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2.
Lancet ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the USA, COVID-19 vaccines became available in mid-December, 2020, with adults aged 65 years and older among the first groups prioritised for vaccination. We estimated the national-level impact of the initial phases of the US COVID-19 vaccination programme on COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and deaths among adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: We analysed population-based data reported to US federal agencies on COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and deaths among adults aged 50 years and older during the period Nov 1, 2020, to April 10, 2021. We calculated the relative change in incidence among older age groups compared with a younger reference group for pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods, defined by the week when vaccination coverage in a given age group first exceeded coverage in the reference age group by at least 1%; time lags for immune response and time to outcome were incorporated. We assessed whether the ratio of these relative changes differed when comparing the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods. FINDINGS: The ratio of relative changes comparing the change in the COVID-19 case incidence ratio over the post-vaccine versus pre-vaccine periods showed relative decreases of 53% (95% CI 50 to 55) and 62% (59 to 64) among adults aged 65 to 74 years and 75 years and older, respectively, compared with those aged 50 to 64 years. We found similar results for emergency department visits with relative decreases of 61% (52 to 68) for adults aged 65 to 74 years and 77% (71 to 78) for those aged 75 years and older compared with adults aged 50 to 64 years. Hospital admissions declined by 39% (29 to 48) among those aged 60 to 69 years, 60% (54 to 66) among those aged 70 to 79 years, and 68% (62 to 73), among those aged 80 years and older, compared with adults aged 50 to 59 years. COVID-19 deaths also declined (by 41%, 95% CI -14 to 69 among adults aged 65-74 years and by 30%, -47 to 66 among those aged ≥75 years, compared with adults aged 50 to 64 years), but the magnitude of the impact of vaccination roll-out on deaths was unclear. INTERPRETATION: The initial roll-out of the US COVID-19 vaccination programme was associated with reductions in COVID-19 cases, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions among older adults. FUNDING: None.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Virus Evol ; 7(1): veab023, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522389

RESUMO

For over a decade, the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) has conducted active rotavirus (RVA) strain surveillance in the USA. The evolution of RVA in the post-vaccine introduction era and the possible effects of vaccine pressure on contemporary circulating strains in the USA are still under investigation. Here, we report the whole-gene characterization (eleven ORFs) for 157 RVA strains collected at seven NVSN sites during the 2014 through 2016 seasons. The sequenced strains included 52 G1P[8], 47 G12P[8], 18 G9P[8], 24 G2P[4], 5 G3P[6], as well as 7 vaccine strains, a single mixed strain (G9G12P[8]), and 3 less common strains. The majority of the single and mixed strains possessed a Wa-like backbone with consensus genotype constellation of G1/G3/G9/G12-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, while the G2P[4], G3P[6], and G2P[8] strains displayed a DS-1-like genetic backbone with consensus constellation of G2/G3-P[4]/P[6]/P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Two intergenogroup reassortant G1P[8] strains were detected that appear to be progenies of reassortment events between Wa-like G1P[8] and DS-1-like G2P[4] strains. Two Rotarix® vaccine (RV1) and two RV5 derived (vd) reassortant strains were detected. Phylogenetic and similarity matrices analysis revealed 2-11 sub-genotypic allelic clusters among the genes of Wa- and DS-1-like strains. Most study strains clustered into previously defined alleles. Amino acid (AA) substitutions occurring in the neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins characterized in this study were mostly neutral in nature, suggesting that these RVA proteins were possibly under strong negative or purifying selection in order to maintain competent and actual functionality, but fourteen radical (AA changes that occur between groups) AA substitutions were noted that may allow RVA strains to gain a selective advantage through immune escape. The tracking of RVA strains at the sub-genotypic allele constellation level will enhance our understanding of RVA evolution under vaccine pressure, help identify possible mechanisms of immune escape, and provide valuable information for formulation of future RVA vaccines.

5.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361964

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause illnesses ranging from mild diarrhea to ischemic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); serogroup O157 is the most common cause. We describe the epidemiology and transmission routes for U.S. STEC outbreaks during 2010-2017. Health departments reported 466 STEC outbreaks affecting 4769 persons; 459 outbreaks had a serogroup identified (330 O157, 124 non-O157, 5 both). Among these, 361 (77%) had a known transmission route: 200 foodborne (44% of O157 outbreaks, 41% of non-O157 outbreaks), 87 person-to-person (16%, 24%), 49 animal contact (11%, 9%), 20 water (4%, 5%), and 5 environmental contamination (2%, 0%). The most common food category implicated was vegetable row crops. The distribution of O157 and non-O157 outbreaks varied by age, sex, and severity. A significantly higher percentage of STEC O157 than non-O157 outbreaks were transmitted by beef (p = 0.02). STEC O157 outbreaks also had significantly higher rates of hospitalization and HUS (p < 0.001).

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(11): e0115421, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406795

RESUMO

While rotavirus vaccine programs effectively protect against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, rotavirus vaccine strains have been identified in the stool of vaccinated children and their close contacts suffering from acute gastroenteritis. The prevalence of vaccine strains, the emergence of vaccine-derived strains, and their role in acute gastroenteritis are not well studied. We developed a locked nucleic acid reverse transcription real-time PCR assay (LNA-RTqPCR) to detect the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) Rotarix nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) in children with acute gastroenteritis and healthy controls, and validated it using sequence-confirmed RV1 strains. The association between RV1-derived strains and gastroenteritis was determined using logistic regression. The new assay exhibited 100% (95% CI 91.7%, 100%) diagnostic sensitivity and 99.4% (95% CI 96.2%, 100%) diagnostic specificity, with a detection limit of 9.86 copies/reaction and qPCR efficiency of 99.7%. Using this assay, we identified the presence of RV1-derived NSP2 sequences in 7.7% of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases and 98.6% of rotavirus-positive healthy children (94.4% had previously received the RV1). Among gastroenteritis cases, those whose stool contained RV1-derived strains had milder gastroenteritis symptoms compared to that of natural rotavirus infections. We observed no significant association between RV1-derived strains and gastroenteritis (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; 95% CI 0.60, 1.72). Our study demonstrated that the new assay is suitable for monitoring RV1-derived rotavirus strain circulation and that the RV1-derived strains are not associated with development of gastroenteritis symptoms.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(7): 782-788, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are an important cause of diarrhea in young children and can result in severe complications. Disparities in Shigella infections are well documented among US adults. Our objective was to characterize disparities in incidence and severity of Shigella infections among US children. METHODS: We analyzed laboratory-diagnosed Shigella infections reported to FoodNet, an active, population-based surveillance system in 10 US sites, among children during 2009-2018. We calculated the incidence rate stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, Shigella species, and disease severity. Criteria for severe classification were hospitalization, bacteremia, or death. The odds of severe infection were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: During 2009-2018, 10 537 Shigella infections were reported in children and 1472 (14.0%) were severe. The incidence rate was 9.5 infections per 100 000 child-years and the incidence rate of severe infections was 1.3 per 100 000 child-years. Incidence was highest among children aged 1-4 years (19.5) and lowest among children aged 13-17 years (2.3); however, children aged 13-17 years had the greatest proportion of severe infections (21.2%). Incidence was highest among Black (16.2 total; 2.3 severe), Hispanic (13.1 total; 2.3 severe), and American Indian/Alaska Native (15.2 total; 2.5 severe) children. Infections caused by non-sonnei species had higher odds of severity than infections caused by Shigella sonnei (adjusted odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 2.12-3.14). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and severity of Shigella infections among US children vary by age, race/ethnicity, and Shigella species, warranting investigation of unique risk factors among pediatric subpopulations.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Shigella , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Conduta Expectante
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1539-1549, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) has substantially declined in US children. We report the RVA genotype prevalence as well as coinfection data from 7 US New Vaccine Surveillance Network sites during 3 consecutive RVA seasons, 2014-2016. METHODS: A total of 1041 stool samples that tested positive for RVA by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for RVA genotyping and multipathogen testing. RESULTS: A total of 795 (76%) samples contained detectable RVA when tested at the CDC. Rotavirus disease was highest in children < 3 years of age. Four G types (G1, G2, G9, and G12) accounted for 94.6% of strains while 2 P types (P[4] and P[8]) accounted for 94.7% of the strains. Overall, G12P[8] was the most common genotype detected in all 3 seasons. Stepwise conditional logistic analysis found year and study site were significant predictors of genotype. Twenty-four percent of RVA-positive specimens contained other AGE pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: G12P[8] predominated over 3 seasons, but strain predominance varied by year and study site. Ongoing surveillance provides continuous tracking and monitoring of US genotypes during the postvaccine era.

9.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(6): 452-462, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733869

RESUMO

Background: Black mothers in the United States have shorter breastfeeding (BF) durations and less exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) than others. The factors underlying these disparities require investigation. Methods: Using longitudinal data from a CDC-sponsored birth cohort in Cincinnati, Ohio, we analyzed the factors mediating racial disparity in BF outcomes. Study mothers were enrolled in prenatal clinics associated with two large birth hospitals. Analysis was restricted to racial groups with sufficient numbers in the cohort, non-Hispanic Black (n = 92) and White (n = 113) mothers, followed to at least 6 months postpartum. Results: Black mothers were 25 times more likely to reside in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and 20 times more likely to have an annual household income <$50,000/year than White mothers (p < 0.001). The gap in EBF for 6 weeks was 45 percentage points by racial group (13%-Black mothers versus 58%-White mothers, p < 0.001); in any BF at 6 months was 37 percentage points (28%-Black mothers versus 65%-White mothers, p < 0.001); and in mothers meeting their own intention to BF at least 6 months was 51 percentage points (29%-Black mothers versus 80%-White mothers, p < 0.001). Racial disparity in EBF at 6 weeks was mediated in logistic regression models by inequities in socioeconomic position, maternal hypertension, and BF intention. Racial disparities in BF at 6 months or meeting 6-month BF intention were mediated by inequities in socioeconomic position, maternal obesity, and EBF at 6 weeks. Not all BF disparities could be explained by models used in these analyses. Conclusions: Efforts to lessen BF disparities should address the underlying structural inequities that disproportionately affect Black mothers and children, should incorporate maternal health, and focus on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Few Black mothers achieved EBF at 6 weeks, which contributed to disparity in BF duration. Greater attention to Black mother-infant pairs is a public health priority.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(2): e22222, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause significant pediatric morbidity and mortality. Developing childhood vaccines against major enteric and respiratory pathogens should be guided by the natural history of infection and acquired immunity. The United States currently lacks contemporary birth cohort data to guide vaccine development. OBJECTIVE: The PREVAIL (Pediatric Respiratory and Enteric Virus Acquisition and Immunogenesis Longitudinal) Cohort study was undertaken to define the natural history of infection and immune response to major pathogens causing AGE and ARI in US children. METHODS: Mothers in Cincinnati, Ohio, were enrolled in their third trimester of pregnancy, with intensive child follow-up to 2 years. Blood samples were obtained from children at birth (cord), 6 weeks, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Whole stool specimens and midturbinate nasal swabs were collected weekly and tested by multipathogen molecular assays. Saliva, meconium, maternal blood, and milk samples were also collected. AGE (≥3 loose or watery stools or ≥1 vomiting episode within 24 hours) and ARI (cough or fever) cases were documented by weekly cell phone surveys to mothers via automated SMS text messaging and review of medical records. Immunization records were obtained from registries and providers. follow-up ended in October 2020. Pathogen-specific infections are defined by a PCR-positive sample or rise in serum antibody. RESULTS: Of the 245 enrolled mother-child pairs, 51.8% (n=127) were White, 43.3% (n=106) Black, 55.9% (n=137) publicly insured, and 86.5% (n=212) initiated breastfeeding. Blood collection was 100.0% for mothers (n=245) and 85.7% for umbilical cord (n=210). A total of 194/245 (79.2%) mother-child pairs were compliant based on participation in at least 70% (≥71/102 study weeks) of child-weeks and providing 70% or more of weekly samples during that time, or blood samples at 18 or 24 months. Compliant participants (n=194) had 71.0% median nasal swab collection (IQR 30.0%-90.5%), with 98.5% (191/194) providing either an 18- or 24-month blood sample; median response to weekly SMS text message surveys was 95.1% (IQR 76.5%-100%). Compliant mothers reported 2.0 AGE and 4.5 ARI cases per child-year, of which 25.5% (160/627) and 38.06% (486/1277) of cases, respectively, were medically attended; 0.5% of AGE (3/627) and 0.55% of ARI (7/1277) cases were hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: The PREVAIL Cohort demonstrates intensive follow-up to document the natural history of enteric and respiratory infections and immunity in children 0-2 years of age in the United States and will contribute unique data to guide vaccine recommendations. Testing for pathogens and antibodies is ongoing. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/22222.

11.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e042121, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relatively limited data are available regarding paediatric COVID-19. Although most children appear to have mild or asymptomatic infections, infants and those with comorbidities are at increased risk of experiencing more severe illness and requiring hospitalisation due to COVID-19. The recent but uncommon association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with development of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome has heightened the importance of understanding paediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Paediatric Emergency Research Network-COVID-19 cohort study is a rapid, global, prospective cohort study enrolling 12 500 children who are tested for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. 47 emergency departments across 12 countries on four continents will participate. At enrolment, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 test results, all children will have the same information collected, including clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, imaging and outcome data. Interventions and outcome data will be collected for hospitalised children. For all children, follow-up at 14 and 90 days will collect information on further medical care received, and long-term sequelae, respectively. Statistical models will be designed to identify risk factors for infection and severe outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Sites will seek ethical approval locally, and informed consent will be obtained. There is no direct risk or benefit of study participation. Weekly interim analysis will allow for real-time data sharing with regional, national, and international policy makers. Harmonisation and sharing of investigation materials with WHO, will contribute to synergising global efforts for the clinical characterisation of paediatric COVID-19. Our findings will enable the implementation of countermeasures to reduce viral transmission and severe COVID-19 outcomes in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04330261.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Cooperação Internacional , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/organização & administração , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(4): 389-397, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parent-reported influenza vaccination history may be valuable clinically and in influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies. Few studies have assessed the validity of parental report among hospitalized children. METHODS: Parents of 2597 hospitalized children 6 months-17 years old were interviewed from November 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016, regarding their child's sociodemographic and influenza vaccination history. Parent-reported 2015-2016 influenza vaccination history was compared with documented vaccination records (considered the gold standard for analysis) obtained from medical records, immunization information systems, and providers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine potential factors associated with discordance between the 2 sources of vaccination history. Using a test-negative design, we estimated VE using vaccination history obtained through parental report and documented records. RESULTS: According to parental report, 1718 (66%) children received the 2015-2016 influenza vaccine, and of those, 1432 (83%) had documentation of vaccine receipt. Percent agreement was 87%, with a sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95%-97%) and a specificity of 74% (95% CI, 72%-77%). In the multivariable logistic regression, study site and child's age 5-8 years were significant predictors of discordance. Adjusted VE among children who received ≥1 dose of the 2015-2016 influenza vaccine per parental report was 61% (95% CI, 43%-74%), whereas VE using documented records was 55% (95% CI, 33%-69%). CONCLUSIONS: Parental report of influenza vaccination was sensitive but not as specific compared with documented records. However, VE against influenza-associated hospitalizations using either source of vaccination history did not differ substantially. Parental report is valuable for timely influenza VE studies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunização , Lactente , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pais , Vacinação
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(3): 759-772, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755474

RESUMO

TIPICO is an expert meeting and workshop that aims to provide the most recent evidence in the field of infectious diseases and vaccination. The 10th Interactive Infectious Disease TIPICO workshop took place in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, on November 21-22, 2019. Cutting-edge advances in vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, rotavirus, human papillomavirus, Neisseria meningitidis, influenza virus, and Salmonella Typhi were discussed. Furthermore, heterologous vaccine effects were updated, including the use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine as potential treatment for type 1 diabetes. Finally, the workshop also included presentations and discussion on emergent virus and zoonoses, vaccine resilience, building and sustaining confidence in vaccination, approaches to vaccine decision-making, pros and cons of compulsory vaccination, the latest advances in decoding infectious diseases by RNA gene signatures, and the application of big data approaches.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Animais , Vacina BCG , Humanos , Espanha , Vacinação
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(4): 576-585, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common reason for children to receive medical care. However, the viral etiology of AGE illness is not well described in the post-rotavirus vaccine era, particularly in the outpatient (OP) setting. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, children 15 days through 17 years old presenting to Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, with AGE were enrolled prospectively from the inpatient, emergency department, and OP settings, and stool specimens were collected. Healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and frequency matched for period, age group, race, and ethnicity. Stool specimens were tested by means of reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus RNA and by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus antigen, followed by polymerase chain reaction verification of antigen detection. RESULTS: A total of 3705 AGE case patients and 1563 HCs were enrolled, among whom 2885 case patients (78%) and 1110 HCs (71%) provided stool specimens that were tested. All 4 viruses were more frequently detected in AGE case patients than in HCs (norovirus, 22% vs 8%, respectively; rotavirus, 10% vs 1%; sapovirus, 10% vs 5%; and astrovirus, 5% vs 2%; P < .001 for each virus). In the OP setting, rates of AGE due to norovirus were higher than rate for the other 3 viruses. Children <5 years old had higher OP AGE rates than older children for all viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus remains the most common virus detected in all settings, occurring nearly twice as frequently as the next most common pathogens, sapovirus and rotavirus. Combined, norovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus were associated with almost half of all AGE visits and therefore are an important reason for children to receive medical care.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Sapovirus , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Sapovirus/genética , Tennessee/epidemiologia
15.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(2): 75-82, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annual United States (US) estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children typically measure protection against outpatient medically attended influenza illness, with limited data evaluating VE against influenza hospitalizations. We estimated VE for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalization among US children. METHODS: We included children aged 6 months-17 years with acute respiratory illness enrolled in the New Vaccine Surveillance Network during the 2015-2016 influenza season. Documented influenza vaccination status was obtained from state immunization information systems, the electronic medical record, and/or provider records. Midturbinate nasal and throat swabs were tested for influenza using molecular assays. We estimated VE as 100% × (1 - odds ratio), comparing the odds of vaccination among subjects testing influenza positive with subjects testing negative, using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1653 participants, 36 of 707 (5%) of those fully vaccinated, 18 of 226 (8%) of those partially vaccinated, and 85 of 720 (12%) of unvaccinated children tested positive for influenza. Of those vaccinated, almost 90% were documented to have received inactivated vaccine. The majority (81%) of influenza cases were in children ≤ 8 years of age. Of the 139 influenza-positive cases, 42% were A(H1N1)pdm09, 42% were B viruses, and 14% were A(H3N2). Overall, adjusted VE for fully vaccinated children was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34%-71%) against any influenza-associated hospitalization, 68% (95% CI, 36%-84%) for A(H1N1)pdm09, and 44% (95% CI, -1% to 69%) for B viruses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the importance of annual influenza vaccination in prevention of severe influenza disease and of reducing the number of children who remain unvaccinated or partially vaccinated against influenza.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1525-e1531, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE), with most outbreaks occurring during winter. The majority of outbreaks are caused by GII.4 noroviruses; however, data to support whether this is true for sporadic medically attended AGE are limited. Therefore, we sought to compare the clinical characteristics and seasonality of GII.4 vs non-GII.4 viruses. METHODS: Children aged 15 days -17 years with AGE symptoms were recruited from the outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient settings at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Davidson County, Nashville, Tennessee, from December 2012 -November 2015. Stool specimens were tested using qRT-PCR for GI and GII noroviruses and subsequently genotyped by sequencing a partial region of the capsid gene. RESULTS: A total of 3705 patients were enrolled, and stool specimens were collected and tested from 2885 (78%) enrollees. Overall, 636 (22%) samples were norovirus-positive, of which 567 (89%) were GII. Of the 460 (81%) genotyped GII-positive samples, 233 (51%) were typed as GII.4 and 227 (49%) as non-GII.4. Compared with children with non-GII.4 infections, children with GII.4 infections were younger, more likely to have diarrhea, and more likely to receive oral rehydration fluids. Norovirus was detected year-round and peaked during winter. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 40% of sporadic pediatric norovirus AGE cases were caused by GII.4 norovirus. Children infected with GII.4 had more severe symptoms that required more medical care. Seasonal variations were noticed among different genotypes. These data highlight the importance of continuous norovirus surveillance and provide important information on which strains pediatric norovirus vaccines should protect against.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 133-136, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211872

RESUMO

To assess whether titers of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin G persist during the post-rotavirus vaccine era, the Pediatric Respiratory and Enteric Virus Acquisition and Immunogenesis Longitudinal (PREVAIL) Cohort analyzed serum samples collected from Cincinnati-area mothers and young infants in 2017-2018. Rotavirus-specific antibodies continue to be transferred from US mothers to their offspring in the post-rotavirus vaccine era, despite dramatic decreases in childhood rotavirus gastroenteritis.

18.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(7): 555-562, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diagnosing Clostridioides difficile infections in young children with high asymptomatic colonization is challenging. We compared the frequency of C difficile detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in healthy control (HC) children with those with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and evaluated fecal-lactoferrin and organism load as possible indicators of true C difficile infection disease. METHODS: Stool was collected from children <2 years old with AGE and from HCs. C difficile was detected by real-time PCR, and lactoferrin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical data were obtained via interviews and chart review. Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 tests were used for group comparisons. RESULTS: Of 524 stools collected from 524 children (250 with AGE, 274 HCs), C difficile was detected less in children with AGE (14%, 36 of 250) than in HCs (28%, 76 of 274) stools (P < .0001). Among infants <1 year old (n = 297), C difficile was detected in 18% of children with AGE versus 32% of HCs (P < .005), and among children 1 to 2 years old (n = 227), C difficile was detected in 10% of children with AGE versus 21% of HCs (P < .02). There was no significant difference in C difficile PCR cycle threshold values between children with AGE and HCs or lactoferrin levels in C difficile PCR-positive versus -negative stools. CONCLUSIONS: HC children <2 years of age had higher rates of C difficile detection by PCR than children with AGE; C difficile detection by real-time PCR alone is not a reliable means to diagnose C difficile disease in children <2 years old.


Assuntos
Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridioides , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of hospitalized acute respiratory illness (ARI) among young children. With RSV vaccines and immunoprophylaxis agents in clinical development, we sought to update estimates of US pediatric RSV hospitalization burden. METHODS: Children <5 years old hospitalized for ARI were enrolled through active, prospective, population-based surveillance from November 1, 2015, to June 30, 2016, at 7 US pediatric hospital sites. Clinical information was obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Midturbinate nasal and throat flocked swabs were collected and tested for RSV by using molecular diagnostic assays at each site. We conducted descriptive analyses and calculated population-based rates of RSV-associated hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 2969 hospitalized children included in analyses, 1043 (35%) tested RSV-positive; 903 (87%) children who were RSV-positive were <2 years old, and 526 (50%) were <6 months old. RSV-associated hospitalization rates were 2.9 per 1000 children <5 years old and 14.7 per 1000 children <6 months old; the highest age-specific rate was observed in 1-month-old infants (25.1 per 1000). Most children who were infected with RSV (67%) had no underlying comorbid conditions and no history of preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: During the 2015-2016 season, RSV infection was associated with one-third of ARI hospitalizations in our study population of young children. Hospitalization rates were highest in infants <6 months. Most children who were RSV-positive had no history of prematurity or underlying medical conditions, suggesting that all young children could benefit from targeted interventions against RSV.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 714-721, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525850

RESUMO

Compared with the volume of data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks among older adults, relatively few data are available concerning COVID-19 in younger, healthy persons in the United States (1,2). In late March 2020, the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt arrived at port in Guam after numerous U.S. service members onboard developed COVID-19. In April, the U.S. Navy and CDC investigated this outbreak, and the demographic, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings among a convenience sample of 382 service members serving aboard the aircraft carrier are reported in this study. The outbreak was characterized by widespread transmission with relatively mild symptoms and asymptomatic infection among this sample of mostly young, healthy adults with close, congregate exposures. Service members who reported taking preventive measures had a lower infection rate than did those who did not report taking these measures (e.g., wearing a face covering, 55.8% versus 80.8%; avoiding common areas, 53.8% versus 67.5%; and observing social distancing, 54.7% versus 70.0%, respectively). The presence of neutralizing antibodies, which represent antibodies that inhibit SARS-CoV-2, among the majority (59.2%) of those with antibody responses is a promising indicator of at least short-term immunity. This report improves the understanding of COVID-19 in the U.S. military and among young adults in congregate settings and reinforces the importance of preventive measures to lower risk for infection in similar environments.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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