


In the present study, we wanted to know the areas of knowledge and the specific elements that four Experts Coaches (TEs) use in the process of high performance sports, as these guide them either directly or indirectly. The methodology used was qualitative, the technique of data collection was the semi-structured interview, and the data were treated in an inductive way with support of the program Nvivo2. The coaches interviewed were from the professional basketball league in Portugal, they are the coaches with more titles in Portugal, they have international experience and are recognized by their peers. Our results confirm the multiplicity of areas of knowledge that TEs dominate in the high performance, thanks to a wide experience and reflection that allowed the coaches to identify, apply and optimize the knowledge needed to achieve sports success, in this sense, were highlight the Methodology of Training, Psychology, Sociology and Philosophy of Sport


Assuntos
Humanos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , 34600 , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Portugal , Entrevistas como Assunto
13.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(2): 89-96, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-959033

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Postural control is a determining factor for functional performance and motor skills during sports activities. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate postural control during the controlled soccer ball kicking task through a biomechanical analysis system. Methods: The sample consisted of 11 professional male athletes recruited using convenience sampling, with a mean age of 22 years. The athletes performed twenty-five precision kicks at a target, with the ball in vertical motion released by means of a hand-held device synchronized with the computed biomechanical measurements. Marking of the lower limb segments involved in the kick and the ball were analyzed by accelerometry, while postural control measures were quantified by a force platform in three axes of movement. The support leg was investigated in single leg stance during all tests on the force platform. The main variables of postural control calculated by stabilographic analysis and computed during the 25 kicks were: center of pressure (COP) displacement area, velocity and frequency of COP oscillation in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. The mean was used for final analysis to determine the differences in the three phases: pre-kick, kick, and post-kick. Results: The results revealed significant differences (p <0.01) between the three phases, with the kick phase presenting higher values of postural COP oscillations than the other phases. The COP area and oscillation velocity were the variables with greatest sensitivity to changes in the kick phase, obtaining an effect size of d = 14 and d = 12, respectively. In clinical terms, the increase in COP values reached 557% between the pre-kick and kick phases; this difference was reduced to 241% when compared to post-kick (i.e., difference between kick and post-kick was 316%). Conclusion . These results have important implications for the perception of postural control responses during soccer ball kicks and consequently, for injury prevention when motor and sensory deficits are diagnosed in soccer players. Level of Evidence III; Study of nonconsecutive patients; without consistently applied reference ''gold'' standard.


RESUMO Introdução: O controle postural é um fator determinante para execução de gestos funcionais e desempenho motor durante as atividades esportivas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi de investigar o controle postural durante a tarefa controlada do chute futebolístico por meio de um sistema de análise biomecânica. Métodos: A amostra foi constituída por 11 atletas profissionais do sexo masculino, recrutados por amostragem por conveniência, com média de idade de 22 anos. Os atletas realizaram vinte e cinco chutes de precisão em direção ao alvo, com a bola em movimento vertical lançada por meio de um dispositivo manual sincronizado com as medidas biomecânicas computadas. A marcação dos segmentos de membro inferior envolvidos no chute e a bola foram analisadas por meio da acelerometria, enquanto as medidas de controle postural foram quantificadas por meio de uma plataforma de força em três eixos do movimento. A perna de apoio foi investigada em apoio unipodal durante todos os testes sobre a plataforma de força. As principais variáveis de controle postural calculadas por uma análise estabilográfica e computadas durante os 25 chutes foram área de deslocamento do centro de pressão (COP), velocidade e frequência de oscilação do COP na direção anteroposterior e médio-lateral. A média foi utilizada para análise final para determinar as diferenças nas três fases: pré-chute, chute e pós-chute. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram diferenças significantes (p < 0,01) entre as três fases, sendo que a fase do chute apresentou valores maiores de oscilações posturais do COP do que as demais fases. A área e a velocidade de oscilação do COP foram as variáveis com maior sensibilidade às mudanças na fase do chute, obtendo magnitude de efeito em d = 14 e d = 12, respectivamente. Clinicamente, o aumento foi de 557% entre as fases pré-chute e chute; essa diferença foi reduzida para 241% na comparação com o pós-chute (ou seja, a diferença entre chute e pós-chute foi de 316%). Conclusões: Esses resultados têm implicações importantes para o reconhecimento das respostas de controle postural durante o chute futebolístico e, consequentemente, para prevenção de lesões quando déficits sensório-motores são diagnosticados em atletas de futebol. Nível de Evidência III; Estudo de pacientes não consecutivos; sem padrão de referência "ouro" aplicado uniformemente.


RESUMEN Introducción . El control postural es un factor determinante para la ejecución de gestos funcionales y desempeño motor durante las actividades deportivas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el control postural durante la tarea controlada del tiro futbolístico por medio de un sistema de análisis biomecánico. Métodos: La muestra fue constituida por 11 atletas profesionales del sexo masculino reclutados por muestreo por conveniencia y con promedio de edad de 22 años. Los atletas realizaron veinticinco disparos de precisión en dirección al objetivo, con la pelota en movimiento vertical lanzada por medio de un dispositivo manual sincronizado con las medidas biomecánicas computadas. La marcación de los segmentos de la extremidad inferior involucrados en el tiro y la pelota fueron analizadas mediante acelerometría, mientras que las medidas de control postural fueron cuantificadas por medio de una plataforma de fuerza en tres ejes del movimiento. La pierna de apoyo fue investigada en apoyo unipodal durante todas las pruebas sobre la plataforma de fuerza. Las principales variables de control postural calculadas por un análisis estabilográfico y computadas durante los 25 disparos fueron área de desplazamiento del centro de presión (COP), velocidad y frecuencia de oscilación del COP en la dirección anteroposterior y medio-lateral. El promedio fue utilizado para análisis final para determinar las diferencias en las tres fases: pre-disparo, disparo, y post-disparo. Resultados: Los resultados revelaron diferencias significativas (p < 0,01) entre las tres fases, siendo que la fase del disparo presentó valores mayores de oscilaciones posturales del COP que las demás fases. El área y la velocidad de oscilación del COP fueron las variables con mayor sensibilidad a los cambios en la fase del disparo, obteniendo magnitud de efecto en d = 14 y d = 12, respectivamente. Clínicamente, el aumento fue del 557% entre las fases pre-disparo y disparo; esta diferencia se redujo al 241% en comparación con la fase post-disparo (es decir, la diferencia entre disparo y post-disparo fue de 316%). Conclusiones: Estos resultados tienen implicaciones importantes para el reconocimiento de las respuestas de control postural durante el tiro futbolístico y consecuentemente, para prevención de lesiones cuando se diagnostica déficit sensorio-motor en atletas de fútbol. Nivel de Evidencia III; Estudio de pacientes no consecutivos; sin patrón de referencia "oro" aplicado uniformemente.

14.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 28(3): 623-631, Jul-Sep/2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: lil-751993

RESUMO

Conhecer as diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento humano é uma competência essencial para o entrevistador em contexto policial e forense. É imprescindível adaptar a entrevista em função da avaliação das competências da testemunha. Este artigo caracteriza as etapas do desenvolvimento humano ao longo da infância e adolescência, destacando o desenvolvimento da memória e outras competências relevantes para a entrevista de testemunhas. Analisou-se ainda a adequabilidade de várias metodologias utilizadas para este fim, salientando algumas diretrizes fundamentais para a condução de uma boa entrevista. Por fim, focou-se na Entrevista Cognitiva Melhorada enquanto técnica promissora para entrevistar crianças e adolescentes. Pretende-se não apenas rever de forma crítica a literatura existente, mas também construir um guia para os profissionais desta área.


Knowing the different developmental stages is an essential skill for the forensic or police interviewer. It is crucial to adapt the interview according to the witness developmental assessment. This article describes the stages of human development throughout childhood and adolescence, with particular emphasis on the development of memory and other skills involved in the interview process. The appropriateness of several methodologies used for interviewing child witnesses is discussed, as well as some fundamental guidelines for conducting a good interview. Lastly, the article focuses on the Enhanced Cognitive Interview as a promising technique for interviewing children and adolescents. The aim of this study is not only to critically review the existing studies, but also to write a guide for professionals in this area.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Entrevista , Cognição , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Revisão , Psicologia Criminal/métodos , Desenvolvimento Humano
15.
Acta Med Port ; 26(3): 258-64, 2013.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23815841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this research project was to measure the effects of physical activity on corporal composition (BMI and waist circumference) on spirometric values and relate these indicators to the respiratory/ventilator function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 86 individuals, higher education students, with an average age of 21.3 ± 2.4 years, who were divided into two groups: the control group consisted of 28 sedentary subjects (20.9 ± 1.3 years), and the experimental group consisting of 58 subjects (21.5 ± 2.8 years) who undertook supervised exercise. To characterize the sample of the type of physical activity, we used an adaptation of the questionnaire Telama et al.19 We assessed the value of spirometry (PEF, FVC and FEV1) with a Microquark Cosmed spirometer and the BMI and waist circumference. The figures obtained were processed with the S.P.S.S. 19.0, the t-test, the Levene test, the Mann-Whitney test and the Spearman correlation test, adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The experimental group achieved significantly better BMI and waist circumference results (p = 0.05) and in all of the values assessed by spirometry (PEF, FVC and FEV1) compared to the control group. We also found that there is a tendency for a negative correlation between the values of body composition and spirometric values, only observable in some variables (PEF, FEV1), i.e., the higher the values of body composition, the lower the spirometric values. CONCLUSION: The students that performed supervised exercise had higher levels of body composition and lung function. Poor BMI and waist circumference values may lead to respiratory dysfunction in terms of ventilation and the respective lung volumes, limiting the practice of physical activity and increasing the probability of respiratory pathologies.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Adulto Jovem
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