Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 188
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
Allergy ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505025

RESUMO

The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) report was primarily intended as a strategy document and not a clinical guideline. However, the 2014 update moved the report towards a "practical, clinical practice-centred document", and has in many countries formed a basis for national guidelines. A possible limitation of the GINA report is its primary focus on evidence coming from randomised controlled trials, potentially leading to the omission of clinically important data coming from real-life and observational studies, and in conclusions based on highly-selected asthmatic patients, fulfilling strict study inclusion criteria.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515397

RESUMO

Severe obstructive lung disease, which encompasses patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or features of both, remains a considerable global health problem and burden on healthcare resources. However, the clinical definitions of severe asthma and COPD do not reflect the heterogeneity within these diagnoses or the potential for overlap between them, which may lead to inappropriate treatment decisions. Furthermore, most studies exclude patients with diagnoses of both asthma and COPD. Clinical definitions can influence clinical trial design and are both influenced by, and influence, regulatory indications and treatment recommendations. Therefore, to ensure its relevance in the era of targeted biologic therapies, the definition of severe obstructive lung disease must be updated so that it includes all patients who could benefit from novel treatments and for whom associated costs are justified. Here, we review evolving clinical definitions of severe obstructive lung disease and evaluate how these have influenced trial design by summarising eligibility criteria and primary outcomes of phase III randomised controlled trials of biologic therapies. Based on our findings, we discuss the advantages of a phenotype- and endotype-based approach to select appropriate populations for future trials that may influence regulatory approvals and clinical practice, allowing targeted biologic therapies to benefit a greater proportion and range of patients. This calls for co-ordinated efforts between investigators, pharmaceutical developers and regulators to ensure biologic therapies reach their full potential in the management of severe obstructive lung disease.

3.
Respirology ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468623
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445099

RESUMO

CAPSULE SUMMARY: Out of all type-2 immune cells, only ILC2s withstand corticosteroid treatment due to a reduced pro-apoptotic machinery. The findings may advance the understanding on the mechanism in steroid-resistant diseases and facilitate the development of improved therapies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dupilumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, blocks the shared receptor component for interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 signaling, key drivers of type 2 inflammation. In the phase 3 study (NCT02414854), add-on dupilumab 200mg/300mg every 2 weeks, versus placebo, significantly reduced severe asthma exacerbations and improved pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and quality-of-life measures in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma, with greater efficacy observed in those with a high baseline type 2 phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of dupilumab in uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma patients with or without self-reported comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS or non-CRS). METHODS: Comorbid CRS was self-reported by patients using an e-diary. Annualized severe exacerbation rates, changes from baseline in pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1, patient-reported outcomes, type 2 biomarkers, and safety were assessed. RESULTS: CRS was self-reported by 382/1902 (20.1%) patients. Dupilumab 200mg/300mg reduced annualized severe exacerbation rates by 63%/61%, respectively, in patients with CRS, and by 42%/40% in patients without CRS (all P<.001 vs placebo). Dupilumab also improved lung function and patient-reported asthma control and quality of life, and suppressed type 2 biomarkers versus placebo in both subgroups. Clinical responses were rapid, with near-maximal responses observed at the earliest measured timepoints and sustained at week 52. Improvements observed in the CRS subgroup were similar to or numerically greater than those in the non-CRS subgroup. CONCLUSION: Dupilumab showed efficacy and was generally well tolerated in patients with uncontrolled, moderate-to-severe asthma with or without CRS.

8.
Respir Med ; 154: 27-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203097

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maintenance treatment with macrolides are useful in preventing COPD exacerbations. We investigated which characteristics of COPD patients with frequent exacerbations predicted the best response to maintenance treatment with azithromycin. METHODS: This study was part of the COLUMBUS trial, a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 92 COPD patients with frequent exacerbations. During the 1-year treatment period, follow-up data were collected for spirometry, mMRC scores, sputum cultures and blood inflammatory markers. RESULTS: In the azithromycin group a significant lower number of exacerbations per patient was observed in patients with the following characteristics: baseline blood eosinophil count ≥2.0% (x̄ = 1.26), compared to an eosinophil count < 2.0% (x̄ = 2.50; p = 0.02), GOLD stage 1-2 (x̄ = 1.06), versus GOLD stage 4 (x̄ = 2.62; p = 0.02) and GOLD group C (x̄ = 0.45) compared to group D (x̄ = 2.18; p < 0.01). Moreover, the number of hospitalizations was significantly lower in patients, with a blood eosinophil count ≥2.0% (x̄ = 0.26) compared to an eosinophil count < 2.0% (x̄ = 0.90; p = 0.01) and in GOLD stages 1-2 (x̄ = 1.06) compared to stage 4 (x̄ = 2.62; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, azithromycin maintenance treatment appears to be effective in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations, who are either classified in GOLD stage 1-2 or GOLD C and those with a blood eosinophil count of ≥2.0%.

9.
J Asthma ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251090

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate usability of mepolizumab as a liquid drug product self-administered via a single-use prefilled autoinjector (AI) by patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA), or their caregivers, in-clinic and at home. Methods: This open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIa study (NCT03099096; GSK ID: 204959) included patients aged ≥12 years with SEA who were either receiving mepolizumab (100 mg subcutaneously [SC]) every 4 weeks (Q4W) for ≥12 weeks before screening or not receiving mepolizumab but met criteria indicative of SEA. Patients/caregivers self-administered mepolizumab (100 mg SC) via an AI Q4W for 12 weeks. The first (Week 0) and third (Week 8) doses were observed in-clinic; the second dose (Week 4) was administered unobserved at home. Primary and secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients who successfully self-administered their third and second doses, respectively (determined by investigator/site staff). Patient experience, mepolizumab trough concentrations, blood eosinophil count (BEC), and safety were also assessed. Results: Of 159 patients/caregivers who self-administered ≥1 dose of mepolizumab, 157 completed the study. Nearly all patients successfully self-administered their third mepolizumab dose in-clinic and second dose at home (≥98% and ≥96%, respectively); this was further confirmed by mepolizumab trough concentrations/BEC. At study end, ≥88% of patients were "very" or "extremely" confident about using the AI correctly. Incidence of on-treatment drug-related adverse events (AEs) was low (3%); no fatal AEs occurred. Conclusions: Patients/caregivers successfully self-administered mepolizumab via the AI both in-clinic and at home; no new safety concerns were identified.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 380(21): 2020-2030, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, budesonide-formoterol used on an as-needed basis resulted in a lower risk of severe exacerbation of asthma than as-needed use of a short-acting ß2-agonist (SABA); the risk was similar to that of budesonide maintenance therapy plus as-needed SABA. The availability of data from clinical trials designed to better reflect clinical practice would be beneficial. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, controlled trial involving adults with mild asthma. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: albuterol (100 µg, two inhalations from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler as needed for asthma symptoms) (albuterol group); budesonide (200 µg, one inhalation through a Turbuhaler twice daily) plus as-needed albuterol (budesonide maintenance group); or budesonide-formoterol (200 µg of budesonide and 6 µg of formoterol, one inhalation through a Turbuhaler as needed) (budesonide-formoterol group). Electronic monitoring of inhalers was used to measure medication use. The primary outcome was the annualized rate of asthma exacerbations. RESULTS: The analysis included 668 of 675 patients who underwent randomization. The annualized exacerbation rate in the budesonide-formoterol group was lower than that in the albuterol group (absolute rate, 0.195 vs. 0.400; relative rate, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.72; P<0.001) and did not differ significantly from the rate in the budesonide maintenance group (absolute rate, 0.195 in the budesonide-formoterol group vs. 0.175 in the budesonide maintenance group; relative rate, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.79; P = 0.65). The number of severe exacerbations was lower in the budesonide-formoterol group than in both the albuterol group (9 vs. 23; relative risk, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.86) and the budesonide maintenance group (9 vs. 21; relative risk, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.96). The mean (±SD) dose of inhaled budesonide was 107±109 µg per day in the budesonide-formoterol group and 222±113 µg per day in the budesonide maintenance group. The incidence and type of adverse events reported were consistent with those in previous trials and with reports in clinical use. CONCLUSIONS: In an open-label trial involving adults with mild asthma, budesonide-formoterol used as needed was superior to albuterol used as needed for the prevention of asthma exacerbations. (Funded by AstraZeneca and the Health Research Council of New Zealand; Novel START Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12615000999538.).


Assuntos
Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048346

RESUMO

Overall, asthma mortality rates have declined dramatically in the last 30 years, due to improved diagnosis and to better treatment, particularly in the 1990s following the more widespread use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). The impact of ICS on other long-term outcomes, such as lung function decline, is less certain, in part because the factors associated with these outcomes are incompletely understood. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of pharmacological interventions, particularly ICS, on asthma progression and mortality. Furthermore, we review the potential mechanisms of action of pharmacotherapy on asthma progression and mortality, the effects of ICS on long-term changes in lung function, and the role of ICS in various asthma phenotypes.Overall, there is compelling evidence of the value of ICS in improving asthma control, as measured by improved symptoms, pulmonary function and reduced exacerbations. There is, however, less convincing evidence that ICS prevents the decline in pulmonary function that occurs in some, although not all, patients with asthma. Severe exacerbations are associated with a more rapid decline in pulmonary function, and by reducing the risk of severe exacerbations, it is likely that ICS will, at least partially, prevent this decline. Studies using administrative databases also support an important role for ICS in reducing asthma mortality, but the fact that asthma mortality is, fortunately, an uncommon event makes it highly improbable that this will be demonstrated in prospective trials.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846476

RESUMO

Precision medicine is a patient-specific approach that integrates all relevant clinical, genetic and biological information in order to optimise the therapeutic benefit relative to the possibility of side-effects for each individual. Recent clinical trials have shown that higher blood eosinophil counts are associated with a greater efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Blood eosinophil counts are a biomarker with potential to be used in clinical practice, to help target ICS treatment with more precision in COPD patients with a history of exacerbations despite appropriate bronchodilator treatment.The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 pharmacological treatment algorithms, based on the ABCD assessment, can be applied relatively easily to treatment-naive individuals at initial presentation. However, their use is more problematic during follow-up in patients who are already on maintenance treatment. There is a need for a different system to guide COPD pharmacological management during follow-up.Recent large randomised controlled trials have provided important new information concerning the therapeutic effects of ICSs and long-acting bronchodilators on exacerbations. The new evidence regarding blood eosinophils and inhaled treatments, and the need to distinguish between initial and follow-up pharmacological management, led to changes in the GOLD pharmacological treatment recommendations. This article explains the evidence and rationale for the GOLD 2019 pharmacological treatment recommendations.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846468

RESUMO

"Treatable traits" have been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of airway diseases, particularly complex disease, which aims to apply personalised medicine to each individual to improve outcomes. Moving new treatment approaches from concepts to practice is challenging, but necessary. In an effort to accelerate progress in research and practice relating to the treatable traits approach, the Treatable Traits Down Under International Workshop was convened in Melbourne, Australia in May 2018. Here, we report the key concepts and research questions that emerged in discussions during the meeting. We propose a programme of research that involves gaining international consensus on candidate traits, recognising the prevalence of traits, and identifying a potential hierarchy of traits based on their clinical impact and responsiveness to treatment. We also reflect on research methods and designs that can generate new knowledge related to efficacy of the treatable traits approach and consider multidisciplinary models of care that may aid its implementation into practice.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(479)2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760581

RESUMO

Increased airway smooth muscle mass, a feature of airway remodeling in asthma, is the strongest predictor of airflow limitation and contributes to asthma-associated morbidity and mortality. No current drug therapy for asthma is known to affect airway smooth muscle mass. Although there is increasing evidence that prostaglandin D2 type 2 receptor (DP2) is expressed in airway structural and inflammatory cells, few studies have addressed the expression and function of DP2 in airway smooth muscle cells. We report that the DP2 antagonist fevipiprant reduced airway smooth muscle mass in bronchial biopsies from patients with asthma who had participated in a previous randomized placebo-controlled trial. We developed a computational model to capture airway remodeling. Our model predicted that a reduction in airway eosinophilia alone was insufficient to explain the clinically observed decrease in airway smooth muscle mass without a concomitant reduction in the recruitment of airway smooth muscle cells or their precursors to airway smooth muscle bundles that comprise the airway smooth muscle layer. We experimentally confirmed that airway smooth muscle migration could be inhibited in vitro using DP2-specific antagonists in an airway smooth muscle cell culture model. Our analyses suggest that fevipiprant, through antagonism of DP2, reduced airway smooth muscle mass in patients with asthma by decreasing airway eosinophilia in concert with reduced recruitment of myofibroblasts and fibrocytes to the airway smooth muscle bundle. Fevipiprant may thus represent a potential therapy to ameliorate airway remodeling in asthma.

18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(12): 1471-1477, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645143

RESUMO

The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines use the traditional terminology of "low," "medium," and "high" doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to define daily maintenance doses of 100 to 250 µg, >250 to 500 µg, and >500 µg, respectively, of fluticasone propionate or equivalent for adults with asthma. This concise clinical review proposes that this terminology is not evidence based and that prescribing practice based on this terminology may lead to the use of inappropriately excessive doses of ICS. Specifically, the ICS dose that achieves 80-90% of the maximum obtainable benefit is currently classified as a low dose, with the description of two higher dose levels of medium and high, which are associated with significant risk of systemic adverse effects. Asthma guidelines and clinician prescribing practice need to be modified in accordance with the currently available evidence of the dose-response relationship of ICS in adult asthma. We propose a reclassification of ICS doses based on a "standard daily dose," which is defined as 200-250 µg of fluticasone propionate or equivalent, representing the dose at which approximately 80-90% of the maximum achievable therapeutic benefit of ICS is obtained in adult asthma across the spectrum of severity. It is recommended that ICS treatment be started at these standard doses, which then represent the doses at which maintenance ICS are prescribed at step 2 and within ICS/long-acting ß-agonist combination therapy at step 3. The opportunity is available to prescribe higher doses within ICS/long-acting ß-agonist maintenance therapy in accordance with the stepwise approach to asthma treatment at step 4.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA