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1.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340613

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigate the impact of 12-weeks' moderate-intensity resistance training on psychological parameters in ambulatory adults with Facioscapulohumeral, Becker, and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Seventeen adults with Facioscapulohumeral (n = 6), Limb-girdle (n = 6; types 2A, 2B, 2L, and 2I), or Becker (n = 5) muscular dystrophy took part. Participants were tested at baseline (PRE), after a 12-week control period (PRE2), and after a 12-week supervised resistance training programme (POST). Training included multi-joint and single-joint resistance exercises. Outcomes from self-report questionnaires were health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, self-esteem, and physical self-worth. RESULTS: No difference in outcome measures, except depressive symptoms, was found in the control period (PRE to PRE2). Symptoms of depression were reduced by 9% from PRE to PRE2 (p < 0.05) and by a further 19% from PRE2 to POST (p < 0.05). Other changes from PRE2 to POST were that trait anxiety reduced by 10%, self-esteem increased by 10%, physical self-worth increased by 20%, and quality of life improved in 8 domains (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the positive impact of moderate-intensity resistance training on psychological health and quality of life in adults with Facioscapulohumeral, Becker, and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies.Implications for rehabilitationResistance training can have a positive impact on psychological health and quality of life in adults with Facioscapulohumeral, Becker, and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.Healthcare professionals should consider including moderate-intensity resistance training within the management and treatment programmes of adults with Facioscapulohumeral, Becker, and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

2.
Motor Control ; : 1-12, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271552

RESUMO

This study described the kinematic variables of disabled swimmers' performance and correlated them with their functional classification. Twenty-one impaired swimmers (S5-S10) performed 50-m maximum front-crawl swimming while being recorded by four underwater cameras. Swimming velocity, stroke rate, stroke length, intracycle velocity variation, stroke dimensions, hand velocity, and coordination index were analyzed. Kendall rank was used to correlate stroke parameters and functional classification with p < .05. Swimming velocity, stroke length, and submerged phase were positively correlated with the para swimmers functional classification (.61, .50, and .41; p < .05, respectively), while stroke rate, velocity hand for each phase, coordination index, and intracyclic velocity variation were not (τ between -.11 and .45; p > .05). Thus, some objective kinematic variables of the impaired swimmers help to support current classification. Improving hand velocity seems to be a crucial point to be improved among disabled swimmers.

3.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(10): 1932-1940, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189782

RESUMO

The inherent hydrodynamic resistance force, or passive drag, of a swimmer directly influences how they move through the water. For swimmers with physical impairments, the strength of association between passive drag and swimming performance is unknown. Knowledge on this factor could improve the World Para Swimming classification process. This study established the relationship between passive drag and 100 m freestyle race performance in Para swimmers with physical impairments. Using a cross-sectional study design, an electrical-mechanical towing device was used to measure passive drag force in 132 international-level Para swimmers. There was a strong, negative correlation between normalized passive drag force and 100 m freestyle race speed in the combined participant cohort (ρ = -0.77, p < 0.001). Type of physical impairment was found to affect the relationship between passive drag and 100 m freestyle race speed when included in linear regression (R2  = 0.65, χ2  = 11.5, p = 0.025). These findings contribute to the body of evidence that passive drag can provide an objective assessment of activity limitation in Para swimmers with physical impairments. The effect of physical impairment type on the relationship between passive drag and swimming performance should be accounted for in Para swimming classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 62-72, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092196

RESUMO

The current protocol for classifying Para swimmers with hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis involves a physical assessment where the individual's ability to coordinate their limbs is scored by subjective clinical judgment. The lack of objective measurement renders the current test unsuitable for evidence-based classification. This study evaluated a revised version of the Para swimming assessment for motor coordination, incorporating practical, objective measures of movement smoothness, rhythm error and accuracy. Nineteen Para athletes with hypertonia and 19 non-disabled participants performed 30 s trials of bilateral alternating shoulder flexion-extension at 30 bpm and 120 bpm. Accelerometry was used to quantify movement smoothness; rhythm error and accuracy were obtained from video. Para athletes presented significantly less smooth movement and higher rhythm error than the non-disabled participants (p < 0.05). Random forest algorithm successfully classified 89% of participants with hypertonia during out-of-bag predictions. The most important predictors in classifying participants were movement smoothness at both movement speeds, and rhythm error at 120 bpm. Our results suggest objective measures of movement smoothness and rhythm error included in the current motor coordination test protocols can be used to infer impairment in Para swimmers with hypertonia. Further research is merited to establish the relationship of these measures with swimming performance.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hipertonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atetose/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Hipertonia Muscular/classificação , Paratletas/classificação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 31(4): 328-335, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593658

RESUMO

The impacts of potentially treatable psychological parameters on quality of life are relatively unreported in adults with Facioscapulohumeral, Becker and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. The purpose of this study was to compare quality of life, psychological parameters, and physical function between adults with muscular dystrophy and controls, and to examine relationships among these parameters in muscular dystrophy. Twenty-one adults with muscular dystrophy (n = 7 Becker, n = 8 Facioscapulohumeral, n = 6 Limb-girdle) and ten age-matched controls participated. Outcome measures were health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, self-esteem, physical self-worth and six-minute walk distance. Quality of life scores were lower in the muscular dystrophy groups than the control (p < .05). Depressive symptoms had the greatest association with quality of life in the Mental Health domain (r= -0.89, p < .001). Depressive symptoms also had the most associations with quality of life (7 of 10 domains), followed by trait anxiety (6 of 10 domains), physical self-worth (5 of 10 domains), self-esteem (4 of 10 domains) and six-minute walk distance (3 of 10 domains). Psychological parameters and, to a lesser extent, physical function impact quality of life in muscular dystrophy. This study provides a rationale to include psychological assessment and treatment within muscular dystrophy healthcare.

6.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 925-935, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345411

RESUMO

This study is the first to provide information on the age-related trajectories of performance in Para swimmers with physical, vision and intellectual impairment. Race times from long-course swim meets between 2009 and 2019 were obtained for Para swimmers with an eligible impairment. A subset of 10 661 times from 411 Para swimmers were included in linear mixed effects modelling to establish the relationship between age and performance expressed relative to personal best time and world record time. The main findings were: (a) age has the most noticeable influence on performance between the ages of 12-20 years before performances stabilize and peak in the early to late twenties, (b) women have faster times relative to personal best and world record time than men during early adolescence and their performances stabilize, peak and decline at younger ages, and (c) Para swimmers from different sport classes show varying age-related trajectories in performance after maturation and when training-related factors are more likely to explain competitive swim performance. The results of this study can guide talent identification and development of Para swimmers at various stages of their career and help to inform decision-making on the allocation of sport class and sport class status in Para swimming classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191707

RESUMO

Although swimming is recognized as a symmetrical sport, equivalence between each body side cannot be insured. Swimmers with physical and motor impairment may present asymmetries that are even more pronounced. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the symmetry of temporal coordination in the front crawl stroke phases and their dimensional characteristics among swimmers of different levels of skill and disabled swimmers. Forty-one swimmers (28 men and 13 women, 18,8 ± 3,3 years, divided 21 of them into groups of high and low level of skill and 20 in disabled swimmers group) performed a 50m maximum of front-crawl test while they were recorded by six synchronized cameras (four underwater and two above water) for analysis of the stroke phases, stroke dimensions (anteroposterior, mediolateral and vertical amplitude), index of coordination and hand speed. The symmetry index was calculated by the difference between the right and the left strokes. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney test, with p <0.05. Asymmetry was noted in anteroposterior and mediolateral amplitudes of the stroke, index of coordination, duration of the recovery phase, each of the underwater phases and in the hand speed during the downseep phase, regardless of the level of skill or impairment. The disabled swimmers also showed asymmetry in the vertical amplitude of the stroke as well as in the insweep and upsweep speed. The reasons for these asymmetries may be the preference for unilateral breathing, force imbalance between pairs of homologous muscles and motor control deficit. The training with stereotypic movements may explain the similarity of asymmetries among the different groups of swimmers.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(6): 816-824, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131047

RESUMO

The assessment of swimming propulsion should be a cornerstone of Paralympic swimming classification. However, current methods do not objectively account for this component. PURPOSE: To evaluate the swimming propulsion of swimmers with and without physical impairment using a 30-second maximal fully tethered freestyle swim test. METHODS: Tethered forces were recorded during maximal fully tethered swimming in 80 competitive swimmers with (n = 70) and without (n = 10) physical impairment. The relationships between absolute and normalized tether forces and maximal freestyle swim speed were established using general additive models. RESULTS: Para swimmers with physical impairment had lower absolute and normalized tether forces than able-bodied swimmers, and there were moderate positive correlations found between tether forces and sport class (τ = .52-.55, P < .001). There was a nonlinear relationship between tether force and maximal freestyle swim speed in the participant cohort (adjusted R2 = .78-.80, P < .001). Para swimmers with limb deficiency showed stronger relationships between tether force and maximal freestyle swim speed (adjusted R2 = .78-.82, P < .001) than did Para swimmers with hypertonia (adjusted R2 = .54-.73, P < .001) and impaired muscle power (adjusted R2 = .61-.70, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Physical impairments affect Para swimmers' tether forces during maximal fully tethered freestyle swimming, explaining a significant proportion of their activity limitation. It is recommended that maximal fully tethered swimming be included in Paralympic swimming classification as an objective assessment of swimming propulsion.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(8): 839-847, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138613

RESUMO

Swimmers with limb deficiency are a core population within Para Swimming, accordingly this study examined the contribution of limb segments to race performance in these swimmers. Data were obtained for 174 male Para swimmers with limb deficiency. Ensemble partial least squares regression showed accurate predictions when using relative limb segment lengths to estimate Para swimmers' personal best race performances. The contribution of limb segments to performance in swim events was estimated using these regression models. The analysis found swim stroke and event distance to influence the contributions of limb segments to performance. For freestyle swim events, these changes were primarily due to the increased importance of the hand, and decreased importance of the foot and shank, as the distance of the event increased. When comparing swim strokes, higher importance of the thigh and shank in the 100 m breaststroke compared with other swim strokes confirms the separate SB class. Varied contributions of the hand, upper arm and foot suggest that freestyle could also be separated from backstroke and butterfly events to promote fairer classification. This study shows that swim stroke and event distance influence the activity limitation of Para swimmers with limb deficiency suggesting classification should account for these factors.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(7): 1576-1584, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paralympic classification should provide athletes with an equitable starting point for competition by minimizing the impact their impairment has on the outcome of the event. As swimming is an event conducted in water, the ability to overcome drag (active and passive) is an important performance determinant. It is plausible that the ability to do this is affected by the type and severity of the physical impairment, but the current World Para Swimming classification system does not objectively account for this component. The aim of this study was to quantify active and passive drag in Para swimmers and evaluate the strength of association between these measures and type of physical impairment, swimming performance, and sport class. METHODS: Seventy-two highly trained Para swimmers from sport classes S1 to S10 and 14 highly trained nondisabled swimmers were towed by a motorized winch while the towing force was recorded. Passive drag was measured with the arms held by the side; active drag was determined during freestyle swimming using an assisted towing method. RESULTS: Active and passive drag were higher in Para swimmers with central motor and neuromuscular impairments than for nondisabled swimmers and were associated with severity of swim-specific impairment (sport class) and maximal freestyle performance in these swimmers (r = -0.40 to -0.50, P ≤ 0.02). Para swimmers with anthropometric impairments showed similar active and passive drag to nondisabled swimmers, and between swimmers from different sport classes. CONCLUSIONS: Para swimmers with central motor and neuromuscular impairments are predisposed to high active drag during freestyle swimming that impacts on their performance. It is recommended that drag measures be considered in revised classification for these swimmers, but not for those with anthropometric impairments.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto Jovem
11.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 91(4): 574-582, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976823

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine changes in swimming parameters, stroke coordination, and symmetry after repeated high-intensity swimming efforts in swimmers of different performance levels and para-swimmers. Method: Forty swimmers (20 able-bodied, allocated to higher and lower performance groups-G1 and G2, respectively-and 20 impaired swimmers-S5 to S10) were recorded by four underwater cameras while performing repeated 50 m maximum front-crawl swimming with a ten-second interval for each time endured by the swimmer. A cycle stroke was digitized using SIMI Reality Motion Systems in the first and last trials to analyze the kinematic parameters. The comparison among groups and conditions was performed by Mixed ANOVA Models with p < .05. Results: For all groups, swimming velocity, stroke rate, and stroke index showed reduction over time, while stroke length and intracyclic velocity variation did not show significant changes. Conclusions: Training to maintain stroke rate is necessary to support performance since it is the main cause of velocity decrease. Stroke dimensions and individual underwater phases were not sufficient to distinguish groups or conditions. Hand velocity decreased probably due to a decline in energy capacity, propulsive force and passive drag caused by the fatigue process.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803134

RESUMO

Background: The inclusion of resistance training in the treatment and management of muscular dystrophy has previously been discouraged, based on mainly anecdotal evidence. There remains a lack of experimental investigation into resistance training in individuals with muscular dystrophy. The aim of the current study was therefore, to determine the effect of a 12-week resistance training programme on muscle strength and functional tasks in ambulatory adults with muscular dystrophy. Methods: Seventeen ambulatory adults with muscular dystrophy (Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: n = 6, Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy: n = 6, Becker muscular dystrophy: n = 5) were recruited for this study. Participants attended three testing sessions: one session at baseline, one session after a 12-week control period and one session after a 12-week resistance training period. Each testing session consisted of measurements of isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (Cybex dynamometer). Participants also completed a timed sit-to-stand, a four steps-stair ascent, and a four steps-stair decent. The 12-week resistance training period consisted of two supervised sessions a week. Each training session included a 5-min warm-up, a step-up exercise, free-standing or assisted squats, knee flexion and knee extension exercises, and an additional 6 single-joint exercises specific to each individual's needs. Results: Knee flexor MVC torque increased by 13% after the 12-week resistance training programme (p < 0.05), with no change over the control period. Knee extensor MVC torque did not significantly change after the training programme or the control period. Time taken to complete sit-to-stand, stair ascent and stair descent all decreased (improved) following the 12-week training programme (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A twice-a-week, 12-week, resistance training programme resulted in increased knee flexion strength and improvements in functional tasks in ambulatory adults with muscular dystrophy. This provides support for the inclusion of resistance training in the treatment programmes for these forms of muscular dystrophy.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213806, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889196

RESUMO

Achondroplasia is a condition characterized by a genetic mutation affecting long bone endplate development. Current data suggests that the bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of achondroplasic populations are below age matched individuals of average stature (controls). Due to the disproportionate limb-to-torso length compared to controls however, the lower BMC and BMD may be nullified when appropriately presented. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body and segmental body composition in adult males with achondroplasia (N = 10, 22 ±3 yrs), present data relative to whole-body and whole-limb values and compare all values to age matched controls (N = 17, 22 ±2 yrs). Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure the in vivo mass of the whole-body and 15 segments, from which BMD, BMC, fat free mass (FFM) and body fat mass were measured. BMC of lumbar vertebrae (L1-4) was also measured and presented as a volumetric BMD (BMDVOL). The achondroplasic group had less BMC, BMD and FFM, and more body fat mass than controls as a whole-body measure. The lower achondroplasic BMC and BMD was somewhat nullified when presented relative to whole-body and whole-limb values respectively. There was no difference in lumbar BMDVOL between groups. Whole-body BMD measures presented the achondroplasic group as 'osteopenic'. When relative to whole-limb measures however, achondroplasic BMD descriptions were normal. Further work is needed to create a body composition database for achondroplasic population's, or for clinicians to present achondroplasic body composition values relative to the whole-limb.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Acondroplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Acondroplasia/epidemiologia , Acondroplasia/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Minerais/análise , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(5): 526-531, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination. Para swimmers also completed a maximal freestyle swim to obtain a performance measure. The predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks was examined by establishing differences in test measures between participants with and without brain injury and defining the strength of association between test measures and maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers, respectively. RESULTS: Random forest successfully classified 96% of participants with and without brain injury using test measures derived from instrumented tapping tasks. Most test measures had moderate to high correlations (r=0.54 to 0.72; p<0.01) with maximal freestyle swim speed and collectively explained up to 72% of the variance in maximal freestyle swim performance in Para swimmers with brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study evidence the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimmers with brain injury. These tests can be included in revised Para swimming classification to improve the objectivity and transparency in determining athlete eligibility and sport class for these Para athletes.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci ; 37(4): 404-413, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058953

RESUMO

This study examined the validity of isometric strength tests for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Thirty non-disabled participants and forty-two Para swimmers with physical impairment completed an isometric strength test battery designed to explain activity limitation in the freestyle discipline. Measures pertaining to dominant and non-dominant limb strength and symmetry were derived from four strength tests that were found to be reliable in a cohort of non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.97; CV = 6.4-9.1%). Para swimmers had lower scores in strength tests compared with non-disabled participants (d = 0.14-1.00) and the strength test battery successfully classified 95% of Para swimmers with physical impairment using random forest algorithm. Most of the strength measures had low to moderate correlations (r = 0.32 to 0.53; p ≤ 0.05) with maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers. Although, fewer correlations were found when Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power were analysed independently, highlighting the impairment-specific nature of activity limitation in Para swimming. Collectively, the strength test battery has utility in Para swimming classification to infer loss of strength in Para swimmers, guide minimum eligibility criteria, and to define the impact that strength impairment has on Para swimming performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Força Muscular , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Physiol ; 9: 867, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079026

RESUMO

Achondroplasia is a genetic mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor resulting in impaired growth plate development in long bones due to lower collagen turnover. Despite the characteristic shorter stature and lower strength in Achondroplasic groups, little is known of the tendon mechanical properties under loading. The aim of this study was therefore to conduct a between measure design of patella tendon (PT) mechanical properties (stress, strain, stiffness and Young's Modulus) in 10 men with Achondroplasia (22 ± 3 years) and 17 male controls (22 ± 2 years). PT mechanical properties were measured during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (iMVC) of the knee extensors using ultrasonography. The Achondroplasic group produced 54% less stress at iMVC than controls (29.4 ± 8.0 v 64.5 ± 14.0 MPa, P < 0.001, d = 3.12). Maximal excursion of the Achondroplasic PT was 22% less than controls at iMVC (7.4 ± 2.1 v 5.5 ± 1.7 mm, P < 0.001, d = 0.99), but there was no difference in strain between groups (13 ± 4 v 13 ± 3%, P > 0.05). Achondroplasic PT were 47% less stiff (748 ± 93 v 1418 ± 101 N·mm-1, P < 0.001, d = 6.89) and had a 51% lower Young's modulus (0.39 ± 0.09 v 0.77 ± 0.14 GPa, P < 0.001, d = 3.46) than controls at iMVC. Achondroplasic PT are indeed more compliant than controls which may contribute to lower relative force production. The causes of higher Achondroplasic PT compliance are unclear but are likely due to the collagen related genetic mutation which causes Achondroplasia.

17.
Front Physiol ; 9: 410, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720948

RESUMO

The disproportionate body mass and leg length of Achondroplasic individuals may affect their net oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2) and metabolic cost (C) when walking at running compared to those of average stature (controls). The aim of this study was to measure submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 and C during a range of set walking speeds (SWS; 0.56 - 1.94 m⋅s-1, increment 0.28 m⋅s-1), set running speeds (SRS; 1.67 - 3.33 m⋅s-1, increment 0.28 m⋅s-1) and a self-selected walking speed (SSW). [Formula: see text]O2 and C was scaled to total body mass (TBM) and fat free mass (FFM) while gait speed was scaled to leg length using Froude's number (Fr). Achondroplasic [Formula: see text]O2TBM and [Formula: see text]O2FFM were on average 29 and 35% greater during SWS (P < 0.05) and 12 and 18% higher during SRS (P < 0.05) than controls, respectively. Achondroplasic CTBM and CFFM were 29 and 33% greater during SWS (P < 0.05) and 12 and 18% greater during SRS (P < 0.05) than controls, respectively. There was no difference in SSW [Formula: see text]O2TBM or [Formula: see text]O2FFM between groups (P > 0.05), but CTBM and CFFM at SSW were 23 and 29% higher (P < 0.05) in the Achondroplasic group compared to controls, respectively. [Formula: see text]O2TBM and [Formula: see text]O2FFM correlated with Fr for both groups (r = 0.984 - 0.999, P < 0.05). Leg length accounted for the majority of the higher [Formula: see text]O2TBM and [Formula: see text]O2FFM in the Achondroplasic group, but further work is required to explain the higher Achondroplasic CTBM and CFFM at all speeds compared to controls. New and Noteworthy: There is a leftward shift of oxygen consumption scaled to total body mass and fat free mass in Achondroplasic adults when walking and running. This is nullified when talking into account leg length. However, despite these scalars, Achondroplasic individuals have a higher walking and metabolic cost compared to age matched non-Achondroplasic individuals, suggesting biomechanical differences between the groups.

18.
Phys Ther Sport ; 32: 34-41, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of swimming-specific range of movement tests developed in order to permit evidenced-based classification in the sport of para swimming. DESIGN: Test-retest intra- and inter-examiner reliability. SETTING: International Swimming training camps and university exercise science departments. PARTICIPANTS: 42 non-disabled participants (mean age 23.2 years) and 24 Para swimmers (mean age 28.5 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of a battery of novel active range of motion tests. RESULTS: Good to excellent intra-examiner reliability was found for the majority (32/34) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values ranged from 1.18° to 6.11°. Similarly, good to excellent inter-examiner reliability was found for the majority (35/42) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values range from 0.73° to 6.52°. Para swimmers exhibited significantly reduced range of motion compared to non-disabled participants. CONCLUSIONS: The large majority of ROM tests included in this novel battery were reliable both within and between examiners in non-disabled participants. The tests were found to differentiate between non-disabled participants and Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power.


Assuntos
Artrometria Articular , Pessoas com Deficiência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 29(2): 333-346, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627092

RESUMO

Swimming is one of the inaugural sports within the Olympic and Paralympic Games, the key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic games being the classification system. The aim of this study was to investigate how effective the current classification system creates clearly differentiated Paralympic competition classes, based on performance time for all swimming strokes and events. Based on the performance characteristics of swimmers within the current classification system, the relationship between impairment and swimming performance is inconsistent, potentially disadvantaging some athletes. Appropriate sports medicine tests are required for the development of an evidence-based swimming classification system.


Assuntos
Atletas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Atletas/classificação , Desempenho Atlético , Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Humanos , Natação/classificação , Natação/fisiologia
20.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 124(3): 696-703, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146686

RESUMO

Achondroplasia is a clinical condition defined by shorter stature and disproportionate limb length. Force production in able-bodied individuals (controls) is proportional to muscle size, but given the disproportionate nature of achondroplasia, normalizing to anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) is inappropriate. The aim of this study was to assess specific force of the vastus lateralis (VL) in 10 adults with achondroplasia (22 ± 3 yr) and 18 sex-matched controls (22 ± 2 yr). Isometric torque (iMVCτ) of the dominant knee extensors (KE) and in vivo measures of VL muscle architecture, volume, activation, and patella tendon moment arm were used to calculate VL physiological CSA (PCSA), fascicle force, and specific force in both groups. Achondroplasic muscle volume was 53% smaller than controls (284 ± 36 vs. 604 ± 102 cm3, P < 0.001). KE iMVCτ was 63% lower in achondroplasia compared with controls (95 ± 24 vs. 256 ± 47 N⋅m, P < 0.001). Activation and moment arm length were similar between groups ( P > 0.05), but coactivation of bicep femoris of achondroplasic subjects was 70% more than controls (43 ± 20 vs. 13 ± 5%, P < 0.001). Achondroplasic subjects had 58% less PCSA (43 ± 10 vs. 74.7 ± 14 cm2, P < 0.001), 29% lower fascicle force (702 ± 235 vs. 1704 ± 303 N, P < 0.001), and 29% lower specific force than control subjects (17 ± 6 vs. 24 ± 6 N⋅cm-2, P = 0.012). The smaller VL specific force in achondroplasia may be attributed to infiltration of fat and connective tissue, rather than to any difference in myofilament function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The novel observation of this study was the measurement of normalized force production in a group of individuals with disproportionate limb length-to-torso ratios.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/fisiopatologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiopatologia , Acondroplasia/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Adulto Jovem
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