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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500777

RESUMO

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Biocatálise , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Especificidade por Substrato/imunologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554017

RESUMO

Blood flow restriction (BFR) with low-load resistance exercise (RE) is often used as a surrogate to traditional high-load RE to stimulate muscular adaptations, such as hypertrophy and strength. However, it is not clear whether such adaptations are achieved through similar cellular and molecular processes. We compared changes in muscle function, morphology and signaling pathways between these differing training protocols. Twenty-one males and females (mean ± SD: 24.3 ± 3.1 years) experienced with resistance training (4.9 ± 2.6 years) performed nine weeks of resistance training (three times per week) with either high-loads (75-80% 1RM; HL-RT), or low-loads with BFR (30-40% 1RM; LL-BFR). Before and after the training intervention, resting muscle biopsies were collected, and quadricep cross-sectional area (CSA), muscular strength and power were measured. Approximately 5 days following the intervention, the same individuals performed an additional 'acute' exercise session under the same conditions, and serial muscle biopsies were collected to assess hypertrophic- and ribosomal-based signaling stimuli. Quadricep CSA increased with both LL-BFR (7.4±4.3%) and HL-RT (4.6±2.9%), with no significant differences between training groups (p=0.37). Muscular strength also increased in both training groups, but with superior gains in squat 1RM occurring with HL-RT (p<0.01). Acute phosphorylation of several key proteins involved in hypertrophy signaling pathways, and expression of ribosomal RNA transcription factors occurred to a similar degree with LL-BFR and HL-RT (all p>0.05 for between-group comparisons). Together, these findings validate low-load resistance training with continuous BFR as an effective alternative to traditional high-load resistance training for increasing muscle hypertrophy in trained individuals.

3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(7): 1784-1793, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027913

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Davids, CJ, Raastad, T, James, L, Gajanand, T, Smith, E, Connick, M, McGorm, H, Keating, S, Coombes, JS, Peake, JM, and Roberts, LA. Similar morphological and functional training adaptations occur between continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 35(7): 1784-1793, 2021-The aim of the study was to compare skeletal muscle morphological and functional outcomes after low-load resistance training using 2 differing blood flow restriction (BFR) protocols. Recreationally active men and women (n = 42 [f = 21], 24.4 ± 4.4 years) completed 21 sessions over 7 weeks of load-matched and volume-matched low-load resistance training (30% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) with either (a) no BFR (CON), (b) continuous BFR (BFR-C, 60% arterial occlusion pressure [AOP]), or (c) intermittent BFR (BFR-I, 60% AOP). Muscle mass was assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography before and after training. Muscular strength, endurance, and power were determined before and after training by assessing isokinetic dynamometry, 1RM, and jump performance. Ratings of pain and effort were taken in the first and final training session. An alpha level of p < 0.05 was used to determine significance. There were no between-group differences for any of the morphological or functional variables. The muscle cross sectional area (CSA) increased pre-post training (p = 0.009; CON: 1.6%, BFR-C: 1.1%, BFR-I: 2.2%). Maximal isometric strength increased pre-post training (p < 0.001; CON: 9.6%, BFR-C: 14.3%, BFR-I: 19.3%). Total work performed during an isokinetic endurance task increased pre-post training (p < 0.001, CON: 3.6%, BFR-C: 9.6%, BFR-I: 11.3%). Perceptions of pain (p = 0.026) and effort (p = 0.033) during exercise were higher with BFR-C; however, these reduced with training (p = 0.005-0.034). Overall, these data suggest that when 30% 1RM loads are used with a frequency of 3 times per week, the addition of BFR does not confer superior morphological or functional adaptations in recreationally active individuals. Furthermore, the additional metabolic stress that is proposed to occur with a continuous BFR protocol does not seem to translate into proportionally greater training adaptations. The current findings promote the use of both intermittent BFR and low-load resistance training without BFR as suitable alternative training methods to continuous BFR. These approaches may be practically applicable for those less tolerable to pain and discomfort associated with ischemia during exercise.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Adaptação Fisiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
4.
Exp Physiol ; 106(3): 714-725, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486778

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The extent to which genetics determines adaptation to endurance versus resistance exercise is unclear. Previously, a divergent selective breeding rat model showed that genetic factors play a major role in the response to aerobic training. Here, we asked: do genetic factors that underpin poor adaptation to endurance training affect adaptation to functional overload? What is the main finding and its importance? Our data show that heritable factors in low responders to endurance training generated differential gene expression that was associated with impaired skeletal muscle hypertrophy. A maladaptive genotype to endurance exercise appears to dysregulate biological processes responsible for mediating exercise adaptation, irrespective of the mode of contraction stimulus. ABSTRACT: Divergent skeletal muscle phenotypes result from chronic resistance-type versus endurance-type contraction, reflecting the principle of training specificity. Our aim was to determine whether there is a common set of genetic factors that influence skeletal muscle adaptation to divergent contractile stimuli. Female rats were obtained from a genetically heterogeneous rat population and were selectively bred from high responders to endurance training (HRT) or low responders to endurance training (LRT; n = 6/group; generation 19). Both groups underwent 14 days of synergist ablation to induce functional overload of the plantaris muscle before comparison to non-overloaded controls of the same phenotype. RNA sequencing was performed to identify Gene Ontology biological processes with differential (LRT vs. HRT) gene set enrichment. We found that running distance, determined in advance of synergist ablation, increased in response to aerobic training in HRT but not LRT (65 ± 26 vs. -6 ± 18%, mean ± SD, P < 0.0001). The hypertrophy response to functional overload was attenuated in LRT versus HRT (20.1 ± 5.6 vs. 41.6 ± 16.1%, P = 0.015). Between-group differences were observed in the magnitude of response of 96 upregulated and 101 downregulated pathways. A further 27 pathways showed contrasting upregulation or downregulation in LRT versus HRT in response to functional overload. In conclusion, low responders to aerobic endurance training were also low responders for compensatory hypertrophy, and attenuated hypertrophy was associated with differential gene set regulation. Our findings suggest that genetic factors that underpin aerobic training maladaptation might also dysregulate the transcriptional regulation of biological processes that contribute to adaptation to mechanical overload.

5.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(2): 353-365, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644914

RESUMO

Athletes use cold water immersion, cryotherapy chambers, or icing in the belief that these strategies improve postexercise recovery and promote greater adaptations to training. A number of studies have systematically investigated how regular cold water immersion influences long-term performance and muscle adaptations. The effects of regular cold water immersion after endurance or high-intensity interval training on aerobic capacity, lactate threshold, power output, and time trial performance are equivocal. Evidence for changes in angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle in response to regular cold water immersion is also mixed. More consistent evidence is available that regular cold water immersion after strength training attenuates gains in muscle mass and strength. These effects are attributable to reduced activation of satellite cells, ribosomal biogenesis, anabolic signaling, and muscle protein synthesis. Athletes use passive heating to warm up before competition or improve postexercise recovery. Emerging evidence indicates that regular exposure to ambient heat, wearing garments perfused with hot water, or microwave diathermy can mimic the effects of endurance training by stimulating angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle. Some passive heating applications may also mitigate muscle atrophy through their effects on mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle fiber hypertrophy. More research is needed to consolidate these findings, however. Future research in this field should focus on 1) the optimal modality, temperature, duration, and frequency of cooling and heating to enhance long-term performance and muscle adaptations and 2) whether molecular and morphological changes in muscle in response to cooling and heating applications translate to improvements in exercise performance.


Assuntos
Calefação , Treinamento de Força , Temperatura Baixa , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Imersão , Músculo Esquelético , Músculos , Água
6.
Front Physiol ; 11: 737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695024

RESUMO

Regular postexercise cooling attenuates muscle hypertrophy, yet its effects on the key molecular factors that regulate muscle growth and remodeling are not well characterized. In the present study, nine men completed two sessions of single-leg resistance exercise on separate days. On 1 day, they sat in cold water (10°C) up to their waist for 10 min after exercise. On the other day, they exercised at a low intensity for 10 min after exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24, and 48 h after exercise in both trials. These muscle samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in genes and proteins involved in muscle growth and remodeling. Muscle-specific RING finger 1 mRNA increased at 2 h after both trials (P < 0.05), while insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 Ec, IGF-1 receptor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45, collagen type I alpha chain A, collagen type III alpha chain 1, laminin and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 mRNA increased 24-48 h after both trials (P < 0.05). By contrast, atrogin-1 mRNA decreased at all time points after both trials (P < 0.05). Protein expression of tenascin C increased 2 h after the active recovery trial (P < 0.05), whereas FoxO3a protein expression decreased after both trials (P < 0.05). Myostatin mRNA and ubiquitin protein expression did not change after either trial. These responses were not significantly different between the trials. The present findings suggest that regular cold water immersion attenuates muscle hypertrophy independently of changes in factors that regulate myogenesis, proteolysis and extracellular matrix remodeling in muscle after exercise.

7.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 318(6): E1022-E1037, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255681

RESUMO

Proteomics offers the opportunity to identify and quantify many proteins and to explore how they correlate and interact with each other in biological networks. This study aimed to characterize changes in the muscle proteome during the destruction, repair, and early-remodeling phases after impact trauma in male Wistar rats. Muscle tissue was collected from uninjured control rats and rats that were euthanized between 6 h and 14 days after impact injury. Muscle tissue was analyzed using unbiased, data-independent acquisition LC-MS/MS. We identified 770 reviewed proteins in the muscle tissue, 296 of which were differentially abundant between the control and injury groups (P ≤ 0.05). Around 50 proteins showed large differences (≥10-fold) or a distinct pattern of abundance after injury. These included proteins that have not been identified previously in injured muscle, such as ferritin light chain 1, fibrinogen γ-chain, fibrinogen ß-chain, osteolectin, murinoglobulin-1, T-kininogen 2, calcium-regulated heat-stable protein 1, macrophage-capping protein, retinoid-inducible serine carboxypeptidase, ADP-ribosylation factor 4, Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein, and ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 1. Some proteins increased between 6 h and 14 days, whereas other proteins increased in a more delayed pattern at 7 days after injury. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that various biological processes, including regulation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, regulation of wound healing, tissue regeneration, acute inflammatory response, and negative regulation of the immune effector process, were enriched in injured muscle tissue. This study advances the understanding of early muscle healing after muscle injury and lays a foundation for future mechanistic studies on interventions to treat muscle injury.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Fibrinólise , Inflamação , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Regeneração , Cicatrização , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional , Músculo Grácil/lesões , Músculo Grácil/metabolismo , Músculos Isquiossurais/lesões , Músculos Isquiossurais/metabolismo , Cinética , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Necrose , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia
8.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 80-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139350

RESUMO

An increasing body of evidence suggests that age-related immune changes and chronic inflammation contribute to cancer development. Recognizing that exercise has protective effects against cancer, promotes immune function, and beneficially modulates inflammation with ageing, this review outlines the current evidence indicating an emerging role for exercise immunology in preventing and treating cancer in older adults. A specific focus is on data suggesting that muscle- derived cytokines (myokines) mediate anti-cancer effects through promoting immunosurveillance against tumourigenesis or inhibiting cancer cell viability. Previous studies suggested that the exercise-induced release of myokines and other endocrine factors into the blood increases the capacity of blood serum to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. However, little is known about whether this effect is influenced by ageing. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. We therefore examined the effects of serum collected before and after exercise from healthy young and older men on the metabolic activity of androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-unresponsive PC3 prostate cancer cells. Exercise-conditioned serum collected from the young group did not alter cell metabolic activity, whereas post-exercise serum (compared with pre-exercise serum) from the older men inhibited the metabolic activity of LNCaP cancer cells. Serum levels of candidate cancer-inhibitory myokines oncostatin M and osteonectin increased in both age groups following exercise. Serum testosterone increased only in the younger men postexercise, potentially attenuating inhibitory effects of myokines on the LNCaP cell viability. The data from our study and the evidence in this review suggest that mobilizing serum factors and immune cells may be a key mechanism of how exercise counteracts cancer in the older population.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Sistema Imunitário , Oncostatina M/sangue , Osteonectina/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 29(6): 664-670, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the acute effects of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion following a bout of maximal eccentric resistance exercise on key anabolic kinases of mammalian target of rapamycin and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. The authors' hypothesis was that the activation of anabolic signaling pathways known to be upregulated by resistance exercise would be further stimulated by the physiological hyperinsulinemia resulting from CHO supplementation. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled manner to ingest either a noncaloric PLA or 3 g/kg of CHO beverage throughout recovery from resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were collected at rest, immediately after a single bout of intense lower body resistance exercise, and after 3 hr of recovery. RESULTS: CHO ingestion elevated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations throughout recovery compared with PLA ingestion. The ERK pathway (phosphorylation of ERK1/2 [Thr202/Tyr204], RSK [Ser380], and p70S6K [Thr421/Ser424]) was markedly activated immediately after resistance exercise, without any effect of CHO supplementation. The phosphorylation state of AKT (Thr308) was unchanged postexercise in the PLA trial and increased at 3 hr of recovery above resting with ingestion of CHO compared with PLA. Despite stimulating-marked phosphorylation of AKT, CHO ingestion did not enhance resistance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K (Thr389) and rpS6 (Ser235/236 and Ser240/244). CONCLUSION: CHO supplementation after resistance exercise and hyperinsulinemia does not influence the ERK pathway nor the mTORC1 target p70S6K and its downstream proteins, despite the increased AKT phosphorylation.

11.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474845

RESUMO

The elite sports environment provides a unique setting for studying human performance, where both cognitive and physical demands are high. Successful performance in sport is contingent upon key cognitive skills such as attention, perception, working memory and decision-making. The demands of competitive sport also increase loading on the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) offer the potential to investigate the cognitive demands of sport, neuroplasticity of athletes, and biofeedback training. However, practical and technical limitations of these methods have generally limited their use to laboratory-based studies of athletes during simulated sporting tasks. This review article, provides a brief overview of research that has applied neuroimaging technology to study various aspects of cognitive function during sports performance in athletes, alternative methods for measuring CNS loading [e.g., direct current (DC) potential], possible solutions and avenues of focus for future neuroergonomics research in sport.

12.
Nutr Rev ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150091

RESUMO

Inorganic dietary nitrate, found abundantly in green leafy and some root vegetables, elicits several beneficial physiological effects, including a reduction in blood pressure and improvements in blood flow through nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide signaling. Recent animal and human studies have shown that dietary nitrate and nitrite also modulate inflammatory processes and immune cell function and phenotypes. Chronic low-grade inflammation and immune dysfunction play a critical role in cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the current evidence on the efficacy of nitrate-rich plant foods and other sources of dietary nitrate and nitrite to counteract inflammation and promote homeostasis of the immune and vascular systems. The data from these studies suggest that immune cells and immune-vasculature interactions are important targets for dietary interventions aimed at improving, preserving, or restoring cardiovascular health.

13.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 104(1): 50-58, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209527

RESUMO

Chronic, low-grade systematic inflammation has been associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. We previously reported that exercise improved femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), geometry and strength and lumbar spine trabecular BMD in middle-aged and older men, but had no effect on markers of inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the association between basal inflammatory status and the adaptive skeletal responses to exercise. Secondary analysis was completed on 91 men aged 50-79 years who participated in an 18-month program of progressive resistance training plus weight-bearing impact exercise (3 day/week) with and without additional calcium-vitamin D3. Markers of inflammation (serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6) and DXA and QCT-derived BMD, bone structure and strength at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured at baseline and 18 months. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between skeletal changes and both baseline levels of individual inflammatory markers and a composite inflammatory index derived from the number of markers categorized into the highest tertile. Baseline serum hs-CRP, TNFα and IL-6 and the composite inflammatory index score were not associated with skeletal changes at any site after adjusting for age, change in lean mass, disease(s)/medication use and adherence to the exercise intervention. In conclusion, this study indicates that basal inflammatory status does not influence the osteogenic response to exercise training in healthy middle-aged and older men.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/metabolismo
14.
Front Physiol ; 9: 743, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002629

RESUMO

The commercial market for technologies to monitor and improve personal health and sports performance is ever expanding. A wide range of smart watches, bands, garments, and patches with embedded sensors, small portable devices and mobile applications now exist to record and provide users with feedback on many different physical performance variables. These variables include cardiorespiratory function, movement patterns, sweat analysis, tissue oxygenation, sleep, emotional state, and changes in cognitive function following concussion. In this review, we have summarized the features and evaluated the characteristics of a cross-section of technologies for health and sports performance according to what the technology is claimed to do, whether it has been validated and is reliable, and if it is suitable for general consumer use. Consumers who are choosing new technology should consider whether it (1) produces desirable (or non-desirable) outcomes, (2) has been developed based on real-world need, and (3) has been tested and proven effective in applied studies in different settings. Among the technologies included in this review, more than half have not been validated through independent research. Only 5% of the technologies have been formally validated. Around 10% of technologies have been developed for and used in research. The value of such technologies for consumer use is debatable, however, because they may require extra time to set up and interpret the data they produce. Looking to the future, the rapidly expanding market of health and sports performance technology has much to offer consumers. To create a competitive advantage, companies producing health and performance technologies should consult with consumers to identify real-world need, and invest in research to prove the effectiveness of their products. To get the best value, consumers should carefully select such products, not only based on their personal needs, but also according to the strength of supporting evidence and effectiveness of the products.

15.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(12): 2621-2636, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730319

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the safety, feasibility, and effect of exercise among women with stage II+ breast cancer. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL, Cochrane, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Pubmed, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, Science Direct and SPORTDiscus were searched for articles published before March 1, 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled, exercise trials involving at least 50% of women diagnosed with stage II+ breast cancer were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Risk of bias was assessed and adverse event severity was classified using the Common Terminology Criteria. Feasibility was evaluated by computing median (range) recruitment, withdrawal, and adherence rates. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate exercise safety and effects on health outcomes only. The influence of intervention characteristics (mode, supervision, duration and timing) on exercise outcomes were also explored. DATA SYNTHESIS: There were no differences in adverse events between exercise and usual care (risk difference: <0.01 ([95% CI: -0.01, 0.01], P=0.38). Median recruitment rate was 56% (1%-96%), withdrawal rate was 10% (0%-41%) and adherence rate was 82% (44%-99%). Safety and feasibility outcomes were similar, irrespective of exercise mode, supervision, duration, or timing. Effects of exercise for quality of life, fitness, fatigue, strength, anxiety, depression, body mass index and waist circumference compared with usual care were significant (standardized mean difference range: 0.17-0.77, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings support the safety, feasibility, and effects of exercise for those with stage II+ breast cancer, suggesting that national and international exercise guidelines appear generalizable to women with local, regional, and distant breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Depressão , Fadiga , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Aptidão Física , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Sports Med ; 48(7): 1575-1595, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663142

RESUMO

It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on sports performance, injuries, long-term adaptive responses, and psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery. An active cool-down is largely ineffective with respect to enhancing same-day and next-day(s) sports performance, but some beneficial effects on next-day(s) performance have been reported. Active cool-downs do not appear to prevent injuries, and preliminary evidence suggests that performing an active cool-down on a regular basis does not attenuate the long-term adaptive response. Active cool-downs accelerate recovery of lactate in blood, but not necessarily in muscle tissue. Performing active cool-downs may partially prevent immune system depression and promote faster recovery of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However, it is unknown whether this reduces the likelihood of post-exercise illnesses, syncope, and cardiovascular complications. Most evidence indicates that active cool-downs do not significantly reduce muscle soreness, or improve the recovery of indirect markers of muscle damage, neuromuscular contractile properties, musculotendinous stiffness, range of motion, systemic hormonal concentrations, or measures of psychological recovery. It can also interfere with muscle glycogen resynthesis. In summary, based on the empirical evidence currently available, active cool-downs are largely ineffective for improving most psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery, but may nevertheless offer some benefits compared with a passive cool-down.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mialgia , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular
17.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(2): 271-286, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698111

RESUMO

Strenuous exercise can result in skeletal muscle damage, leading to the systemic mobilization, activation, and intramuscular accumulation of blood leukocytes. Eicosanoid metabolites of arachidonic acid (ARA) are potent inflammatory mediators, but whether changes in dietary ARA intake influence exercise-induced inflammation is not known. This study investigated the effect of 4 wk of dietary supplementation with 1.5 g/day ARA ( n = 9, 24 ± 1.5 yr) or corn-soy oil placebo ( n = 10, 26 ± 1.3 yr) on systemic and intramuscular inflammatory responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise (8 sets each of leg press and extension at 80% one-repetition maximum) in previously trained men. Whole EDTA blood, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs), and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected before exercise, immediately postexercise, and at 2, 4, and 48 h of recovery. ARA supplementation resulted in higher exercise-stimulated serum creatine kinase activity [incremental area under the curve (iAUC) P = 0.046] and blood leukocyte counts (iAUC for total white cells, P < 0.001; neutrophils: P = 0.007; monocytes: P = 0.015). The exercise-induced fold change in peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA expression of interleukin-1ß ( IL1B), CD11b ( ITGAM), and neutrophil elastase ( ELANE), as well as muscle mRNA expression of the chemokines interleukin-8 ( CXCL8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 ( CCL2) was also greater in the ARA group than placebo. Despite this, ARA supplementation did not influence the histological presence of leukocytes within muscle, perceived muscle soreness, or the extent and duration of muscle force loss. These data show that ARA supplementation transiently increased the inflammatory response to acute resistance exercise but did not impair recovery. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Daily arachidonic acid supplementation for 4 wk in trained men augmented the acute systemic and intramuscular inflammatory response to a subsequent bout of resistance exercise. Greater exercise-induced inflammatory responses in men receiving arachidonic acid supplementation were not accompanied by increased symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Although increased dietary arachidonic acid intake does not appear to influence basal inflammation in humans, the acute inflammatory response to exercise stress is transiently increased following arachidonic acid supplementation.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Treinamento de Força/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Mialgia/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 314(6): R824-R833, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466686

RESUMO

Resistance training (RT) increases muscle fiber size and induces angiogenesis to maintain capillary density. Cold water immersion (CWI), a common postexercise recovery modality, may improve acute recovery, but it attenuates muscle hypertrophy compared with active recovery (ACT). It is unknown if CWI following RT alters muscle fiber type expression or angiogenesis. Twenty-one men strength trained for 12 wk, with either 10 min of CWI ( n = 11) or ACT ( n = 10) performed following each session. Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at rest before and after training. Type IIx myofiber percent decreased ( P = 0.013) and type IIa myofiber percent increased with training ( P = 0.012), with no difference between groups. The number of capillaries per fiber increased from pretraining in the CWI group ( P = 0.004) but not the ACT group ( P = 0.955). Expression of myosin heavy chain genes ( MYH1 and MYH2), encoding type IIx and IIa fibers, respectively, decreased in the ACT group, whereas MYH7 (encoding type I fibers) increased in the ACT group versus CWI ( P = 0.004). Myosin heavy chain IIa protein increased with training ( P = 0.012) with no difference between groups. The proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor protein decreased posttraining in the ACT group versus CWI ( P < 0.001), whereas antiangiogenic Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 protein increased with training in both groups ( P = 0.015). Expression of microRNAs that regulate muscle fiber type (miR-208b and -499a) and angiogenesis (miR-15a, -16, and -126) increased only in the ACT group ( P < 0.05). CWI recovery after each training session altered the angiogenic and fiber type-specific response to RT through regulation at the levels of microRNA, gene, and protein expression.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Imersão , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Capilares/fisiologia , Miosinas Cardíacas/biossíntese , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/biossíntese , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sports Med ; 48(6): 1311-1328, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470824

RESUMO

Historically, heat has been used in various clinical and sports rehabilitation settings to treat soft tissue injuries. More recently, interest has emerged in using heat to pre-condition muscle against injury. The aim of this narrative review was to collate information on different types of heat therapy, explain the physiological rationale for heat therapy, and to summarise and evaluate the effects of heat therapy before, during and after muscle injury, immobilisation and strength training. Studies on skeletal muscle cells demonstrate that heat attenuates cellular damage and protein degradation (following in vitro challenges/insults to the cells). Heat also increases the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and upregulates the expression of genes involved in muscle growth and differentiation. In rats, applying heat before and after muscle injury or immobilisation typically reduces cellular damage and muscle atrophy, and promotes more rapid muscle growth/regeneration. In humans, some research has demonstrated benefits of microwave diathermy (and, to a lesser extent, hot water immersion) before exercise for restricting muscle soreness and restoring muscle function after exercise. By contrast, the benefits of applying heat to muscle after exercise are more variable. Animal studies reveal that applying heat during limb immobilisation attenuates muscle atrophy and oxidative stress. Heating muscle may also enhance the benefits of strength training for improving muscle mass in humans. Further research is needed to identify the most effective forms of heat therapy and to investigate the benefits of heat therapy for restricting muscle wasting in the elderly and those individuals recovering from serious injury or illness.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Calefação , Humanos , Atrofia Muscular , Ratos , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 13(4): 496-503, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872372

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigations into the specificity of rugby union training practices in preparation for competitive demands have predominantly focused on physical and physiological demands. The evaluation of the contextual variance in perceptual strain or skill requirements between training and matches in rugby union is unclear, yet holistic understanding may assist to optimize training design. This study evaluated the specificity of physical, physiological, perceptual, and skill demands of training sessions compared with competitive match play in preprofessional, elite club rugby union. METHODS: Global positioning system devices, video capture, heart rate, and session ratings of perceived exertion were used to assess movement patterns, skill completions, physiologic, and perceptual responses, respectively. Data were collected across a season (training sessions n = 29; matches n = 14). Participants (n = 32) were grouped in playing positions as: outside backs, centers, halves, loose forwards, lock forwards, and front row forwards. RESULTS: Greater total distance, low-intensity activity, maximal speed, and meters per minute were apparent in matches compared with training in all positions (P < .02; d > 0.90). Similarly, match heart rate and session ratings of perceived exertion responses were higher than those recorded in training (P < .05; d > 0.8). Key skill completions for forwards (ie, scrums, rucks, and lineouts) and backs (ie, kicks) were greater under match conditions than in training (P < .001; d > 1.50). CONCLUSION: Considerable disparities exist between the perceptual, physiological, and key skill demands of competitive matches versus training sessions in preprofessional rugby union players. Practitioners should consider the specificity of training tasks for preprofessional rugby players to ensure the best preparation for match demands.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
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