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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795332

RESUMO

The molecular profile of liquid biopsies is emerging as an alternative to tissue biopsies in the clinical management of malignant diseases. In colorectal cancer, significant liquid biopsy-based biomarkers have demonstrated an ability to discriminate between asymptomatic cancer patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, this non-invasive approach appears to provide relevant information regarding the stratification of tumors with different prognoses and the monitoring of treatment responses. This review focuses on the tumor microenvironment components which are detected in blood samples of colorectal cancer patients and might represent potential biomarkers. Exosomes released by tumor and stromal cells play a major role in the modulation of cancer progression in the primary tumor microenvironment and in the formation of an inflammatory pre-metastatic niche. Stromal cells-derived exosomes are involved in driving mechanisms that promote tumor growth, migration, metastasis, and drug resistance, therefore representing substantial signaling mediators in the tumor-stroma interaction. Besides, recent findings of specifically packaged exosome cargo in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts of colorectal cancer patients identify novel exosomal biomarkers with potential clinical applicability. Furthermore, additional different signals emitted from the tumor microenvironment and also detectable in the blood, such as soluble factors and non-tumoral circulating cells, arise as novel promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response prediction. The therapeutic potential of these factors is still limited, and studies are in their infancy. However, innovative strategies aiming at the inhibition of tumor progression by systemic exosome depletion, exosome-mediated circulating tumor cell capturing, and exosome-drug delivery systems are currently being studied and may provide considerable advantages in the near future.

2.
Heliyon ; 5(10): e02660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692696

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are the most important arthropods from the point of view of public health, due to the fact that they can transmit a large number of pathogens which can cause diseases to humans and animals. Aedes aegypti (L.) is one of the most important vector species in the world, since it can transmit numerous pathogens such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Therefore, studies involving the molecular aspects of this and other mosquitoes species are currently increasing. In this report, we describe the comparison between two DNA extraction techniques, Chelex and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), for carrying out DNA extraction in larvae, pupae and adult female of Ae. aegypti. The Chelex technique was superior in the amount and purity of DNA as compared to the CTAB technique in the three life stages we tested.

3.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(5): 481-486, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695233

RESUMO

Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the main symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is associated with complex immune disorders. Gut microbiota interacts closely with the immune system, and intestinal dysbiosis is related to multiple diseases. Objective: To describe for the first time the composition of gut microbiota in Mexican patients with CVID. Methods: Fecal samples from five patients with CVID were collected and massive sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was carried out using illumina technology. Results: Bacterial relative abundance was observed at all taxonomic levels. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the predominant phyla. The Clostridia class and the Clostridial order were the most common in their respective taxon; the Ruminococcaceae family predominated. A total of 166 genera were reported, with the most abundant being Faecalibacterium. Five species were identified, but only Bifidobacterium longum was present in all patients. Conclusions: Unlike healthy subjects' gut microbiota, where Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominate, the microbiota of the patients with CVID considered in this study was abundant in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The low presence of Bacteroidetes and high abundance of Firmicutes might indicate the existence of intestinal dysbiosis in these patients.

5.
Nucl Med Biol ; 74-75: 34-40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473490

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After its intravenous injection, [18F]fluorocholine is oxidized by choline-oxidase into its main plasma metabolite, [18F]fluorobetaine. If PET kinetic modeling quantification of [18F]fluorocholine uptake is intended, the plasma input time-activity-curve of the parent tracer must be obtained, i.e., the fraction of the total plasma radioactivity corresponding to the nonmetabolized [18F]fluorocholine at each time has to be known. Hence our aim was to develop an easy-routine Thin-Layer-Chromatography (TLC) method to separate and quantify the relative fractions of [18F]fluorocholine and [18F]fluorobetaine as a function of time during PET imaging in humans. METHODS: First, we tested several combinations of solvents systems and layers to select the one showing the best resolution on non-radioactive standards. Thereafter, [18F]fluorobetaine was obtained through chemical oxidation of an [18F]fluorocholine sample at diferent incubation times and we applied the selected TLC-system to aliquots of this oxidation solution, both in a saline and in human deproteinized plasma matrices. The plates were detected by a radio-TLC-scanner. This TLC-system was finally applied to arterial plasma samples from 9 patients with high-grade-glioma undergoing brain PET imaging and a parent fraction curve was obtained in each of them. RESULTS: A TLC-system based on Silica-Gel-60//MeOH-NH3 was selected from the choline/betaine non-radioactive standards assay. Radiochromatograms of [18F]fluorocholine oxidation solution yielded two separated and well-defined peaks, Rf = 0,03 ([18F]fluorocholine) and Rf = 0.78 (18F]fluorobetaine) consistent with those observed on non-radioactive standards. During the oxidation, the [18F]fluorocholine radioactivity peak decreased progressively at several incubation times, while the other peak ([18F]fluorobetaine) increased accordingly. The mean values of the parent fraction of [18F]fluorocholine of the 9 patients studied (mean+/-SD) were 94% ±â€¯6%, 58% ±â€¯15%, 43% ±â€¯10%, 39% ±â€¯6% and 37% ±â€¯6% at 2.8 min, 5.8 min, 8.8 min, 11.7 min and 14.7 min post-injection, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a TLC-system, easy to perform in a standard radiopharmacy unit, that enables the metabolite correction of arterial input function of [18F]fluorocholine in patients undergoing PET oncologic quantitative imaging.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1394, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281317

RESUMO

In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant component from the tumor microenvironment (TM). CAFs facilitate tumor progression by inducing angiogenesis, immune suppression and invasion, thus altering the organization/composition of the extracellular matrix (i.e., desmoplasia) and/or activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Soluble factors from the TM can also contribute to cell invasion through secretion of cytokines and recently, IL-33/ST2 pathway has gained huge interest as a protumor alarmin, promoting progression to metastasis by inducing changes in TM. Hence, we analyzed IL-33 and ST2 content in tumor and healthy tissue lysates and plasma from CRC patients. Tissue localization and distribution of these molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (using localization reference markers α-smooth muscle actin or α-SMA and E-cadherin), and clinical/histopathological information was obtained from CRC patients. In vitro experiments were conducted in primary cultures of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) isolated from tumor and healthy tissue taken from CRC patients. Additionally, migration and proliferation analysis were performed in HT29 and HCT116 cell lines. It was found that IL-33 content increases in left-sided CRC patients with lymphatic metastasis, with localization in tumor epithelia associated with abundant desmoplasia. Although ST2 content showed similarities between tumor and healthy tissue, a decreased immunoreactivity was observed in left-sided tumor stroma, associated to metastasis related factors (advanced stages, abundant desmoplasia, and presence of tumor budding). A principal component analysis (including stromal and epithelial IL-33/ST2 and α-SMA immunoreactivity with extent of desmoplasia) allowed us to distinguish clusters of low, intermediate and abundant desmoplasia, with potential to develop a diagnostic signature with benefits for further therapeutic targets. IL-33 transcript levels from CAFs directly correlated with CRC cell line migration induced by CAFs conditioned media, with rhIL-33 inducing a mesenchymal phenotype in HT29 cells. These results indicate a role of IL-33/ST2 in tumor microenvironment, specifically in the interaction between CAFs and epithelial tumor cells, thus contributing to invasion and metastasis in left-sided CRC, most likely by activating desmoplasia.

7.
J Vis Exp ; (154)2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929503

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional scaffold that acts as the main support for cells in tissues. Besides its structural function, the ECM also participates in cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Fibroblasts are the main type of cells modifying ECM fiber arrangement and production. In cancer, CAFs (cancer associated fibroblasts) are in permanent activation status, participating in ECM remodeling, facilitating tumor cell migration, and stimulating tumor-associated angiogenesis, among other pro-tumorigenic roles. The objective of this method is to create a three-dimensional matrix with a fiber composition that is similar to in vivo matrices, using immortalized fibroblasts or human primary CAFs. Fibroblasts are cultured in pre-treated cell culture plates and grown under ascorbic acid stimulation. Then, fibroblasts are removed and matrices are blocked for further cell seeding. In this ECM model, fibroblasts can be activated or modified to generate different kinds of matrix, whose effects can be studied in cell culture. 3D matrices are also shaped by cell signals, like degradation or cross-linking enzymes that might modify fiber distribution. In this context, angiogenesis can be studied, along with other cell types such as epithelial tumor cells.

8.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 2595-2598, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440939

RESUMO

Monitoring of heart rate can be used in many medical and sports applications. Lack of portability and connection problems make traditional monitoring methods difficult to use outside of clinical environments. The computer vision techniques have been shown that some physiological variables as heart rate can be measured without contact. Video magnification is one of these approach used for the detection of the pulse signal. In this paper we propose a new strategy to magnify motion in a video sequence using the Hermite transform. In addition a deep learning technique is implemented to estimate the beat by beat pulse signal. We trained the system and validated our results using an electronic pulse monitoring device. Our approach is compared with the classical video magnification using a Gaussian pyramid. The results show a better enhancement of spectral information from the colour changes allowing an accurate estimation of the instantaneous beat by beat pulse than the Gaussian approach.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Aprendizado Profundo , Frequência Cardíaca , Movimento (Física)
9.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(9): 355-364, 1 nov., 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175267

RESUMO

Introducción. Los trastornos de la alimentación son trastornos mentales graves que se manifiestan de diferentes formas diagnósticas, como la anorexia nerviosa y la bulimia nerviosa. En los últimos años, diversos estudios han enfatizado la participación de procesos neuropsicológicos en la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosas. Objetivo. Revisar las evidencias sobre los déficits en funciones ejecutivas, sesgos atencionales y coherencia central en la anorexia y la bulimia nerviosas en relación con un perfil neuropsicológico de riesgo, un perfil neuropsicológico diferente asociado a las mencionadas patologías alimentarias y el papel de variables (índice de masa corporal, edad, ansiedad, impulsividad, alexitimia, estado de ánimo, imagen corporal) en la presencia de déficits neuropsicológicos. Desarrollo. Revisión de los estudios empíricos de los últimos siete años encontrados en las bases de datos Medline y PsycINFO para inglés, y Dialnet y Psicodoc para castellano. Se han seleccionado 28 artículos para el objetivo propuesto. La elección de los documentos se realizó conforme a unos criterios preestablecidos. Conclusiones. Según las evidencias disponibles, parece existir un perfil de riesgo caracterizado por rigidez cognitiva y coherencia central débil. Los resultados parecen más consistentes en relación con el perfil de riesgo en la anorexia nerviosa. Además, tanto en la anorexia como en la bulimia nerviosa existen sesgos atencionales relacionados con el reconocimiento de emociones y aspectos sociales, y el rasgo de alexitimia es una variable moduladora en dicha dificultad


Introduction. Eating disorders are severe mental disorders that appear in different diagnostic forms, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In recent years, a number of studies have highlighted the involvement of neuropsychological processes in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Aim. To review the evidence on the deficits in the executive functions, attentional biases and central coherence in anorexia and bulimia nervosa in relation to a neuropsychological risk profile, a different neuropsychological profile associated with the aforementioned eating pathologies and the role of variables (body mass index, age, anxiety, impulsiveness, alexithymia, mood, body image) in the presence of neuropsychological deficits. Development. We reviewed the empirical studies conducted in the last seven years found in the Medline and PsycINFO databases for English, and Dialnet and Psicodoc for Spanish. Twenty-eight articles were selected as suitable for the purposes of this study. The documents were chosen on the basis of a set of pre-established criteria. Conclusions. According to the evidence available, there seems to be a risk profile characterised by cognitive rigidity and weak central coherence. The results appear to be more consistent as regards the risk profile in anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa there are attentional biases related to the recognition of emotions and social aspects, and the alexithymia trait is a modulating variable in this difficulty


Assuntos
Humanos , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos
10.
Oncogenesis ; 7(9): 76, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250018

RESUMO

Carcinomas, such as colon cancer, initiate their invasion by rescuing the innate plasticity of both epithelial cells and stromal cells. Although Snail is a transcriptional factor involved in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, in recent years, many studies have also identified the major role of Snail in the activation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblast (CAF) cells and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In CAFs, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling is a major functional determinant. High expression of both SNAI1 and PDGF receptors is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients, but the mechanism(s) that underlie these connections are not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that PDGF-activated fibroblasts stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber remodeling and deposition. Furthermore, we describe how SNAI1, through the FAK pathway, is a necessary factor for ECM fiber organization. The parallel-oriented fibers are used by endothelial cells as "tracks", facilitating their activation and the creation of tubular structures mimicking in vivo capillary formation. Accordingly, Snail1 expression in fibroblasts was required for the co-adjuvant effect of these cells on matrix remodeling and neoangiogenesis when co-xenografted in nude mice. Finally, in tumor samples from colorectal cancer patients a direct association between stromal SNAI1 expression and the endothelial marker CD34 was observed. In summary, our results advance the understanding of PDGF/SNAI1-activated CAFs in matrix remodeling and angiogenesis stimulation.

11.
Mol Cancer ; 17(1): 114, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075793

RESUMO

Exosome production from cancer-associated fibroblasts seems to be an important driver of tumor progression. We report the first in-depth biotype characterization of ncRNAs, analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics, expressed in established primary human normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from cancer and normal mucosa tissues from 9 colorectal cancer patients, and/or packaged in their derived exosomes. Differential representation and enrichment analyses based on these ncRNAs revealed a significant number of differences between the ncRNA content of exosomes and the expression patterns of the normal and cancer-associated fibroblast cells. ncRNA regulatory elements are specifically packaged in CAF-derived exosomes, supporting a specific cross-talk between CAFs and colon cancer cells and/or other stromal cells, mediated by exosomes. These sncRNAs are potential biomarkers present in cancer-associated fibroblast-derived exosomes, which should thereby contribute to developing new non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive methods for clinical applications in management of cancer patients.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/citologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Exossomos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/química , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/química , Fibroblastos/citologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 49(7): 1511-1516, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707080

RESUMO

The possible influence of the "male effect" upon reproductive outcomes of adult anestrous goats under marginal rangeland conditions and supplemented with protein-enriched Opuntia megacantha Salm-Dyck was evaluated. Reproductive variables included: estrus percentage (EST, %), estrus latency (ESL, hours), ovulation percentage (OP, %), ovulation rate (OR, units), average largest follicle at ovulation (LFO, mm), largest corpus luteum (LCL, mm), embryo number (EBN, units), and embryo implantation percentage (EIP, %). During early May, anestrous mix-breed adult goats (Criollo x Alpine-Saanen-Nubian; n = 38, 26° N) were randomly distributed to (1) Control (CC; n = 12), (2), Non-enriched Opuntia (NEO; n = 14), and (3) Protein-enriched Opuntia (PEO; n = 12). Neither LW (P > 0.05) nor BCS (P > 0.05) or any of the evaluated ovarian variables differed (P > 0.05) among treatments; EST = 89.66%, ESL = 53.66 h, OP = 70.33%, OR = 1.07 units, LFO = 4.5 mm, LCL = 9.6 mm, EBN = 0.94 embryos, and EIP = 48.66%. Irrespective of nutritional supplementation regime, all goats denoted an increased response to the male effect just in the middle of the anestrous season and managed under marginal grazing conditions during the dry season (May to June; 26° N). The use of the male effect successfully invoked neurophysiological pathways to re-activate ovarian follicular and luteal pathways during the natural anestrous season in the female goat. Yet, such successful physiological scenario was not equally exerted to promote an increased embryo implantation rate; this issue claims further consideration. Therefore, it is essential to align not only the peri-conceptional but also the peri-implantation stages to the best suited environmental conditions in the rangeland, in order to increase both reproductive and economic efficiency while promoting sustainability in those rangeland-based marginal goat production systems.


Assuntos
Anestro/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Cabras/fisiologia , Opuntia/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Front Vet Sci ; 4: 59, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487859

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD) in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs), 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7-9/9), 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs (P < 0.001) including all dogs diagnosed with ORMD. In conclusion, in the studied obesogenic region of Spain, the prevalence of canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.

14.
Gut ; 66(8): 1449-1462, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high CRC incidence and mortality, suggesting a protective effect of vitamin D against this disease. Given the strong influence of tumour stroma on cancer progression, we investigated the potential effects of the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on CRC stroma. DESIGN: Expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and two 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes was analysed in 658 patients with CRC with prolonged clinical follow-up. 1,25(OH)2D3 effects on primary cultures of patient-derived colon normal fibroblasts (NFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were studied using collagen gel contraction and migration assays and global gene expression analyses. Publicly available data sets (n=877) were used to correlate the 1,25(OH)2D3-associated gene signature in CAFs with CRC outcome. RESULTS: High VDR expression in tumour stromal fibroblasts was associated with better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival in CRC, independently of its expression in carcinoma cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the protumoural activation of NFs and CAFs and imposed in CAFs a 1,25(OH)2D3-associated gene signature that correlated with longer OS and disease-free survival in CRC. Furthermore, expression of two genes from the signature, CD82 and S100A4, correlated with stromal VDR expression and clinical outcome in our cohort of patients with CRC. CONCLUSIONS: 1,25(OH)2D3 has protective effects against CRC through the regulation of stromal fibroblasts. Accordingly, expression of VDR and 1,25(OH)2D3-associated gene signature in stromal fibroblasts predicts a favourable clinical outcome in CRC. Therefore, treatment of patients with CRC with VDR agonists could be explored even in the absence of VDR expression in carcinoma cells.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Carcinoma/química , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/química , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteína Kangai-1/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/análise , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma
16.
Cancer Res ; 76(21): 6205-6217, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27503928

RESUMO

Snail1 transcriptional factor is essential for triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inducing tumor cell invasion. We report here an EMT-independent action of Snail1 on tumor invasion, as it is required for the activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Snail1 expression in fibroblasts requires signals derived from tumor cells, such as TGFß; reciprocally, in fibroblasts, Snail1 organizes a complex program that stimulates invasion of epithelial cells independent of the expression of Snail1 in these cells. Epithelial cell invasion is stimulated by the secretion by fibroblast of diffusible signaling molecules, such as prostaglandin E2 The capability of human or murine CAFs to promote tumor invasion is dependent on Snail1 expression. Inducible Snail1 depletion in mice decreases the invasion of breast tumors; moreover, epithelial tumor cells coxenografted with Snail1-depleted fibroblasts originated tumors with lower invasion than those transplanted with control fibroblasts. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the role of Snail1 in tumor invasion is not limited to EMT, but it is also dependent on its activity in stromal fibroblasts, where it orchestrates the cross-talk with epithelial tumor cells. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6205-17. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/fisiologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
18.
Rev Neurol ; 62(4): 152-6, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26860719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder whose clinical manifestations are observed in the motor and neuropsychological domain and have an impact on the patient's quality of life. Several scientific studies evidence the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation as treatment for the motor symptoms, but further research is required on the neuropsychological symptoms. AIM: To analyse the existence of significant differences in neuropsychological processes, such as attention, memory, language, visuoperception and the executive functions in patients with PD prior to and following deep brain stimulation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our sample consisted of 20 patients of both sexes, aged 50-70 years, with PD, who were treated by healthcare service providers in Medellin. These subjects were administered the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test in order to assess attention, the Rey Complex Figure and Ardila memory tests to evaluate memory, the Boston and verbal fluency tests to assess language, the Rey Complex Figure Copy test for visuoperception, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to appraise the executive functions. RESULTS: There are significant differences between the scores before and after deep brain stimulation in patients with PD on attention and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of these findings is relevant for the neuropsychological therapy of patients with PD.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Idoso , Atenção , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/psicologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Percepção Visual
19.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 62(4): 152-156, 16 feb., 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-148777

RESUMO

Introducción. La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) es un trastorno cuyas manifestaciones clínicas se observan en el ámbito motor y neuropsicológico e influyen en la calidad de vida del paciente. Diversos estudios científicos muestran la eficacia de la estimulación cerebral profunda como tratamiento sobre los síntomas motores, pero faltan estudios sobre los síntomas neuropsicológicos. Objetivo. Analizar la existencia de diferencias significativas en procesos neuropsicológicos, como la atención, la memoria, el lenguaje, la visuopercepción y la función ejecutiva en los pacientes con EP antes y después de la estimulación cerebral profunda. Pacientes y métodos. La muestra estuvo formada por 20 pacientes parkinsonianos de 50-70 años de ambos sexos, pertenecientes a entidades prestadoras de servicios de salud de Medellín, a los que se les administraron el Continuous Performance Test y el Trail Making Test para valorar la atención, la figura compleja de Rey y la prueba de memoria de Ardila para evaluar la memoria, el test de Boston y fluidez verbal para valorar el lenguaje, la figura compleja de Rey copia para la visuopercepción, y el test de clasificación de cartas de Wisconsin para valorar la función ejecutiva. Resultados. Existen diferencias significativas entre las puntuaciones antes y después de la estimulación cerebral profunda en los pacientes con EP en la atención y la memoria. Conclusiones. El conocimiento de estos hallazgos es relevante para la terapia neuropsicológica de los pacientes con EP (AU)


Introduction. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder whose clinical manifestations are observed in the motor and neuropsychological domain and have an impact on the patient’s quality of life. Several scientific studies evidence the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation as treatment for the motor symptoms, but further research is required on the neuropsychological symptoms. Aim. To analyse the existence of significant differences in neuropsychological processes, such as attention, memory, language, visuoperception and the executive functions in patients with PD prior to and following deep brain stimulation. Patients and methods. Our sample consisted of 20 patients of both sexes, aged 50-70 years, with PD, who were treated by healthcare service providers in Medellín. These subjects were administered the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test in order to assess attention, the Rey Complex Figure and Ardila memory tests to evaluate memory, the Boston and verbal fluency tests to assess language, the Rey Complex Figure Copy test for visuoperception, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to appraise the executive functions. Results. There are significant differences between the scores before and after deep brain stimulation in patients with PD on attention and memory. Conclusions. Knowledge of these findings is relevant for the neuropsychological therapy of patients with PD (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Linguagem , Memória/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas
20.
Oncotarget ; 6(38): 40575-87, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26528758

RESUMO

Cancer cells efficiently transfer exosome contents (essentially mRNAs and microRNAs) to other cell types, modifying immune responses, cell growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here we analyzed the exosomes release by breast tumor cells with different capacities of stemness/metastasis based on CXCR4 expression, and evaluated their capacity to generate oncogenic features in recipient cells. Breast cancer cells overexpressing CXCR4 showed an increase in stemness-related markers, and in proliferation, migration and invasion capacities. Furthermore, recipient cells treated with exosomes from CXCR4-cells showed increased in the same abilities. Moreover, inoculation of CXCR4-cell-derived exosomes in immunocompromised mice stimulated primary tumor growth and metastatic potential. Comparison of nucleic acids contained into exosomes isolated from patients revealed a "stemness and metastatic" signature in exosomes of patients with worse prognosis. Finally, our data supported the view that cancer cells with stem-like properties show concomitant metastatic behavior, and their exosomes stimulate tumor progression and metastasis. Exosomes-derived nucleic acids from plasma of breast cancer patients are suitable markers in the prognosis of such patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Exossomos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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