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1.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; : e0031222, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546123

RESUMO

We report the near-full-length genome sequences of 22 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1, lineage Sindh-08, obtained from foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Pakistan between 2011 and 2012. The scarcity of full-length FMDV sequences from this region enhances the importance of these new genomes for understanding the regional molecular epidemiology.

2.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0165021, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586864

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) field studies have suggested the occurrence of simultaneous infection of individual hosts by multiple virus strains; however, the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) coinfections is largely unknown. In the current study, cattle were experimentally exposed to two FMDV strains of different serotypes (O and A). One cohort was simultaneously infected with both viruses, while additional cohorts were initially infected with FMDV A and subsequently superinfected with FMDV O after 21 or 35 days. Coinfections were confirmed during acute infection, with both viruses concurrently detected in blood, lesions, and secretions. Staggered exposures resulted in overlapping infections as convalescent animals with persistent subclinical FMDV infection were superinfected with a heterologous virus. Staggering virus exposure by 21 days conferred clinical protection in six of eight cattle, which were subclinically infected following the heterologous virus exposure. This effect was transient, as all animals superinfected at 35 days post-initial infection developed fulminant FMD. The majority of cattle maintained persistent infection with one of the two viruses while clearing the other. Analysis of viral genomes confirmed interserotypic recombination events within 10 days in the upper respiratory tract of five superinfected animals from which the dominant genomes contained the capsid coding regions of the O virus and nonstructural coding regions of the A virus. In contrast, there were no dominant recombinant genomes detected in samples from simultaneously coinfected cattle. These findings inculpate persistently infected carriers as potential FMDV mixing vessels in which novel strains may rapidly emerge through superinfection and recombination. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral infection of livestock of critical socioeconomic importance. Field studies from areas of endemic FMD suggest that animals can be simultaneously infected by more than one distinct variant of FMD virus (FMDV), potentially resulting in emergence of novel viral strains through recombination. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms of in vivo FMDV coinfections under controlled experimental conditions. Our findings confirmed that cattle could be simultaneously infected by two distinct serotypes of FMDV, with different outcomes associated with the timing of exposure to the two different viruses. Additionally, dominant interserotypic recombinant FMDVs were discovered in multiple samples from the upper respiratory tracts of five superinfected animals, emphasizing the potential importance of persistently infected FMDV carriers as sources of novel FMDV strains.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Febre Aftosa/virologia , /veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Portador Sadio/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Gado/virologia , Sorogrupo
3.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451394

RESUMO

In 2006, vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) caused outbreaks in Wyoming (WY) horses and cattle after overwintering in 2004 and 2005. Within two weeks of the outbreak onset, 12,203 biting flies and 194 grasshoppers were collected near three equine-positive premises in Natrona County, WY. Insects were identified to the species level and tested by RT-qPCR for VSNJV polymerase (L) and phosphoprotein (P) gene RNA. Collected dipterans known to be competent for VSV transmission included Simulium black flies and Culicoides biting midges. VSNJV L and P RNA was detected in two pools of female Simulium bivittatum and subjected to partial genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis based on the hypervariable region of the P gene from black flies showed 100% identity to the isolate obtained from the index horse case on the same premises. This is the first report of VSNJV in S. bivittatum in WY and the first field evidence of possible VSV maintenance in black fly populations during an outbreak.

4.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414349

RESUMO

We report the genome sequences of 12 recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from Vietnam. The recombinant strain has a capsid region from an A/Sea-97 strain and a nonstructural segment from an O/ME-SA/PanAsia strain. The isolates were obtained from two outbreak samples collected in June 2017 and 10 subclinical samples collected between 2017 and 2019.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587580

RESUMO

In this study, we explore the virulence of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in pigs and its potential relationship with the virus's ability to modulate innate responses. For this purpose, we developed a mutant of the highly virulent strain NJ0612NME6, containing a single amino acid substitution in the matrix protein (M51R). The M51R mutant of NJ0612NME6 was unable to suppress the transcription of genes associated with the innate immune response both in primary fetal porcine kidney cells and porcine primary macrophage cultures. Impaired viral growth was observed only in porcine macrophage cultures, indicating that the M51 residue is required for efficient replication of VSNJV in these cells. Furthermore, when inoculated in pigs by intradermal scarification of the snout, M51R infection was characterized by decreased clinical signs including reduced fever and development of less and smaller secondary vesicular lesions. Pigs infected with M51R had decreased levels of viral shedding and absence of RNAemia compared to the parental virus. The ability of the mutant virus to infect pigs by direct contact remained intact, indicating that the M51R mutation resulted in a partially attenuated phenotype capable of causing primary lesions and transmitting to sentinel pigs. Collectively, our results show a positive correlation between the ability of VSNJV to counteract the innate immune response in swine macrophage cultures and the level of virulence in pigs, a natural host of this virus. More studies are encouraged to evaluate the interaction of VSNJV with macrophages and other components of the immune response in pigs.

6.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(16)2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299883

RESUMO

We report the genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) isolates collected in India between 1997 and 2009. The strains represented four sublineages within the O/ME-SA/Ind2001 lineage. These viruses provide insights into FMDV diversity and evolution in India and may influence future control measures, including vaccine selections.

7.
Pathogens ; 9(3)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178297

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects hosts as a population of closely related viruses referred to as a quasispecies. The behavior of this quasispecies has not been described in detail in natural host species. In this study, virus samples collected from vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle up to 35 days post-experimental infection with FMDV A24-Cruzeiro were analyzed by deep-sequencing. Vaccination induced significant differences compared to viruses from non-vaccinated cattle in substitution rates, entropy, and evidence for adaptation. Genomic variation detected during early infection reflected the diversity inherited from the source virus (inoculum), whereas by 12 days post infection, dominant viruses were defined by newly acquired mutations. Mutations conferring recognized fitness gain occurred and were associated with selective sweeps. Persistent infections always included multiple FMDV subpopulations, suggesting distinct foci of infection within the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Subclinical infection in vaccinated cattle included very early bottlenecks associated with reduced diversity within virus populations. Viruses from both animal cohorts contained putative antigenic escape mutations. However, these mutations occurred during later stages of infection, at which time transmission is less likely to occur. This study improves upon previously published work by analyzing deep sequences of samples, allowing for detailed characterization of FMDV populations over time within multiple hosts.

8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(5)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001559

RESUMO

We report the genomes of five foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from distinct provinces in Vietnam. All five viruses were grouped within the O/CATHAY topotype. Sequences contain the full polyprotein coding sequence and partial untranslated regions. These genomes provide critical data on the spread and evolution of FMDVs in the region.

9.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(49)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806747

RESUMO

We report the genomes of four foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype SAT 1 topotype X isolates from Cameroon. The viruses were isolated from bovine epithelium collected during an outbreak in 2016. These novel sequences update knowledge of FMDV diversity in Central Africa and contribute to regional FMDV molecular epidemiology.

10.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(36)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488534

RESUMO

Here, we report the near-complete genomes of three Southern African Territories 1 (SAT1) serotype strains and one SAT2 serotype strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) recently isolated from Kenya. Viral isolates were obtained from bovine epithelial tissues collected in 2014 and 2016 following outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). These near-complete genome sequences provide a critical update of Kenyan FMDV molecular epidemiology.

11.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(38)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537675

RESUMO

We report the genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A topotype Africa isolate collected from bovine vesicular epithelium from Kenya in 2016. This novel sequence updates the knowledge of FMDV diversity in eastern Africa and has important implications for FMDV epidemiology and molecular analyses.

12.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(33)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416875

RESUMO

We report the full polyprotein-coding sequences and partial untranslated regions (UTRs) of 18 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses from 4 outbreaks in India in 2013 and 2014. All strains grouped within the O/ME-SA/Ind2001d sublineage. These genomes update knowledge of FMD virus (FMDV) diversity in South Asia and may contribute to molecular epidemiology studies and vaccine selections.

13.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(35)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467102

RESUMO

We report a near-full-length genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype Southern African Territories 2 (SAT 2), topotype VII, isolated from cattle during an FMDV outbreak in Bauchi State, Nigeria, in October 2014. This provides the first SAT 2 near-full-length genome sequence from West Africa and contributes to our understanding of viral spread and evolution.

14.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(35)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467103

RESUMO

This is the first report of two near-complete genome sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O from Kenya. The viruses were isolated from bovine epithelium collected in 2014 and 2016 from local FMD outbreaks. These full-genome sequences are critical for improving the understanding of regional FMDV molecular epidemiology.

15.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(25)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221649

RESUMO

We report the full-genome sequence of a New Jersey vesiculovirus strain, commonly referred to as vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV), obtained from an epithelial lesion of a naturally infected cow in Chiapas, Mexico. This genome is a representative from the zone of endemicity in Mexico, a region of high genetic diversity.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0210847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022193

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that severely impacts global food security and is one of the greatest constraints on international trade of animal products. Extensive viral population diversity and rapid, continuous mutation of circulating FMD viruses (FMDVs) pose significant obstacles to the control and ultimate eradication of this important transboundary pathogen. The current study investigated mechanisms contributing to within-host evolution of FMDV in a natural host species (cattle). Specifically, vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle were infected with FMDV under controlled, experimental conditions and subsequently sampled for up to 35 days to monitor viral genomic changes as related to phases of disease and experimental cohorts. Consensus-level genomic changes across the entire FMDV coding region were characterized through three previously defined stages of infection: early, transitional, and persistent. The overall conclusion was that viral evolution occurred via a combination of two mechanisms: emergence of full-genomic minority haplotypes from within the inoculum super-swarm, and concurrent continuous point mutations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that individuals were infected with multiple distinct haplogroups that were pre-existent within the ancestral inoculum used to infect all animals. Multiple shifts of dominant viral haplotype took place during the early and transitional phases of infection, whereas few shifts occurred during persistent infection. Overall, this work suggests that the establishment of the carrier state is not associated with specific viral genomic characteristics. These insights into FMDV population dynamics have important implications for virus sampling methodology and molecular epidemiology.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Haplótipos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863819

RESUMO

We report the polyprotein coding sequence of the newly defined Ind2001e sublineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, isolated from a bovine epithelial tissue sample collected in 2017 in Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. This discovery updates FMDV diversity in Vietnam, has implications for FMDV epidemiology, and influences future vaccine selections.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687818

RESUMO

In 2018, senecavirus A was detected for the first time in Vietnam. This report contains the first complete genome of a senecavirus A isolate collected from pigs in Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. This novel incursion has substantial implications for regional control of vesicular transboundary diseases.

19.
J Virol Methods ; 265: 113-116, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639413

RESUMO

This study reports the use of a site-specific recombination cloning technique for rapid development of a full-length cDNA clone that can produce infectious vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV). The full-length genome of the epidemic VSNJV NJ0612NME6 strain was amplified in four overlapping cDNA fragments which were linked together and cloned into a vector plasmid by site-specific recombination. Furthermore, to derive infectious virus, three supporting plasmid vectors containing either the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) or polymerase (L) genes were constructed using the same cloning methodology. Recovery of recombinant VSNJV was achieved after transfecting all four vectors on into BSR-T7/5 cells, a BHK-derived cell line stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase (PMID: 9847328). In vitro characterization of recombinant and parental viruses revealed similar growth kinetics and plaque morphologies. Furthermore, experimental infection of pigs with the recombinant virus resulted in severe vesicular stomatitis with clinical signs similar to those previously reported for the parental field strain. These results validate the use of site-directed specific recombination cloning as a useful alternative method for rapid construction of stable full-length cDNA clones from vesicular stomatitis field strains. The approach reported herein contributes to the improvement of previously published methodologies for the development of full-length cDNA clones of this relevant virus.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Recombinação Genética , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular New Jersey/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular New Jersey/genética , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Estomatite Vesicular/patologia , Estomatite Vesicular/virologia , Ensaio de Placa Viral
20.
mSphere ; 3(6)2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541776

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle was investigated through early and late stages of infection by use of an optimized experimental model for controlled contact exposure. Time-limited exposure of cattle to FMDV-infected pigs led to primary FMDV infection of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. In nonvaccinated cattle, the infection generalized rapidly to cause clinical disease, without apparent virus amplification in the lungs prior to establishment of viremia. Vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical disease and viremia; however, all vaccinated cattle were subclinically infected, and persistent infection occurred at similarly high prevalences in both animal cohorts. Infection dynamics in cattle were consistent and synchronous and comparable to those of simulated natural and needle inoculation systems. However, the current experimental model utilizes a natural route of virus exposure and is therefore superior for investigations of disease pathogenesis and host response. Deep sequencing of viruses obtained during early infection of pigs and cattle indicated that virus populations sampled from sites of primary infection were markedly more diverse than viruses from vesicular lesions of cattle, suggesting the occurrence of substantial bottlenecks associated with vesicle formation. These data expand previous knowledge of FMDV pathogenesis in cattle and provide novel insights for validation of inoculation models of bovine FMD studies.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important livestock pathogen that is often described as the greatest constraint to global trade in animal products. The present study utilized a standardized pig-to-cow contact exposure model to demonstrate that FMDV infection of cattle initiates in the nasopharyngeal mucosa following natural virus exposure. Furthermore, this work confirmed the role of the bovine nasopharyngeal mucosa as the site of persistent FMDV infection in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. The critical output of this study validates previous studies that have used simulated natural inoculation models to characterize FMDV pathogenesis in cattle and emphasizes the importance of continued research of the unique virus-host interactions that occur within the bovine nasopharynx. Specifically, vaccines and biotherapeutic countermeasures designed to prevent nasopharyngeal infection of vaccinated animals could contribute to substantially improved control of FMDV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Epitélio/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
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