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1.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(2): 811-816, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is secreted by cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it is widely recognized as a negative prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlations between the olfactory scores determined by psychophysical tests and the serum levels of IL-6 in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) METHODS: Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory assessment with Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test and IL-6 plasma level determination within 10 days of the clinical onset of COVID-19. RESULTS: Seventy-four COVID-19 patients were included in this study. COVID-19 staged as mild in 34 patients, moderate in 26 and severe in 14 cases. There were no significant differences in olfactory scores across the different COVID-19 severity groups. In the patient series, the median plasma level of IL-6 was 7.7 pg/mL (IQR 3.7-18.8). The concentration of IL-6 was found to be significantly correlated with the severity of COVID-19 with a directly proportional relationship. The correlation between IL-6 plasma concentrations and olfactory scores was weak (rs = 0.182) and not significant (p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients, psychophysical olfactory scores did not show significant correlations with the plasma levels of a well-recognized negative prognostic factor such as IL-6. This observation casts some shadows on the positive prognostic value of olfactory dysfunctions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
3.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 234, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite conflicting results, considerable evidence suggests the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, XRCC1 and OGG1 genes and, risk of developing breast cancer. Here a case-control study is reported, including 135 breat cancer patients and 112 healthy women, all representative of Northern Sardinian population. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to determine the genotypes of five polymorphisms: MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), XRCC1 Arg194Trp (rs1799782) and Arg399Gln (rs25487) and OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133). Allelic, genotypic and haplotype association analyses with disease risk and clinicopathological parameters were performed. RESULTS: A nominally significant association with breast cancer risk was observed for MTHFR C677T polymorphism heterozygous genotype in the codominant model (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32-1.00, p = 0.049) and for Cys/Cys genotype of the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the recessive model (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.05-1.11, p = 0.0465). No significant differences were found at genotype-level for A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln of the XRCC1 gene. Furthermore, the OGG1 and XRCC1 rs25487 polymorphisms were nominally associated with PgR, Her2 status and with sporadic breast cancer, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on genetic characteristics of individuals included in this study, results suggest that MTHFR CT and OGG1 Cys/Cys genotypes have a protective effect that may have an influence on breast cancer risk in a representative Northern Sardinian population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4265-4271, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Brain metastases are an additional challenge in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) because most chemotherapy agents cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Nivolumab has demonstrated efficacy in patients with advanced squamous NSCLC, but because patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases are typically excluded from registration trials, 'field-practice' data are needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in the Italian cohort of the Expanded Access Program (EAP) who had CNS metastases at baseline were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with CNS metastases received a median of six doses of nivolumab. Three patients (8%) had grade 3-4 adverse events and one patient discontinued due to an adverse event. The objective response rate was 19%. Median overall survival was 5.8 (95% confidence interval=1.9-9.8) months and median progression-free survival was 4.9 (95% confidence interval=2.7-7.1) months. CONCLUSION: The safety and efficacy of nivolumab in patients with CNS metastases appear to be similar to those seen in the overall EAP cohort in Italy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/secundário , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 99, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Italian Renal Cell Cancer Early Access Program was an expanded access program that allowed access to nivolumab, for patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) prior to regulatory approval. METHODS: Pts with previously treated advanced or mRCC were eligible to receive nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Pts included in the analysis had received ≥1 dose of nivolumab and were monitored for drug-related adverse events (drAEs) using CTCAE v.4.0. Immune-related (ir) AEs were defined as AEs displaying a certain, likely or possible correlation with immunotherapy (cutaneous, endocrine, hepatic, gastro-intestinal and pulmonary). The association between overall survival (OS) and irAEs was assessed, and associations between variables were evaluated with a logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 389 pts were enrolled between July 2015 and April 2016. Overall, the objective response rate was 23.1%. At a median follow-up of 12 months, the median progression-free survival was 4.5 months (95% CI 3.7-6.2) and the 12-month overall survival rate was 63%. Any grade and grade 3-4 drAEs were reported in 124 (32%) and 27 (7%) of pts, respectively, and there were no treatment-related deaths. Any grade irAEs occurred in 76 (20%) of patients, 8% cutaneous, 4% endocrine, 2% hepatic, 5% gastro-intestinal and 1% pulmonary. Of the 22 drAEs inducing treatment discontinuation, 10 (45%) were irAEs. Pts with drAEs had a significantly longer survival than those without drAEs (median OS 22.5 versus 16.4 months, p = 0.01). Pts with irAEs versus without irAEs had a more significant survival benefit (median OS not reached versus 16.8 months, p = 0.002), confirmed at the landmark analysis at 6 weeks. The occurrence of irAEs displayed a strong association with OS in univariable (HR 0.48, p = 0.003) and multivariable (HR 0.57, p = 0.02) analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The appearance of irAEs strongly correlates with survival benefit in a real-life population of mRCC pts treated with nivolumab.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 143(5): 783-791, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215027

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a condition with significant clinical burden for patients and relevant economic impact. Limited evidence exists on the management costs of NSCLC patients, especially in the late phases of the disease. The main objective of this analysis was to evaluate the economic impact of clinical management of NSCLC patients in the Italian population. METHODS: This evaluation was an economic analysis of the observational and multicentre study LIFE, which described the therapeutic approach in routine clinical practice for NSCLC patients, progressing after first-line treatment. This study evaluated resource consumption in different Italian hospitals, including specialist visits, hospitalizations, accesses to first aid, pharmacological treatment, laboratory tests and palliative care. The National Healthcare Service perspective was adopted. RESULTS: In this study, N = 191 patients enrolled in the LIFE study were included. Patients were aged 64.2 years and were predominantly males (66%). In the different line of treatments, monthly costs of patients ranged between €1471 (first line) and €1788 (third line). The overall healthcare cost over the average period of observation (16.4 months) was €25,859 per patient. Overall, oncology therapy was the cost driver, although the composition of medical costs changed across the different lines of treatment, with costs for concomitant medication and palliative care being predominant in late phase of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden of NSCLC is extremely high during the overall period of treatment, and a significant level of care is required in each stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Transl Med ; 14(1): 292, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of oncogenes downstream the EGFR gene contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis and determines the sensitivity to anti-EGFR treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA mutations in a large collection of CRC patients from genetically-homogeneous Sardinian population. METHODS: A total of 1284 Sardinian patients with histologically-proven diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and presenting with metastatic disease were included into the study. Genomic DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumour tissue samples of CRC patients and screened for mutations in RAS and BRAF genes, using pyrosequencing assays, and in PIK3CA gene, using automated DNA sequencing assays. RESULTS: Overall, mutation rates were 35.6 % for KRAS, 4.1 % for NRAS, and 2.1 % for BRAF. Among available DNA samples, 114/796 (14.3 %) primary CRCs were found to carry a mutation in the PIK3CA gene. In this subset of patients analysed in all four genes, a pathogenetic mutation of at least one gene was discovered in about half (378/796; 47.5 %) of CRC cases. A mutated BRAF gene was found to steadily act as a negative prognostic factor for either time to progression as metastatic disease (from detection of primary CRC to diagnosis of first distant metastasis; p = 0.009) or partial survival (from diagnosis of advanced disease to the time of death or last control; p = 0.006) or overall survival (p < 0.001). No significant impact on prognosis was observed for mutated KRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA genes or combined RAS mutations (all RAS). CONCLUSIONS: Our study defines both prevalence and prognostic role of main activated oncogenes in a population-based large collection of CRC patients.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Geografia , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Prognóstico
8.
Oncol Lett ; 12(2): 1415-1421, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27446446

RESUMO

The presence of mutations in the KRAS gene is a predictor of a poor clinical response to EGFR-targeted agents in patients affected by colorectal cancer (CRC), but its significance as a global prognostic factor remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the KRAS mutational status on time to first metastasis (TTM) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of Sardinian CRC patients. A total of 551 patients with metastatic CRC at the time of enrolment were included. Clinical and pathological features of the disease, including follow-up information, were obtained from medical records and cancer registry data. For mutational analysis formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were processed using a standard protocol. The coding sequence and splice junctions of exons 2 and 3 of the KRAS gene were screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. Overall, 186 KRAS mutations were detected in 183/551 (33%) patients: 125 (67%) were located in codon 12, 36 (19%) in codon 13, and 18 (10%) in codon 61. The remaining mutations (7; 4%) were detected in uncommonly-affected codons. No significant correlation between KRAS mutations and gender, age, anatomical location and stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, no prognostic value of KRAS mutations was found considering either TTM or OS. When patients were stratified by KRAS mutational status and gender, males were significantly associated with a longer TTM. The results of the present study indicate that KRAS mutation correlated with a slower metastatic progression in males with CRC from Sardinia, irrespective of the age at diagnosis and the codon of the mutation.

9.
Mol Med Rep ; 12(1): 187-91, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25683726

RESUMO

Assessment of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status has become crucial in recent years in the molecular classification of patients with lung cancer. The impact of the type and quantity of malignant cells of the neoplastic specimen on the quality of mutation analysis remains to be elucidated, and only empirical and sporadic data are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of tissue type and content of neoplastic cells in the specimen on the quality of EGFR mutation analysis among patients with lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 515 patients with histologically-confirmed disease were included in the present study. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were used for the mutation analysis and the content of the neoplastic cells was evaluated using light microscopy. Genomic DNA was isolated using a standard protocol. The coding sequences and splice junctions of exons 18, 19 and 21 in the EGFR gene were then screened for mutations by direct automated sequencing. The mean age of the patients examined was 64.9 years and 357 (69.3%) were male. A total of 429 tissue samples (83.3%) were obtained by biopsy and the remaining samples were obtained by surgery. A total of 456 samples (88.5%) were observed from primary lung adenocarcinomas, while 59 (11.5%) were from metastatic lesions. EGFR mutations occurred in 59 cases (11.5%); exon 18 mutations were detected in one case (1.7%), whereas exon 19 and 21 mutations were detected in 30 (51%) and 28 (47.3%) cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were more frequent in females and patients that had never smoked. The distribution of the mutations among primary and metastatic tissues exhibited no significant differences in the proportions of EGFR mutations detected. However, a statistically significant difference in the number of mutations detected was found between samples with at least 50% of neoplastic cells (450 cases-57 mutations; 12.7%) and those with <50% of neoplastic cells (65 cases-2 mutations; 3.1%).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Inclusão em Parafina , Controle de Qualidade , Fatores Sexuais , Manejo de Espécimes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixação de Tecidos
11.
J Clin Oncol ; 31(24): 3004-11, 2013 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23835708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maintenance therapy is associated with improved survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but few studies have compared active agents in this setting. AVAPERL evaluated the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab with or without pemetrexed as continuation maintenance treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC received first-line bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg, cisplatin 75 mg/m(2), and pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks for four cycles. Those achieving response or stable disease were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to maintenance bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg or bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) after random assignment. RESULTS: In total, 376 patients received induction treatment, 71.9% achieved disease control, and 67.3% were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy, with 125 and 128 receiving single-agent bevacizumab and bevacizumab plus pemetrexed treatment, respectively. At a median follow-up of 8.1 months, PFS from random assignment was significantly improved in the bevacizumab plus pemetrexed arm (median, 3.7 v 7.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.66; P < .001) per a stratified model. The PFS benefit extended across age, performance status, smoking history, and induction response (stable disease v partial response) subgroups. Any grade, grade ≥ 3, and serious adverse events occurred more often with bevacizumab plus pemetrexed maintenance. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION: In an unselected population of patients with nonsquamous NSCLC who had achieved disease control with platinum-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, bevacizumab plus pemetrexed maintenance was associated with a significant PFS benefit compared with bevacizumab alone. The combination was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Guanina/administração & dosagem , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pemetrexede , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Urol ; 63(2): 254-61, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22964169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorafenib has proven efficacy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Interferon (IFN) has antiangiogenic activity that is thought to be both dose- and administration-schedule dependent. OBJECTIVE: To compare two different schedules of IFN combined with sorafenib. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Single-stage, prospective, noncomparative, randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase 2 study on previously untreated patients with mRCC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. INTERVENTION: Sorafenib 400mg twice daily plus subcutaneous IFN, 9 million units (MU) three times a week (Arm A) or 3 MU five times a week (Arm B). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) for each arm and safety. Data were evaluated according to an intent-to-treat analysis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 101 patients were evaluated. Median PFS was 7.9 mo in Arm A and 8.6 mo in Arm B (p=0.049) and the median duration of response was 8.5 and 19.2 mo, respectively (p=0.0013). Nine partial responses were observed in Arm A, and three complete and 14 partial responses were observed in Arm B (17.6% vs 34.0%; p=0.058); 24 and 21 patients (47% and 42%), respectively, achieved stable disease. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were fatigue plus asthenia (28% vs 16%; p=0.32) and hand-foot skin reactions (20% vs 18%). CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib plus frequent low-dose IFN showed good efficacy and tolerability. Further investigations should be warranted to identify a possible positioning of this intriguing regimen (6% complete response rate) in the treatment scenario of mRCC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 30(36): 4501-7, 2012 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23109689

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare efficacy of pemetrexed versus pemetrexed plus carboplatin in pretreated patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced NSCLC, in progression during or after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed (arm A) or pemetrexed plus carboplatin (arm B). Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A preplanned pooled analysis of the results of this study with those of the NVALT7 study was carried out to assess the impact of carboplatin added to pemetrexed in terms of overall survival (OS). RESULTS: From July 2007 to October 2009, 239 patients (arm A, n = 120; arm B, n = 119) were enrolled. Median PFS was 3.6 months for arm A versus 3.5 months for arm B (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.36; P = .706). No statistically significant differences in response rate, OS, or toxicity were observed. A total of 479 patients were included in the pooled analysis. OS was not improved by the addition of carboplatin to pemetrexed (HR, 90; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.10; P = .316; P heterogeneity = .495). In the subgroup analyses, the addition of carboplatin to pemetrexed in patients with squamous tumors led to a statistically significant improvement in OS from 5.4 to 9 months (adjusted HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.91; P interaction test = .039). CONCLUSION: Second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC with pemetrexed plus carboplatin does not improve survival outcomes as compared with single-agent pemetrexed. The benefit observed with carboplatin addition in squamous tumors may warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Glutamatos/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Glutamatos/efeitos adversos , Guanina/administração & dosagem , Guanina/efeitos adversos , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pemetrexede
14.
J Transl Med ; 10: 178, 2012 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22931052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Role of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recently investigated worldwide. In this population-based study, we evaluated the incidence rates and distribution of such somatic mutations in genetically isolated population from Sardinia. METHODS: From April 2009 to July 2011, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (N = 478) were prospectively collected from Sardinian CRC patients at clinics across the entire island. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue sections and screened for mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes by automated DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Overall, KRAS tumour mutation rate was 30% (145/478 positive cases). Distribution of mutation carriers was surprisingly different within the island: 87/204 (43%) in North Sardinia vs. 58/274 (21%) in Middle-South Sardinia (p<0.001). Among 384 CRC cases whose DNA was available, only one (0.3%) patient carried a mutation in BRAF gene; PIK3CA was found mutated in 67 (17%) patients. A significant inverse distribution of PIK3CA mutation rates was observed within Sardinian population: 19/183 (10%) cases from northern vs. 48/201 (24%) cases from central-southern island (p<0.001). This heterogeneity in frequencies of KRAS/PIK3CA somatic mutations is consistent with already-reported discrepancies in distribution of germline mutations for other malignancies within Sardinian population. Preliminary clinical evaluation of 118 KRAS wild-type patients undergoing anti-EGFR-based treatment indicated lack of role for PIK3CA in predicting response to therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that differences in patients' origins and related genetic backgrounds may contribute to even determine the incidence rate of somatic mutations in candidate cancer genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genes ras , Genética Populacional , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sequência de Bases , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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