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1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 613-627, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502916

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to examine the lexical and pragmatic factors that may contribute to turn-by-turn failures in communication (i.e., miscommunication) that arise regularly in interactive communication. Method Using a corpus from a collaborative dyadic building task, we investigated what differentiated successful from unsuccessful communication and potential factors associated with the choice to provide greater lexical information to a conversation partner. Results We found that more successful dyads' language tended to be associated with greater lexical density, lower ambiguity, and fewer questions. We also found participants were more lexically dense when accepting and integrating a partner's information (i.e., grounding) but were less lexically dense when responding to a question. Finally, an exploratory analysis suggested that dyads tended to spend more lexical effort when responding to an inquiry and used assent language accurately-that is, only when communication was successful. Conclusion Together, the results suggest that miscommunication both emerges and benefits from ambiguous and lexically dense utterances.

2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336809

RESUMO

It is commonly understood that hand gesture and speech coordination in humans is culturally and cognitively acquired, rather than having a biological basis. Recently, however, the biomechanical physical coupling of arm movements to speech vocalization has been studied in steady-state vocalization and monosyllabic utterances, where forces produced during gesturing are transferred onto the tensioned body, leading to changes in respiratory-related activity and thereby affecting vocalization F0 and intensity. In the current experiment (n = 37), we extend this previous line of work to show that gesture-speech physics also impacts fluent speech. Compared with nonmovement, participants who are producing fluent self-formulated speech while rhythmically moving their limbs demonstrate heightened F0 and amplitude envelope, and such effects are more pronounced for higher-impulse arm versus lower-impulse wrist movement. We replicate that acoustic peaks arise especially during moments of peak impulse (i.e., the beat) of the movement, namely around deceleration phases of the movement. Finally, higher deceleration rates of higher-mass arm movements were related to higher peaks in acoustics. These results confirm a role for physical impulses of gesture affecting the speech system. We discuss the implications of gesture-speech physics for understanding of the emergence of communicative gesture, both ontogenetically and phylogenetically.

4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007695, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379822

RESUMO

With increasing demand for training in data science, extracurricular or "ad hoc" education efforts have emerged to help individuals acquire relevant skills and expertise. Although extracurricular efforts already exist for many computationally intensive disciplines, their support of data science education has significantly helped in coping with the speed of innovation in data science practice and formal curricula. While the proliferation of ad hoc efforts is an indication of their popularity, less has been documented about the needs that they are designed to meet, the limitations that they face, and practical suggestions for holding successful efforts. To holistically understand the role of different ad hoc formats for data science, we surveyed organizers of ad hoc data science education efforts to understand how organizers perceived the events to have gone-including areas of strength and areas requiring growth. We also gathered recommendations from these past events for future organizers. Our results suggest that the perceived benefits of ad hoc efforts go beyond developing technical skills and may provide continued benefit in conjunction with formal curricula, which warrants further investigation. As increasing numbers of researchers from computational fields with a history of complex data become involved with ad hoc efforts to share their skills, the lessons learned that we extract from the surveys will provide concrete suggestions for the practitioner-leaders interested in creating, improving, and sustaining future efforts.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados/educação , Currículo/tendências , Ciência de Dados/métodos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11364-11367, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393618

RESUMO

We show that the human voice has complex acoustic qualities that are directly coupled to peripheral musculoskeletal tensioning of the body, such as subtle wrist movements. In this study, human vocalizers produced a steady-state vocalization while rhythmically moving the wrist or the arm at different tempos. Although listeners could only hear and not see the vocalizer, they were able to completely synchronize their own rhythmic wrist or arm movement with the movement of the vocalizer which they perceived in the voice acoustics. This study corroborates recent evidence suggesting that the human voice is constrained by bodily tensioning affecting the respiratory-vocal system. The current results show that the human voice contains a bodily imprint that is directly informative for the interpersonal perception of another's dynamic physical states.


Assuntos
Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica , Punho/fisiologia
6.
Cogn Sci ; 44(4): e12834, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301530

RESUMO

Language is highly dynamic: It unfolds over time, and we can use it to achieve a wide variety of communicative goals, from telling a story to trying to persuade another person. One aspect of language that has gained increasing popularity among researchers in the last several decades is the individual language style (LS) represented by an individual's use of function words (e.g., pronouns, articles). Previous approaches to LS mostly focus on LS of one individual in isolation, paying less attention to the fact that language emerges from interaction with others. The aim of this paper is twofold: First, we integrate LS into a dynamical theoretical framework and present an innovative methodological approach. Second, this paper aims to address how interactive conversation-as an aspect of the communicative setting-changes an individual's LS. We use recurrence quantification analysis to look at structure in patterns of LS in monologs and conversations of 118 participants. Our results showed that LS significantly differs from monolog to conversation, and post hoc analyses further revealed that the change in LS is greater for conflict than for friendly conversations. The difference between monologs and conversations is reflected more strongly in the dynamics (i.e., structure and complexity) of LS than the proportion of function words used. Theoretical implications and directions for future studies are discussed.

7.
Psychol Methods ; 24(4): 419-438, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816726

RESUMO

Linguistic alignment (LA) is the tendency during a conversation to reuse each other's linguistic expressions, including lexical, conceptual, or syntactic structures. LA is often argued to be a crucial driver in reciprocal understanding and interpersonal rapport, though its precise dynamics and effects are still controversial. One barrier to more systematic investigation of these effects lies in the diversity in the methods employed to analyze LA, which makes it difficult to integrate and compare results of individual studies. To overcome this issue, we have developed ALIGN (Analyzing Linguistic Interactions with Generalizable techNiques), an open-source Python package to measure LA in conversation (https://pypi.python.org/pypi/align) along with in-depth open-source tutorials hosted on ALIGN's GitHub repository (https://github.com/nickduran/align-linguistic-alignment). Here, we first describe the challenges in the study of LA and outline how ALIGN can address them. We then demonstrate how our analytical protocol can be applied to theory-driven questions using a complex corpus of dialogue (the Devil's Advocate corpus; Duran & Fusaroli, 2017). We close by identifying further challenges and point to future developments of the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunicação , Linguística , Fala , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 3(1): 54, 2018 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594969

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated reliable fluctuations in attentional processes during the course of the day. Everyday life experience sampling, during which participants respond to "probes" delivered at random intervals throughout the day on their mobile devices, is an effective tool for capturing such diurnal fluctuations in a naturalistic way. The existence of diurnal fluctuations in the case of mind-wandering, however, has not been examined to date. We did so in two studies. In the first study, we employed everyday experience sampling to obtain self-reports from 146 university students who rated the degree of free movement in their thoughts multiple times per day over five days. These time course data were analyzed using multilevel modelling. Freely moving thought was found to fluctuate reliably over the course of the day, with lower ratings reported in the early morning and afternoon and higher ratings around midday and evening. In the second study, we replicated these effects with a reanalysis of data from a past everyday experience-sampling study. We also demonstrated differences in parameter values for the models representing freely moving thought and two common conceptualizations of mind-wandering: task-unrelated thought and stimulus-independent thought. Taken together, the present results establish and replicate a complex pattern of change over the course of the day in how freely thought moves, while also providing further evidence that freedom of movement is dissociable from other dimensions of thought such as its task-relatedness and stimulus-dependence. Future research should focus on probing possible mechanisms behind circadian fluctuations of thought dynamics.

9.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1135, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804466

RESUMO

Much work on communication and joint action conceptualizes interaction as a dynamical system. Under this view, dynamic properties of interaction should be shaped by the context in which the interaction is taking place. Here we explore interpersonal movement coordination or synchrony-the degree to which individuals move in similar ways over time-as one such context-sensitive property. Studies of coordination have typically investigated how these dynamics are influenced by either high-level constraints (i.e., slow-changing factors) or low-level constraints (i.e., fast-changing factors like movement). Focusing on nonverbal communication behaviors during naturalistic conversation, we analyzed how interacting participants' head movement dynamics were shaped simultaneously by high-level constraints (i.e., conversation type; friendly conversations vs. arguments) and low-level constraints (i.e., perceptual stimuli; non-informative visual stimuli vs. informative visual stimuli). We found that high- and low-level constraints interacted non-additively to affect interpersonal movement dynamics, highlighting the context sensitivity of interaction and supporting the view of joint action as a complex adaptive system.

10.
Behav Res Methods ; 49(5): 1630-1638, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425058

RESUMO

Today, people generate and store more data than ever before as they interact with both real and virtual environments. These digital traces of behavior and cognition offer cognitive scientists and psychologists an unprecedented opportunity to test theories outside the laboratory. Despite general excitement about big data and naturally occurring datasets among researchers, three "gaps" stand in the way of their wider adoption in theory-driven research: the imagination gap, the skills gap, and the culture gap. We outline an approach to bridging these three gaps while respecting our responsibilities to the public as participants in and consumers of the resulting research. To that end, we introduce Data on the Mind ( http://www.dataonthemind.org ), a community-focused initiative aimed at meeting the unprecedented challenges and opportunities of theory-driven research with big data and naturally occurring datasets. We argue that big data and naturally occurring datasets are most powerfully used to supplement-not supplant-traditional experimental paradigms in order to understand human behavior and cognition, and we highlight emerging ethical issues related to the collection, sharing, and use of these powerful datasets.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Internet , Ciência Cognitiva , Humanos , Imaginação , Pesquisa , Pesquisadores
11.
Emotion ; 16(6): 913-28, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27148849

RESUMO

Dynamic patterns of influence between parents and children have long been considered key to understanding family relationships. Despite this, most observational research on emotion in parent-child interactions examines global behaviors at the expense of exploring moment-to-moment fluctuations in emotions that are important for relational outcomes. Using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and growth curve analysis, this investigation explored emotion dynamics during parent-adolescent conflict interactions, focusing not only on concurrently shared emotional states but also on time-lagged synchrony of parents' and adolescents' emotions relative to one another. Mother-adolescent dyads engaged in a 10-min conflict discussion and reported on their satisfaction with the process and outcome of the discussion. Emotions were coded using the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF) and were collapsed into the following categories: negativity, positivity, and validation/interest. RQA and growth curve analyses revealed that negative and positive emotions were characterized by a concurrently synchronous pattern across all dyads, with the highest recurrence rates occurring around simultaneity. However, lower levels of concurrent synchrony of negative emotions were associated with higher discussion satisfaction. We also found that patterns of negativity differed with age: Mothers led negativity in dyads with younger adolescents, and adolescents led negativity in dyads with older adolescents. In contrast to negative and positive emotions, validation/interest showed the time-lagged pattern characteristic of turn-taking, and more highly satisfied dyads showed stronger patterns of time-lagged coordination in validation/interest. Our findings underscore the dynamic nature of emotions in parent-adolescent interactions and highlight the important contributions of these moment-to-moment dynamics toward overall interaction quality. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Emoções/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho
12.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0122742, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880357

RESUMO

The past two decades have seen an upsurge of interest in the collective behaviors of complex systems composed of many agents entrained to each other and to external events. In this paper, we extend the concept of entrainment to the dynamics of human collective attention. We conducted a detailed investigation of the unfolding of human entrainment--as expressed by the content and patterns of hundreds of thousands of messages on Twitter--during the 2012 US presidential debates. By time-locking these data sources, we quantify the impact of the unfolding debate on human attention at three time scales. We show that collective social behavior covaries second-by-second to the interactional dynamics of the debates: A candidate speaking induces rapid increases in mentions of his name on social media and decreases in mentions of the other candidate. Moreover, interruptions by an interlocutor increase the attention received. We also highlight a distinct time scale for the impact of salient content during the debates: Across well-known remarks in each debate, mentions in social media start within 5-10 seconds after it occurs; peak at approximately one minute; and slowly decay in a consistent fashion across well-known events during the debates. Finally, we show that public attention after an initial burst slowly decays through the course of the debates. Thus we demonstrate that large-scale human entrainment may hold across a number of distinct scales, in an exquisitely time-locked fashion. The methods and results pave the way for careful study of the dynamics and mechanisms of large-scale human entrainment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
13.
Behav Res Methods ; 47(3): 608-19, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893865

RESUMO

As commercial technology moves further into wearable technologies, cognitive and psychological scientists can capitalize on these devices to facilitate naturalistic research designs while still maintaining strong experimental control. One such wearable technology is Google Glass (Google, Inc.: www.google.com/glass), which can present wearers with audio and visual stimuli while tracking a host of multimodal data. In this article, we introduce PsyGlass, a framework for incorporating Google Glass into experimental work that is freely available for download and community improvement over time (www.github.com/a-paxton/PsyGlass). As a proof of concept, we use this framework to investigate dual-task pressures on naturalistic interaction. The preliminary study demonstrates how designs from classic experimental psychology may be integrated in naturalistic interactive designs with emerging technologies. We close with a series of recommendations for using PsyGlass and a discussion of how wearable technology more broadly may contribute to new or adapted naturalistic research designs.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Internet , Interface Usuário-Computador , Pesquisa Comportamental/instrumentação , Humanos
14.
Cogn Process ; 16(4): 325-32, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25757891

RESUMO

Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like. In the present study, dyads worked together to construct towers from uncooked spaghetti and marshmallows. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis, we found that dyads with loosely coupled gross body movements performed better, supporting recent work suggesting that simple synchrony may not be the key to effective performance (Riley et al. 2011). We also found evidence that leader-follower dynamics-when sensitive to the specific role structure of the interaction-impact task performance. We discuss our results with respect to the functional role of coordination in human interaction.


Assuntos
Movimento/fisiologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Periodicidade , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Percepção do Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 143(6): 2304-15, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25285431

RESUMO

Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Fala , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 66(11): 2092-102, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24303888

RESUMO

Research on interpersonal convergence and synchrony characterizes the way in which interacting individuals come to have more similar affect, behaviour, and cognition over time. Although its dynamics have been explored in many settings, convergence during conflict has been almost entirely overlooked. We present a simple but ecologically valid study comparing how different situational contexts that highlight affiliation and argument impact interpersonal convergence of body movement and to what degree emotional states affect convergence in both conversational settings. Using linear mixed-effect models, we found that in-phase bodily synchrony decreases significantly during argument. However, affective changes did not significantly predict changes in levels of interpersonal synchrony, suggesting that differences in affect valences between affiliation and argument cannot solely explain our results.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Movimento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Behav Res Methods ; 45(2): 329-43, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23055158

RESUMO

The study of interpersonal synchrony examines how interacting individuals grow to have similar behavior, cognition, and emotion in time. Many of the established methods of analyzing interpersonal synchrony are costly and time-consuming; the study of bodily synchrony has been especially laborious, traditionally requiring researchers to hand-code movement frame by frame. Because of this, researchers have been searching for more efficient alternatives for decades. Recently, some researchers (e.g., Nagaoka & Komori (IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, 91(6), 1634-1640, 2008); Ramseyer & Tschacher, 2008) have applied computer science and computer vision techniques to create frame-differencing methods (FDMs) to simplify analyses. In this article, we provide a detailed presentation of one such FDM, created by modifying and adding to existing FDMs. The FDM that we present requires little programming experience or specialized equipment: Only a few lines of MATLAB code are required to execute an automated analysis of interpersonal synchrony. We provide sample code and demonstrate its use with an analysis of brief, friendly conversations; using linear mixed-effects models, the measure of interpersonal synchrony was found to be significantly predicted by time lag (p < .001) and by the interaction between time lag and measures of interpersonal liking (p < .001). This pattern of results fits with existing literature on synchrony. We discuss the current limitations and future directions for FDMs, including their use as part of a larger methodology for capturing and analyzing multimodal interaction.


Assuntos
Cinésica , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Postura , Adulto Jovem
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