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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 788-802, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564434

RESUMO

Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is the most common sensory impairment in the aging population; a third of individuals are affected by disabling hearing loss by the age of 65. It causes social isolation and depression and has recently been identified as a risk factor for dementia. The genetic risk factors and underlying pathology of ARHI are largely unknown, meaning that targets for new therapies remain elusive, yet heritability estimates range between 35% and 55%. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for two self-reported hearing phenotypes, using more than 250,000 UK Biobank (UKBB) volunteers aged between 40 and 69 years. Forty-four independent genome-wide significant loci (p < 5E-08) were identified, considerably increasing the number of established trait loci. Thirty-four loci are novel associations with hearing loss of any form, and only one of the ten known hearing loci has a previously reported association with an ARHI-related trait. Gene sets from these loci are enriched in auditory processes such as synaptic activities, nervous system processes, inner ear morphology, and cognition, while genetic correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlations with multiple personality and psychological traits for the first time. Immunohistochemistry for protein localization in adult mouse cochlea implicate metabolic, sensory, and neuronal functions for NID2, CLRN2, and ARHGEF28. These results provide insight into the genetic landscape underlying ARHI, opening up novel therapeutic targets for further investigation. In a wider context, our study also highlights the viability of using self-report phenotypes for genetic discovery in very large samples when deep phenotyping is unavailable.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

3.
J Sleep Res ; : e12898, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313420

RESUMO

The relationships between older age and sleep efficiency have traditionally been assessed using cross-sectional studies that ignore changes within individuals as they age. This research examines the determinants of sleep efficiency, the heterogeneity in an individual's sleep efficiency trajectory across a period of up to 27 years in later life and its associations with health. The University of Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition in Normal Healthy Old Age cohort (n = 6,375; age 42-94 years) was used in this study. Depression and health data were collected using self-report validated instruments (Cornell Medical Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale). Longitudinal sleep and sociodemographic data were collected using a study-specific self-report questionnaire. A mixed-effect model was performed for sleep efficiency with adjustments for time-invariant and time-variant predictors. Latent class analysis was used to demonstrate subgroups of sleep efficiency trajectories and associations between sleep efficiency clusters and health history of the participants were investigated. Older adults have decreased sleep efficiency over time, with 18.6% decline between 40 and 100 years of age. Three sleep efficiency trajectory clusters were identified: high (32%), medium (50%) and low sleep efficiency (18%). Belonging to the high sleep efficiency cluster was associated with having lower prevalence of hypertension, circulatory problems, general arthritis, breathing problems and recurrent episodes of depression compared to the low efficiency cluster. Overall, ageing decreases sleep efficiency. However, there are detectable subgroups of sleep efficiency that are related to prevalence of different diseases.

4.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(9): 1285-1300, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328571

RESUMO

Evening-oriented sleep timing preferences have been associated with risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, psychiatric disorders, and increased mortality. This research aims to explore the relationship between diurnal preferences (chronotype), daily habits, metabolic health, and mortality, using longitudinal data from The University of Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition in Normal Healthy Old Age (6375 participants at inception, recruited in the North of England) with a long follow-up period (up to 35.5 years). Mixed models were used to investigate the influence of aging, socio-demographic, and seasonal factors on sleep timing. Results show that sleep timing shifted towards earlier time with aging. Test seasons influence chronotype of older adults but working schedules challenge seasonality of sleep timing. Moreover, the season of birth may set chronotype in adulthood. Individual chronotype trajectories were clustered using latent class analysis and analyzed against metabolic health and mortality. We observed a higher risk of hypertension in the evening-type cluster compared to morning-type individuals (Odds ratio = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.02/3.47, p = .04). Evening-type cluster was also associated with traits related to lower health such as reduced sport participation, increased risk of depression and psychoticism personality, late eating, and increased smoking and alcohol usage. Finally, Cox regression of proportional hazards was used to study the effects of chronotype on longevity after adjusting for sleep duration, age, gender, smoking, alcohol usage, general health, and social class. The survival analysis (82.6% censored by death) revealed that evening-type chronotype increased the likelihood of mortality (Hazard ratio = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.04/1.26, p = .005). Taken together, chronotype is influenced by aging and seasonal effects. Evening-type preference may have detrimental outcomes for human well-being and longevity.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 69(4): 1089-1097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neurogenesis and has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, few studies have investigated together the epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational regulation of this peptide in the brain in relation to AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanisms underlying how BDNF is possibly dysregulated in the brain in relation to aging and AD neuropathology. METHODS: Prefrontal cortex tissues were acquired from the Manchester Brain Bank (N = 67). BDNF exon I, and exon IV-containing transcripts and total long 3' transcript gene expression were determined by quantitative PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to quantify DNA methylation within promoters I and IV. Protein concentrations were quantified via ELISA. RESULTS: BDNF exon IV and total long 3' isoform gene expression levels negatively associated with donor's age at death (IV: r = -0.291, p = 0.020; total: r = -0.354, p = 0.004). Expression of BDNF exon I- containing isoform was significantly higher in Met-carriers of the rs6265 variant, compared to Val-homozygotes, when accounting for donor ages (F = 6.455, p = 0.014). BDNF total long 3' transcript expression was significantly lower in those with early AD neuropathology, compared to those without any neuropathology (p = 0.021). There were no associations between BDNF promoter I and IV methylation or protein levels with ages, rs6265 genotype or AD neuropathology status. CONCLUSION: Prefrontal cortex BDNF gene expression is associated with aging, rs6265 carrier status, and AD neuropathology in a variant-specific manner that seems to be independent of DNA methylation influences.

7.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(7): e13612, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported substantial variability in response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We hypothesized that an individual's genetic predisposition may contribute to such variability in the pharyngeal motor cortex. This study aimed to investigate the response to 1 and 5 Hz rTMS paradigms on pharyngeal motor cortex in healthy participants and its relationship with genetic predisposition. METHODS: Forty-one healthy participants (25.4 ± 4.6 years old) received either or both 1 Hz (n = 39) and 5 Hz rTMS (n = 40) over pharyngeal motor cortex. Pharyngeal and thenar motor-evoked potentials were recorded at baseline and for 1 hour post-rTMS. The participants were then classified according to their response. The associations between rTMS response and gender, time of day of the stimulation, and eight prespecified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed. KEY RESULTS: There was no direction-specific response to either paradigm (1 Hz: F[3.69, 129.21] = 0.78, P = 0.56; 5 Hz: F[4.08, 146.85] = 1.38, P = 0.25). Only 13% of participants showed the expected bidirectional response (inhibition for 1 Hz and excitation for 5 Hz). Significant associations were found between response and COMT (1 Hz: P = 0.03) and DRD2 (1 Hz: P = 0.02; 5 Hz: P = 0.04) polymorphisms. Carriers of minor allele G from SNP rs6269 (COMT) were more likely to show inhibitory or excitatory outcomes after 1 Hz rTMS. By contrast, carriers of minor allele A from SNP rs1800497 (DRD2) were more likely to show no response to 1 Hz rTMS and inhibition after 5 Hz rTMS. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Two SNPs from COMT and DRD2 genes may partially explain the response variability to rTMS in the pharyngeal motor system. Further research should focus on stratified approaches for neurostimulatory dysphagia treatment using rTMS.

8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(5): 394-397, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001766

RESUMO

Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229-237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from 'inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]', as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88), and are not 'more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence'.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2098, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844566

RESUMO

General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 63: 54-64, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223680

RESUMO

Chronic low-grade inflammation during aging (inflammaging) is associated with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration; however, the mechanisms underlying inflammaging are unclear. We studied a population (n = 361) of healthy young and old adults from the MyoAge cohort. Peripheral levels of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) was found to be higher in older adults, compared with young, and negatively associated with working memory performance. This coincided with an age-related reduction in blood DNA methylation at specific CpGs within the CXCL10 gene promoter. In vitro analysis supported the role of DNA methylation in regulating CXCL10 transcription. A polymorphism (rs56061981) that altered methylation at one of these CpG sites further associated with working memory performance in 2 independent aging cohorts. Studying prefrontal cortex samples, we found higher CXCL10 protein levels in those with Alzheimer's disease, compared with aged controls. These findings support the association of peripheral inflammation, as demonstrated by CXCL10, in aging and cognitive decline. We reveal age-related epigenetic and genetic factors which contribute to the dysregulation of CXCL10.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Cognição/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Degeneração Neural , Células U937 , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cell Rep ; 21(9): 2597-2613, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186694

RESUMO

Here, we present a large (n = 107,207) genome-wide association study (GWAS) of general cognitive ability ("g"), further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum). Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/análogos & derivados , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 910, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030599

RESUMO

Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one body mass index unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.Variability in human longevity is genetically influenced. Using genetic data of parental lifespan, the authors identify associations at HLA-DQA/DRB1 and LPA and find that genetic variants that increase educational attainment have a positive effect on lifespan whereas increasing BMI negatively affects lifespan.


Assuntos
Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Longevidade/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Educação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1107-1112, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530673

RESUMO

Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10-8) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2.73 × 10-6), of which all but one had not been implicated previously. We show that the identified genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissue, and pathway analysis indicates the involvement of genes regulating cell development (MAGMA competitive P = 3.5 × 10-6). Despite the well-known difference in twin-based heritability for intelligence in childhood (0.45) and adulthood (0.80), we show substantial genetic correlation (rg = 0.89, LD score regression P = 5.4 × 10-29). These findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of intelligence.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inteligência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nature ; 533(7604): 539-42, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225129

RESUMO

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Escolaridade , Feto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Cognição , Biologia Computacional , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Esquizofrenia/genética , Reino Unido
16.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 171B(2): 209-14, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26473500

RESUMO

Cognitive abilities (memory, processing speed, vocabulary, and fluid intelligence) are correlated with educational attainment and occupational status, as well as physical and mental health. The variation in cognitive abilities observed within a population has a substantial genetic contribution (heritability ∼50%) and yet the identification of genetic polymorphisms from both genome-wide association and candidate studies have to date only uncovered a limited number of genetic variants that exert small genetic effects. Here we impute human leukocyte antigens (HLA) using existing genome-wide association data from 1,559 non-pathological elderly volunteers who have been followed for changes in cognitive functioning between a 12- and 18-year period. Specifically, we investigate DRB1*05 (*11/*12) and DRB1*01, which have previously been associated with cognitive ability. We also analyze DRB1*0801, which shares close sequence homology with DRB1*1101. Together with DRB1*1101, DRB1*0801 has been associated with several diseases including multiple sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis, which themselves are associated with cognitive impairment. We observed that both DRB1*0801 and DRB1*1101 were significantly associated with vocabulary ability (cross-sectional and longitudinal scores) and that the effects were in opposite directions with DRB1*0801 associated with lower score and faster decline. This opposing affect is similar to that reported by other groups in systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, and primary biliary cirrhosis. DRB1*0801 was also significantly associated with reduced memory ability. We observed no associations between cognitive abilities and DRB1*01 or DRB1*12.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
17.
Exp Gerontol ; 69: 196-201, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26116289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swallowing difficulties (dysphagia) affect a significant proportion of community dwelling older individuals, being more prevalent in age-associated neurological conditions such as stroke and Parkinson's disease. The genetic determinants of dysphagia are still being explored and have largely been studied through candidate gene analysis approaches. The aim of the study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of common genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and self-reported swallowing impairments in a longitudinal cohort of community dwelling older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control genome-wide association study of self-reported swallowing symptoms using the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire. The analysis included 555 community dwelling, unrelated, older adults (mean years of age=81.4; SD=5.349) with known phenotype and genetic information consisting of 512,806 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Gene-based association analysis of these traits was also conducted. RESULTS: Analysis of the cohort confirmed European ancestry with no major population stratification. Further analysis for association with swallowing impairment identified one SNP rs17601696 which achieved genome-wide significance (P-value=5×10(-8)) within a non-coding region of chromosome 10. Gene-based analysis did not result in any genome-wide significant association. CONCLUSION: SNP rs17601696 may have an impact on swallowing impairment among elderly individuals. The results require replication in an independent cohort with appropriate phenotype/genotype data.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Deglutição/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168B(5): 363-73, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951819

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability ("g") in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47 × 10(-4) ) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94 × 10(-7) ), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65 × 10(-9) ). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Laryngoscope ; 125(1): E33-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25155015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Age-related hearing loss has a genetic component, but there have been limited genetic studies in this field. Both N-acetyltransferase 2 and apolipoprotein E genes have previously been associated. However, these studies have either used small sample sizes, examined a limited number of polymorphisms, or have produced conflicting results. Here we use a haplotype tagging approach to determine association with age-related hearing loss and investigate epistasis between these two genes. STUDY DESIGN: Candidate gene association study of a continuous phenotype. METHODS: We investigated haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene and the presence/absence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for association with age-related hearing loss in a cohort of 265 Caucasian elderly volunteers from Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Hearing phenotypes were generated using principal component analysis of the hearing threshold levels for the better ear (severity, slope, and concavity). Genotype data for the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene was obtained from existing genome-wide association study data from the Illumina 610-Quadv1 chip. Apolipoprotein E genotyping was performed using Sequenom technology. Linear regression analysis was performed using Plink and Stata software. RESULTS: No significant associations (P value, > 0.05) were observed between the N-acetyltransferase 2 or apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and any hearing factor. No significant association was observed for epistasis analysis of apolipoprotein E ε4 and the N-acetyltransferase 2 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1799930 (NAT2*6A). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence to support that either N-acetyltransferase 2 or apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are associated with age-related hearing loss in a cohort of 265 elderly volunteers.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Presbiacusia/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Projeto HapMap , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estatística como Assunto
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 39(3): 565-74, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24246418

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-pathological cognitive aging have phenotypic similarities which may be influenced by an overlapping set of genetic variants. Genome-wide complex trait analysis estimates that common genetic variants account for about 24% of the variation contributing to liability for AD. It is also estimated that 24% of the variance of non-pathological cognitive aging is accounted for by common single nucleotide polymorphisms. However, although the APOE locus is associated with both AD and cognitive aging, it is not known to what extent other common genetic variants, with smaller effect sizes that influence both, overlap. We test the hypothesis that polygenic risk for AD is associated with cognitive ability and cognitive change in about 3,000 non-demented older people (Cognitive Ageing Genetics England and Scotland-CAGES-consortium). We found no significant association of polygenic risk for AD with cognitive ability or cognitive change in CAGES, indicating that the genetic etiologies of AD and non-pathological cognitive decline differ.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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