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1.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 14(4): 498-508, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464838

RESUMO

The transformation/dissolution protocol (T/DP) for metals and sparingly soluble metal compounds was applied to determine the transformation/dissolution (T/D) characteristics of yellow tungsten trioxide, WO3 ; blue tungsten oxide, WOx, x taken as 2.9; tungsten disulphide, WS2 ; tungsten metal, W; 3 samples of tungsten carbide, WC; sodium tungstate, Na2 WO4 · 2H2 O; ammonium paratungstate (APT), (NH4 )10 (H2 W12 O42 ) · 4H2 O; and ammonium metatungstate (AMT) (NH4 )6 (H2 W12 O40 ) · 3H2 O. The T/D data were used to derive aquatic hazard classification outcomes under the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) and European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (EU CLP) schemes by comparing the data with selected acute and chronic ecotoxicity reference values (ERVs) of 31 and 3.37 mg W/L, respectively. In addition to the concentration of total dissolved tungsten (W), the T/D solutions were analyzed for the concentration of the tungstate anion, because speciation can be an important factor in establishing the ecotoxicity of dissolved metals. Results show that the tungstate anion was the predominant W-bearing species in solution for all substances examined at pH 6 and 8.5. It was found that the 100 mg/L loadings of both the yellow WO3 and the blue WOx exceeded the 31 mg/L acute ERV, so they would classify as Acute 3-Chronic 3 under the UN GHS scheme but they would not classify under the EU CLP. An effect of pH on the reactivity of the W metal was observed with 3% and 16% W dissolution at pH 6 and 8.5, respectively. Tungsten metal would not classify under either the UN GHS or EU CLP schemes nor would the WS2 . The WCs were the least reactive in terms of the 1% or less dissolution of the contained W at pH 6. A critical surface area for WC was calculated. The sodium tungstate, APT and the AMT all yielded, at pH 8.5, total dissolved W concentrations that would result in UN GHS Acute 3-Chronic 3 classifications. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:498-508. © 2018 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management © 2018 SETAC.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Compostos de Tungstênio/química , Compostos de Tungstênio/toxicidade , Tungstênio/química , Tungstênio/toxicidade , Solubilidade
2.
Langmuir ; 31(38): 10599-609, 2015 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26327251

RESUMO

The transportation and accumulation of redox active species at the buried interface between glassy carbon electrodes and plasticized polymeric membranes have been studied using synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), in situ electrochemical Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Ferrocene tagged poly(vinyl chloride) [FcPVC], ferrocene (Fc), and its derivatives together with tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) doped plasticized polymeric membrane electrodes have been investigated, so as to extend the study of the mechanism of this reaction chemistry to different time scales (both small and large molecules with variable diffusion coefficients) using a range of complementary electrochemical and surface analysis techniques. This study also provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the transportation and electrochemical reactivity of redox active species, regardless of the size of the electrochemically reactive molecule, at the buried interface of the substrate electrode. With all redox dopants, when CA electrolysis was performed, redox active species were undetectable (<1 wt % of signature elements or below the detection limit of SR-XPS and NEXAFS) in the outermost surface layers of the membrane, while a high concentration of redox species was located at the electrode substrate as a consequence of the deposition of the reaction product (Fc(+)-anion complex) at the buried interface between the electrode and the membrane. This reaction chemistry for redox active species within plasticized polymeric membranes may be useful in the fashioning of multilayered polymeric devices (e.g., chemical sensors, organic electronic devices, protective laminates, etc.) based on an electrochemical tunable deposition of redox molecules at the buried substrate electrode beneath the membrane.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Plastificantes/química , Polímeros/química , Eletrodos , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Anal Chem ; 86(13): 6307-14, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871457

RESUMO

We present here for the first time an all-solid-state chronopotentiometric ion sensing system based on selective ionophores, specifically for the carbonate anion. A chronopotentiometric readout is attractive because it may allow one to obtain complementary information on the sample speciation compared to zero-current potentiometry and detect the sum of labile carbonate species instead of only ion activity. Ferrocene covalently attached to the PVC polymeric chain acts as an ion-to-electron transducer and provides the driving force to initiate the sensing process at the membrane-sample interface. The incorporation of a selective ionophore for carbonate allows one to determine this anion in a background electrolyte. Various inner electrolyte and all-solid-state-membrane configurations are explored, and localized carbonate depletion is only observed for systems that do not contain ion-exchanger additives. The square root of the transition times extracted from the inflection point of the chronopotentiograms as a function of carbonate specie concentration follows a linear relationship. The observed linear range is 0.03-0.35 mM in a pH range of 9.50-10.05. By applying the Sand equation, the diffusion coefficient of carbonate is calculated as (9.03 ± 0.91) 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), which corresponds to the established value. The reproducibility of assessed carbonate is better than 1%. Additionally, carbonate is monitored during titrimetric analysis as a precursor to an in situ environmental determination. Based on these results, Fc-PVC membranes doped with ionophores may form the basis of a new family of passive/active all-solid-state ion selective electrodes interrogated by a current pulse.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(17): 8537-45, 2013 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23961698

RESUMO

A versatile approach for the preparation of photoswitchable molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is proposed where the selective recognition and the photoresponsive function are assumed by two different monomers. As a proof of concept, MIP microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization for recognizing terbutylazine, a triazine-type herbicide. Formation of the selective binding sites was based upon H-bonding interactions between the template and the functional monomer methacrylic acid, whereas a polymerizable spiropyran unit was incorporated into the polymer matrix to provide light-controllable characteristics. A trifunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, was used as a cross-linker. The imprinted particles exhibited considerable morphological differences compared to their nonimprinted counterparts as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The imprinting effect was confirmed by equilibrium rebinding studies. The photoresponsiveness of the polymer particles was visualized by fluorescence microscopy and further characterized by spectroscopy. The template binding behavior could be regulated by alternating UV and visible light illumination when analyte release and uptake was observed, respectively. Binding isotherms fitted by the Freundlich model revealed the photomodulation of the number of binding sites and their average affinity. This facile synthetic approach may give an attractive starting point to endow currently existing highly selective MIPs with photoswitchable properties, thereby extending the scope of spiropyran-based photoresponsive smart materials.

5.
Analyst ; 138(15): 4266-9, 2013 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23714844

RESUMO

Cyclic voltammetry (CV), synchrotron radiation-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) show that oxidation of ferrocene tagged PVC induces an accumulation of high molecular weight polymer at the buried interface between the substrate electrode and the plasticized membrane.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/metabolismo , Plastificantes/química , Cloreto de Polivinila/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Eletrodos , Compostos Ferrosos/análise , Metalocenos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica/métodos , Cloreto de Polivinila/análise
6.
Anal Chem ; 85(9): 4770-6, 2013 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23534536

RESUMO

We report here on a new potentiometric biosensing principle for the detection of antibody-antigen interactions at the sensing membrane surface without the need to add a label or a reporter ion to the sample solution. This is accomplished by establishing a steady-state outward flux of a marker ion from the membrane into the contacting solution. The immunobinding event at the sensing surface retards the marker ion, which results in its accumulation at the membrane surface and hence in a potential response. The ion-selective membranes were surface-modified with an antibody against respiratory syncytial virus using click chemistry between biotin molecules functionalized with a triple bond and an azide group on the modified poly (vinyl chloride) group of the membrane. The bioassay sensor was then built up with streptavidin and subsequent biotinylated antibody. A quaternary ammonium ion served as the marker ion. The observed potential was found to be modulated by the presence of respiratory syncytial virus bound on the membrane surface. The sensing architecture was confirmed with quartz crystal microbalance studies, and stir effects confirmed the kinetic nature of the marker release from the membrane. The sensitivity of the model sensor was compared to that of a commercially available point-of-care test, with promising results.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/química , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Potenciometria/instrumentação , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Anal Chem ; 85(5): 2983-90, 2013 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23387291

RESUMO

Photoresponsive ion extraction/release systems (PRIONERS) represent a highly interesting tool for the localized and time-controlled chemical perturbation of biological materials. We report here on our first results on phototriggered calcium and sodium exchanging materials. Such materials exist in two distinct states ("on" and "off"), depending on the wavelength of illumination. We used a combination of spectroscopic and electrochemical methods to obtain a better understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the triggered ion-exchange reaction upon activation of the photoactive compound. The driving force for the ion exchange is the light-induced acidity change of the chromoionophore. Activation with UV light generates a species in the membrane with an increased pKa. Protons are pulled into the membrane, and at the same time, ions are expelled. The selectivity of the system is determined by the employed ionophore. In contrast to photoresponsive ionophore-based systems, the concept presented here is applicable for virtually any ion of interest for which an ionophore exists.

8.
Org Lett ; 14(24): 6298-301, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23228110

RESUMO

Six macrocyclic lariat-type compounds, representing a new class of anion receptors, were synthesized in a simple approach. We identified the optimal macroring size and the position of the hydrogen bond donating center in the lariat arm offering the best affinities toward chloride and carboxylate anions. The anion-binding properties of such systems were investigated by applying (1)H NMR titrations in DMSO/water and methanol/DMSO mixtures.


Assuntos
Éteres de Coroa/química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Ânions/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Anal Chem ; 84(14): 6158-65, 2012 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22703479

RESUMO

Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics.

10.
Anal Chem ; 84(7): 3163-9, 2012 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22369632

RESUMO

A novel optical method for the determination of CO(2) concentration in aqueous and gaseous samples of plasticized PVC film is presented. The detection principle makes use of a direct molecular recognition of the carbonate ion by a molecular tweezer-type ionophore, which has previously been demonstrated to exhibit excellent carbonate selectivity. The carbonate ion is extracted together with hydrogen ions into a polymeric film that contains the anion exchanger tridodecylmethylammonium chloride, a lipophilic, electrically charged, and highly basic pH indicator, which is used for the readout in absorbance mode, in addition to the lipophilic carbonate ionophore. According to known bulk optode principles, such an optical sensor responds to the product of the carbonate ion activity and the square of hydrogen ion activity. This quantity is thermodynamically linked to the activity of carbon dioxide. This allows one to realize a direct carbon dioxide sensor that does not make use of the traditional Severinghaus sensing principle of measuring a pH change upon CO(2) equilibration across a membrane. A selectivity analysis shows that common ions such as chloride are sufficiently suppressed for direct PCO(2) measurements in freshwater samples at pH 8. Chloride interference, however, is too severe for direct seawater measurements at the same pH. This may be overcome by placing a gas-permeable membrane over the optode sensing film. This is conceptually confirmed by establishing that the sensor is equally useful for gas-phase PCO(2) measurements. As expected, humid air samples are required for proper sensor functioning, as dry CO(2) gas will not cause any signal change. The sensor showed acceptable response times and good reproducibility under both conditions.

11.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 65(3): 141-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21528649

RESUMO

While potentiometric sensors experienced a golden age in the 1970s that drove innovation and implementation in the clinical laboratory as sensors of choice, it has been only fairly recently that a theoretical understanding coupled with modern materials approaches transformed the area of membrane electrodes from a playful, yet empirical field to one firmly rooted in scientific understanding. This paper summarizes key progress in the field during the past two decades, emphasizing that the key impulses at the time originated from the emerging field of optical ion sensors. This simplified and transformed the underlying theory of their potentiometric membrane electrode counterparts, where subsequently substantial progress was made, including the realization of ultra-trace detection limits. The better understanding of zero-current ion fluxes and transport processes in turn allowed the development of approaches utilizing dynamic electrochemistry principles, thereby drastically expanding the field of membrane electrodes and making available a range of new methodologies that would have been difficult to predict only a few years ago. These significant developments are now starting to come back and influence the field of optical sensors, where the control and triggering of dynamic processes, away from simpler equilibrium principles, are becoming a highly promising field of research.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Íons , Membranas Artificiais , Óptica e Fotônica , Eletroquímica
12.
Anal Chem ; 82(16): 6887-94, 2010 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20666464

RESUMO

We report here on the synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) covalently modified with ferrocene groups (FcPVC) and the electrochemical behavior of the resulting polymeric membranes in view of designing all solid state voltammetric ion sensors. The Huisgen cycloaddition ("click chemistry") was found to be a simple and efficient method for ferrocene attachment. A degree of PVC modification with ferrocene groups between 1.9 and 6.1 mol % was achieved. The chemical modification of the PVC backbone does not significantly affect the ion-selective properties (selectivity, mobility, and solvent casting ability) of potentiometric sensing membranes applying this polymer. Importantly, the presence of such ferrocene groups may eliminate the need for an additional redox-active layer between the membrane and the inner electric contact in all solid state sensor designs. Electrochemical doping of this system was studied in a symmetrical sandwich configuration: glassy carbon electrode |FcPVC| glassy carbon electrode. Prior electrochemical doping from aqueous solution, resulting in a partial oxidation of the ferrocene groups, was confirmed to be necessary for the sandwich configuration to pass current effectively. The results suggest that only approximately 2.3 mol % of the ferrocene groups are electrochemically accessible, likely due to surface confined electrochemical behavior in the polymer. Indeed, cyclic voltammetry of aqueous hexacyanoferrate (III) remains featureless at cathodic potentials (down to -0.5 V). This indicates that the modified membrane is not responsive to redox-active species in the sample solution, making it possible to apply this polymer as a traditional, single membrane. Yet, the redox capacity of the electrode modified with this type of membrane was more than 520 microC considering a 20 mm(2) active electrode area, which appears to be sufficient for numerous practical ion voltammetric applications. The electrode was observed to operate reproducibly, with 1% standard deviation, when applying pulsed amperometric techniques.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Elétrons , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Íons/química , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Carbono/química , Eletrodos , Metalocenos , Oxirredução
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