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1.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(5): 375-398, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191763

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to systematically identify and summarise all risk scores evaluated in the emergency department setting to stratify acute heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted including all multicentre studies reporting the use of risk predictive models in emergency department acute heart failure patients. Exclusion criteria were: (a) non-original articles; (b) prognostic models without predictive purposes; and (c) risk models without consecutive patient inclusion or exclusively tested in patients admitted to a hospital ward. We identified 28 studies reporting findings on 19 scores: 13 were originally derived in the emergency department (eight exclusively using acute heart failure patients), and six in emergency department and hospitalised patients. The outcome most frequently predicted was 30-day mortality. The performance of the scores tended to be higher for outcomes occurring closer to the index acute heart failure event. The eight scores developed using acute heart failure patients only in the emergency department contained between 4-13 predictors (age, oxygen saturation and creatinine/urea included in six scores). Five scores (Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade, Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade 30 Day mortality ST depression, Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency department 3 Day, Acute Heart Failure Risk Score, and Multiple Estimation of risk based on Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with Acute Heart Failure) have been externally validated in the same country, and two (Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade and Multiple Estimation of risk based on Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with Acute Heart Failure) further internationally validated. The c-statistic for Emergency Heart Failure Mortality Risk Grade to predict seven-day mortality was between 0.74-0.81 and for Multiple Estimation of risk based on Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with Acute Heart Failure to predict 30-day mortality was 0.80-0.84. CONCLUSIONS: There are several scales for risk stratification of emergency department acute heart failure patients. Two of them are accurate, have been adequately validated and may be useful in clinical decision-making in the emergency department i.e. about whether to admit or discharge.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206126

RESUMO

Importance: Up to 20% of patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute heart failure (AHF) are discharged without hospitalization. Compared with rates in hospitalized patients, readmission and mortality are worse for ED patients. Objective: To assess the impact of a self-care intervention on 90-day outcomes in patients with AHF who are discharged from the ED. Design, Setting, and Participants: Get With the Guidelines in Emergency Department Patients With Heart Failure was an unblinded, parallel-group, multicenter randomized trial. Patients were randomized 1:1 to usual care vs a tailored self-care intervention. Patients with AHF discharged after ED-based management at 15 geographically diverse EDs were included. The trial was conducted from October 28, 2015, to September 5, 2019. Interventions: Home visit within 7 days of discharge and twice-monthly telephone-based self-care coaching for 3 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a global rank of cardiovascular death, HF-related events (unscheduled clinic visit due to HF, ED revisit, or hospitalization), and changes in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-12 (KCCQ-12) summary score (SS) at 90 days. Key secondary outcomes included the global rank outcome at 30 days and changes in the KCCQ-12 SS score at 30 and 90 days. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the primary, secondary, and safety outcomes. Per-protocol analysis was conducted including patients who completed a home visit and had scheduled outpatient follow-up in the intervention arm. Results: Owing to slow enrollment, 479 of a planned 700 patients were randomized: 235 to the intervention arm and 244 to the usual care arm. The median age was 63.0 years (interquartile range, 54.7-70.2), 302 patients (63%) were African American, 305 patients (64%) were men, and 178 patients (37%) had a previous ejection fraction greater than 50%. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients in the intervention vs usual care arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10; P = .28). At day 30, patients in the intervention arm had significantly better global rank (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99; P = .04) and a 5.5-point higher KCCQ-12 SS (95% CI, 1.3-9.7; P = .01), while at day 90, the KCCQ-12 SS was 2.7 points higher (95% CI, -1.9 to 7.2; P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: The self-care intervention did not improve the primary global rank outcome at 90 days in this trial. However, benefit was observed in the global rank and KCCQ-12 SS at 30 days, suggesting that an early benefit of a tailored self-care program initiated at an ED visit for AHF was not sustained through 90 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02519283.

3.
Europace ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038231

RESUMO

AIMS : The aim of this study is to characterize recurrent syncope, including sex-specific aspects, and its impact on death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized recurrent syncope in a large international multicentre study, enrolling patients ≥40 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a syncopal event within the last 12 h. Syncope aetiology was centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all information becoming available during syncope work-up and long-term follow-up. Overall, 1790 patients were eligible for this analysis. Incidence of recurrent syncope was 20% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22%] within the first 24 months. Patients with an adjudicated final diagnosis of cardiac syncope (hazard ratio (HR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.11-2.01) or syncope with an unknown aetiology even after central adjudication (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.54-2.89) had an increased risk for syncope recurrence. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regression fit on all patient information available early in the ED identified >3 previous episodes of syncope as the only independent predictor for recurrent syncope (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.64-2.75). Recurrent syncope carried an increased risk for death (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.77) and MACE (HR 2.69, 95% CI 2.02-3.59) over 24 months of follow-up, however, with a time-dependent effect. These findings were confirmed in a sensitivity analysis excluding patients with syncope recurrence or MACE before or during ED evaluation. CONCLUSION : Recurrence rates of syncope are substantial and vary depending on syncope aetiology. Importantly, recurrent syncope carries a time-dependent increased risk for death and MACE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: BAsel Syncope EvaLuation (BASEL IX, ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT01548352).

5.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 19(4): 166-172, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe from a noninterventional registry (Utilization of Ticagrelor in the Upstream Setting for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome), the short-term ischemic and hemorrhagic outcomes in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) are managed with a loading dose (LD) of a P2Y12 inhibitor (P2Y12i) given at least 4 hours before diagnostic angiography and delineation of coronary anatomy. Prior data on the effects of such "upstream loading" have been inconsistent. METHODS: In 53 US hospitals, we evaluated the in-hospital care and outcomes of patients with confirmed non-ST elevation MI managed with an interventional strategy and loaded upstream (at least 4 h before diagnostic angiography) with oral P2Y12i therapy. Patients entered into the database were grouped into 1 of 4 cohorts for analysis: (1) overall cohort, (2) thienopyridine (clopidogrel or prasugrel) load, (3) ticagrelor load, and (4) ticagrelor-consistent. The fourth cohort is a subset of cohort 3 that received ticagrelor throughout the index hospital stay and at discharge. We evaluated in-hospital clinical course and ischemic and bleeding outcomes in all patients and also 30-day outcomes in the ticagrelor-consistent cohort. RESULTS: A total of 3355 patients were enrolled, of whom 1087 had 30-day follow-up. The mean (±SD) age was 63.3 ± 12.5 years, and 62.6% were male. Thrombolysis in MI and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores placed these patients in the intermediate risk range, and CRUSADE scores were in the moderate risk range. The LD in Utilization of Ticagrelor in the Upstream Setting for Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome was clopidogrel in 45.6%, ticagrelor in 53.6%, and prasugrel in 0.8%. The median upstream interval (LD to angiography) was 17:27 hours and did not change appreciably over the course of the data collection period (2/15-10/19). Access was radial in 48.6% and femoral in 51.4%. Postangiography management was medical only in 32.3%, percutaneous coronary intervention in 59.4%, and coronary artery bypass grafting in 8.3%. Median length of stay was 2.7 days, and median time from angiography to coronary artery bypass grafting was 3.6 days. In-hospital mortality was 0.51%, and major bleeding (thrombolysis in MI) was 0.24%; the in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events rate was 0.7%, and stent thrombosis occurred in 0.18%. No significant differences were seen between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel cohorts in hospital, but 16% received more than 1 P2Y12i in-hospital. On follow-up (93.2% response), 86.7% of patients reported taking ticagrelor as directed. CONCLUSIONS: Upstream loading of P2Y12i was associated with very low rates of bleeding and short length of stay in a large cohort of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) patients managed invasively.

7.
Circulation ; 142(16): 1532-1544, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The observed incidence of type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) is expected to increase with the implementation of increasingly sensitive cTn assays. However, it remains to be determined how to diagnose, risk-stratify, and treat patients with T2MI. We aimed to discriminate and risk-stratify T2MI using biomarkers. METHODS: Patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain, enrolled in the CHOPIN study (Copeptin Helps in the early detection Of Patients with acute myocardial INfarction), were retrospectively analyzed. Two cardiologists adjudicated type 1 MI (T1MI) and T2MI. The prognostic ability of several biomarkers alone or in combination to discriminate T2MI from T1MI was investigated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The biomarkers analyzed were cTnI, copeptin, MR-proANP (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide), CT-proET1 (C-terminal proendothelin-1), MR-proADM (midregional proadrenomedullin), and procalcitonin. The prognostic utility of these biomarkers for all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event (a composite of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, reinfarction, heart failure, and stroke) at 180-day follow-up was also investigated. RESULTS: Among the 2071 patients, T1MI and T2MI were adjudicated in 94 and 176 patients, respectively. Patients with T1MI had higher levels of baseline cTnI, whereas those with T2MI had higher baseline levels of MR-proANP, CT-proET1, MR-proADM, and procalcitonin. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the diagnosis of T2MI was higher for CT-proET1, MR-proADM, and MR-proANP (0.765, 0.750, and 0.733, respectively) than for cTnI (0.631). Combining all biomarkers resulted in a similar accuracy to a model using clinical variables and cTnI (0.854 versus 0.884, P=0.294). Addition of biomarkers to the clinical model yielded the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.917). Other biomarkers, but not cTnI, were associated with mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event at 180 days among all patients, with no interaction between the diagnosis of T1MI or T2MI. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of biomarkers reflecting pathophysiologic processes occurring with T2MI might help differentiate it from T1MI. All biomarkers measured, except cTnI, were significant predictors of prognosis, regardless of the type of myocardial infarction.

9.
Heart Lung ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate decongestion is common in hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients and may contribute to readmissions. Our purpose was to use remote dielectric sensing (ReDS) technology to measure lung congestion at discharge in patients admitted with acute HF and to see if a device-targeted intervention could reduce HF readmission rates. METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study of patients admitted with acute decompensated HF randomized to receive standard therapy or ReDS-guided therapy to determine the timing of hospital discharge based on the amount of lung congestion present after diuresis. ReDS measurement was performed for all patients once they were deemed ready for discharge. Patients in the treatment arm with residual lung congestion defined by ReDS ≥39% had HF consultation and further diuresis. RESULTS: Of 108 HF patients (50% male, age 73.6 ±â€¯12.6 years, BMI 29.3 ±â€¯4.3 kg/m2, EF 38.5 ±â€¯15.1%, BNP 1138 ±â€¯987 pg/mL), 32% demonstrated residual lung congestion at the time of proposed hospital discharge. ReDS guided therapy triggered additional diuresis in 30% (18/60) of the patients in the treatment arm (average weight loss 5.6 pounds, p = 0.02). 30-day HF readmission rates were similar in the treatment and the control arms (1.7% vs 4.2%; p = 0.44). Patients discharged as planned with residual lung congestion with ReDS ≥39% had higher 30-day readmission rate compared to patients who were adequately decongested at discharge with ReDS <39% (11.8% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: In our single-center cohort, ReDS testing demonstrated that 32% of HF patients deemed ready for discharge have clinically significant residual lung congestion which was associated with a higher risk of readmission. ReDS-guided management was associated with significant decongestion but not a reduction in HF readmissions in this sample.

10.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2386-2394, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optimal secondary prevention for patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) remains unknown. We aimed to assess whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels are associated with major vascular events and whether hs-cTnT may identify patients who benefit from anticoagulation following ESUS. METHODS: Data were obtained from the biomarker substudy of the NAVIGATE ESUS trial, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary stroke prevention in ESUS. Patients were dichotomized at the hs-cTnT upper reference limit (14 ng/L, Gen V, Roche Diagnostics). Cox proportional hazard models were computed to explore the association between hs-cTnT, the combined cardiovascular end point (recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, cardiovascular death), and recurrent ischemic stroke. RESULTS: Among 1337 patients enrolled at 111 participating centers in 18 countries (mean age 67±9 years, 61% male), hs-cTnT was detectable in 95% and at/above the upper reference limit in 21%. During a median follow-up of 11 months, the combined cardiovascular end point occurred in 68 patients (5.0%/y, rivaroxaban 28 events, aspirin 40 events; hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.41-1.1]), and recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 50 patients (4.0%/y, rivaroxaban 16 events, aspirin 34 events, hazard ratio 0.45 [95% CI, 0.25-0.81]). Annualized combined cardiovascular end point rates were 8.2% (9.5% rivaroxaban, 7.0% aspirin) for those above hs-cTnT upper reference limit and 4.8% (3.1% rivaroxaban, 6.6% aspirin) below with a significant treatment modification (P=0.04). Annualized ischemic stroke rates were 4.7% above hs-cTnT upper reference limit and 3.9% below, with no suggestion of an interaction between hs-cTnT and treatment (P=0.3). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ESUS, hs-cTnT was associated with increased cardiovascular event rates. While fewer recurrent strokes occurred in patients receiving rivaroxaban, outcomes were not stratified by hs-cTn results. Our findings support using hs-cTnT for cardiovascular risk stratification but not for decision-making regarding anticoagulation therapy in patients with ESUS. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641399

RESUMO

Blood culture (BC) often fails to detect bloodstream microorganisms in sepsis. However, molecular diagnostics hold great potential. The molecular method PCR/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) can detect DNA from hundreds of different microorganisms in whole blood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of this method in a multicenter study including 16 teaching hospitals in the United States (n = 13) and Europe (n = 3). First, on testing of 2,754 contrived whole blood samples, with or without spiked microorganisms, PCR/ESI-MS produced 99.1% true-positive and 97.2% true-negative results. Second, among 1,460 patients with suspected sepsis (sepsis-2 definition), BC and PCR/ESI-MS on whole blood were positive in 14.6% and 25.6% of cases, respectively, with the following result combinations: BC positive and PCR/ESI-MS negative, 4.3%; BC positive and PCR/ESI-MS positive, 10.3%; BC negative and PCR/ESI-MS positive, 15.3%; and BC negative and PCR/ESI-MS negative, 70.1%. Compared with BC, PCR/ESI-MS showed the following sensitivities (coagulase-negative staphylococci not included): Gram-positive bacteria, 58%; Gram-negative bacteria, 78%; and Candida species, 83%. The specificities were >94% for all individual species. Patients who had received prior antimicrobial medications (n = 603) had significantly higher PCR/ESI-MS positivity rates than patients without prior antimicrobial treatment-31% versus 22% (P < 0.0001)-with pronounced differences for Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. In conclusion, PCR/ESI-MS showed excellent performance on contrived samples. On clinical samples, it showed high specificities, moderately high sensitivities for Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species, and elevated positivity rates during antimicrobial treatment. These promising results encourage further development of molecular diagnostics to be used with whole blood for detection of bloodstream microorganisms in sepsis.

12.
Clin Biochem ; 83: 28-36, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin (cTn) is the keystone for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We examined the analytical and clinical diagnostic characteristics of the ACCESS hsTnI assay in a United States (US) population. METHODS: All measurements and studies were conducted using a lithium heparin matrix. Sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limits (URLs) were determined for 1089 healthy women (54.6%) and men using non-parametric statistics. High-sensitivity (hs) performance was assessed to determine if the total CV was ≤10% at sex-specific URLs, and if ≥50% of cTnI values for each sex exceeded the assay's limit of detection (LoD). Precision, analytical measurement range, high-dose hook effect, and endogenous/exogenous interferences were examined with CLSI guidance. Clinical characterization included serial sampling of 1854 suspected AMI subjects presenting to 14 US Emergency Departments. AMI was adjudicated by a panel of expert cardiologists. The study's only exclusion was end stage renal disease. RESULTS: 99th percentile URLs were 11.6-, 19.8- and 17.5-ng/L for respective female, male and all-subject populations. Total %CV was <8% from 6.8 to 19,000 ng/L, and <6% at sex-specific 99th percentiles; ≥99% of ACCESS hsTnI values for each sex exceeded the LoD. No high-dose hook effect or endogenous/exogenous interferences were identified. A comparison of Baseline samples collected at ≤1 h and any-time after presentation, found 4% lower sensitivity for AMI than with earlier sampling. For 1-9 h post presentation, the sensitivity was >90%, specificity >85%; and negative and positive predictive value were ≥99% and >60%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Analytical and clinical performance of the ACCESS hsTnI assay meets the definition of a hs cTn method. The ACCESS hsTnI assay has good precision over a wide range, no significant interferences, and sensitivity >90% and NPV ≥99%. Performance is appropriate for aiding in AMI diagnosis.

13.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2139-2147, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Risks, sites, and predictors of major bleeding during antithrombotic therapies have not been well defined for patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of major bleeds defined by International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria occurring among 7213 participants in international NAVIGATE (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial) embolic stroke of undetermined source randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15 mg daily with aspirin 100 mg daily. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 months, 85 major bleeds occurred. The most frequent site was gastrointestinal (38%), followed by intracranial (29%). Assignment to rivaroxaban (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.7-4.3]), East Asia region (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.9]), systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg (HR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2-3.8]), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.2 per 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 decrease, [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]) were independently associated with presence of major bleeds. Five (6%) were fatal. Among 15 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 (13%) were fatal. There was no evidence of an early high-risk period following initiation of rivaroxaban. The annualized rate of intracerebral hemorrhage was 6-fold higher among East Asian participants (0.67%) versus all other regions (0.11%; HR, 6.3 [95% CI, 2.2-18.0]). Distribution of bleeding sites was similar for rivaroxaban and aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Among embolic stroke of undetermined source patients participating in an international randomized trial, independent predictors of major bleeding were assignment to rivaroxaban, East Asia region, increased systolic blood pressure, and impaired renal function. East Asia as a region was strongly associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Estimated glomerular filtration rate should be a consideration for stratifying bleeding risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Método Duplo-Cego , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Emerg Med ; 59(3): 348-356, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with abnormal uterine bleeding are commonly encountered in the emergency department (ED). Contemporary management of severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in this setting may be inadequate and expose patients to unnecessary blood transfusions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the characteristics and management of women presenting to the ED with moderate to severe anemia caused by uterine bleeding. We hypothesized that blood transfusions were frequently administered to stable patients without severe symptoms or active bleeding. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of women presenting to the ED from October 31, 2018 to March 31, 2019 with IDA from uterine bleeding. Eligible subjects were adult females with IDA caused by uterine blood loss, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, and who were discharged from the ED. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-seven encounters (117 unique patients, mean 40 years of age) met the eligibility criteria. No patients were hemodynamically unstable and clinically significant active bleeding was rare (6%). Blood transfusion was administered during 70 (55%) encounters, with ≥2 units given to more than half (53%) of those transfused. Subsequent ED visits (14%) and transfusions (16%) during the follow-up period were common. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adult females with moderate to severe IDA caused by uterine bleeding, blood transfusion was often administered in the absence of hemodynamic instability or active hemorrhage, iron deficiency was inadequately treated, and a high rate of subsequent transfusions occurred. Future studies should investigate optimal indications for transfusion and emphasize adequate iron supplementation.

15.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(5): 415-422, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) would aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute heart failure (HF) beyond N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration. BACKGROUND: IGFBP7 is associated with impaired ventricular relaxation and worse prognosis. METHODS: The ICON-RELOADED (International Collaborative of NT-proBNP-Re-evaluation of Acute Diagnostic Cut-Offs in the Emergency Department) study was a prospective, multicenter clinical trial that enrolled subjects presenting with dyspnea. Six-month prognosis for death or repeat hospitalization was obtained. RESULTS: Among 1,449 patients, 274 (18.9%) were diagnosed with acute HF. Those with IGFBP7 concentrations in the highest quartile were older, male, had hypertension and HF, had lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lowest ejection fraction (41 ± 20%; all p < 0.001). Independent predictors of IGFBP7 were age, male sex, history of diabetes, history of HF, and eGFR. Median concentrations of NT-proBNP (2,844 ng/ml vs. 99 ng/ml) and IGFBP7 (146.1 ng/ml vs. 86.1 ng/ml) were higher in those with acute HF (both; p < 0.001). Addition of IGFBP7 to NT-proBNP concentrations improved discrimination, therefore increasing the area under the receiver operating curve for diagnosis of acute HF (from 0.91 to 0.94; p < 0.001 for differences). Addition of IGFBP7 to a complete model of independent predictors of acute HF improved model calibration. IGFBP7 significantly reclassified acute HF diagnosis beyond NT-proBNP (net reclassification index: +0.25). Higher log2-IGFBP7 concentrations in patients with acute HF predicted death or rehospitalization at 6 months (hazard ratio: 1.84 per log2-SD; 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 2.61; p = 0.001). In Kaplan-Meier analyses, supramedian concentrations of IGFBP7 were associated with shorter event-free survival (log-rank: p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with acute dyspnea, concentrations of IGFBP7 add to NT-proBNP for diagnosis of acute HF and provide added prognostic utility for short-term risk.

16.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(11): 1365-1369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, nosocomial infections are estimated to cause 72,000 annual deaths. The stethoscope, commonly used, is rarely reported as a potential vector. Our study aims to describe stethoscope contamination and the effect of self-reported cleaning practices among health care providers in a community hospital setting. METHODS: Stethoscopes were collected at random times from health care providers and cultured per standard techniques. Providers answered a structured questionnaire related to their cleaning practices. Differences in bacterial growth rates and the impact of profession, cleaning frequency, and prior sanitization were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 104 cultured stethoscopes, 44% were from residents and medical students, from which 76% had bacterial growth, and 56% were from attendings, nurses, and respiratory therapists who had 91.4% growth (95% = confidence interval 0.62-0.86 and 0.81-0.96, respectively). Overall, 86.5% of providers claimed disinfection frequency compliant with Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines but there were no statistical differences between self-reported cleaning frequency or methods, and the presence of bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Most stethoscopes are contaminated with bacteria, the presence of which was not affected by reported cleaning strategies.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1664-1675, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406612

RESUMO

AIMS: Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) have been linked to abnormal cardiac structure and function in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), but cardiovascular correlates of the biomarker in patients with more acute presentations are lacking. We aimed to determine the relationship between IGFBP7 concentrations and cardiac structure and to evaluate the impact of IGFBP7 on the diagnosis of acute HF among patients with acute dyspnoea. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this pre-specified subgroup analysis of the International Collaborative of N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide Re-evaluation of Acute Diagnostic Cut-Offs in the Emergency Department (ICON-RELOADED) study, we included 271 patients with and without acute HF. All patients presented to an emergency department with acute dyspnoea, had blood samples for IGFBP7 measurement, and detailed echocardiographic evaluation. Higher IGFBP7 concentrations were associated with numerous cardiac abnormalities, including increased left atrial volume index (LAVi; r = 0.49, P < 0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.27, P < 0.001), lower right ventricular fractional area change (r = -0.31, P < 0.001), and higher tissue Doppler E/e' ratio (r = 0.44, P < 0.001). In multivariable linear regression analyses, increased LAVi (P = 0.01), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.008), higher body mass index (P = 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.009), and higher concentrations of amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, P = 0.02) were independently associated with higher IGFBP7 concentrations regardless of other variables. Furthermore, IGFBP7 (odds ratio = 12.08, 95% confidence interval 2.42-60.15, P = 0.02) was found to be independently associated with the diagnosis of acute HF in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among acute dyspnoeic patients with and without acute HF, increased IGFBP7 concentrations are associated with a range of cardiac structure and function abnormalities. Independent association with increased LAVi suggests elevated left ventricular filling pressure is an important trigger for IGFBP7 expression and release. IGFBP7 may enhance the diagnosis of acute HF.

19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(6): 576-585, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to externally validate an emergency department triage algorithm including five hierarchical clinical variables developed to identify chest pain patients at low risk of having an acute coronary syndrome justifying delayed rather than immediate evaluation. METHODS: In a single-centre cohort enrolling 29,269 consecutive patients presenting with chest pain, the performance of the algorithm was compared against the emergency department discharge diagnosis. In an international multicentre study enrolling 4069 patients, central adjudication by two independent cardiologists using all data derived from cardiac work-up including follow-up served as the reference. Triage towards 'low-risk' required absence of all five clinical 'high-risk' variables: history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, pressure-like chest pain, retrosternal chest pain and age above 40 years. Safety (sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV)) and efficacy (percentage of patients classified as low risk) was tested in this initial proposal (Model A) and in two additional models: omitting age criteria (Model B) and allowing up to one (any) of the five high-risk variables (Model C). RESULTS: The prevalence of acute coronary syndrome was 9.4% in the single-centre and 28.4% in the multicentre study. The triage algorithm had very high sensitivity/NPV in both cohorts (99.4%/99.1% and 99.9%/99.1%, respectively), but very low efficacy (6.2% and 2.7%, respectively). Model B resulted in sensitivity/NPV of 97.5%/98.3% and 96.1%/89.4%, while efficacy increased to 14.2% and 10.4%, respectively. Model C resulted in sensitivity/NPV of 96.7%/98.6% and 95.2%/91.3%, with a further increase in efficacy to 23.1% and 15.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A triage algorithm for the identification of low-risk chest pain patients exclusively based on simple clinical variables provided reasonable performance characteristics possibly justifying delayed rather than immediate evaluation in the emergency department.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(8): 1298-1314, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347648

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome is a precipitant of acute heart failure in a substantial proportion of cases, and the presence of both conditions is associated with a higher risk of short-term mortality compared to acute coronary syndrome alone. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of acute heart failure can be challenging. Patients may present with atypical or absent chest pain, electrocardiograms can be confounded by pre-existing abnormalities, and cardiac biomarkers are frequently elevated in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, independently of acute coronary syndrome. It is important to distinguish transient or limited myocardial injury from primary myocardial infarction due to vascular events in patients presenting with acute heart failure. This paper outlines various clinical scenarios to help differentiate between these conditions and aims to provide clinicians with tools to aid in the recognition of acute coronary syndrome as a cause of acute heart failure. Interpretation of electrocardiogram and biomarker findings, and imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up are described. Guidelines recommend an immediate invasive strategy for patients with acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome, regardless of electrocardiographic or biomarker findings. Pharmacological management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure should follow guidelines for each of these syndromes, with priority given to time-sensitive therapies for both. Studies conducted specifically in patients with the combination of acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure are needed to better define the management of these patients.

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