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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(1): 161-168, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of inherited endometrial cancer, attributable to germline pathogenic variants (PV) in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Tumor microsatellite instability (MSI-high) and MMR IHC abnormalities are characteristics of Lynch syndrome. Double somatic MMR gene PV also cause MSI-high endometrial cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of Lynch syndrome and double somatic MMR PV. METHODS: 341 endometrial cancer patients enrolled in the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center from 1/1/13-12/31/16. All tumors underwent immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the four MMR proteins, MSI testing, and MLH1 methylation testing if the tumor was MMR-deficient (dMMR). Germline genetic testing for Lynch syndrome was undertaken for all cases with dMMR tumors lacking MLH1 methylation. Tumor sequencing followed if a germline MMR gene PV was not identified. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent (91/341) of tumors were either MSI-high or had abnormal IHC indicating dMMR. As expected, most dMMR tumors had MLH1 methylation; (69, 75.8% of the dMMR cases; 20.2% of total). Among the 22 (6.5%) cases with dMMR not explained by methylation, 10 (2.9% of total) were found to have Lynch syndrome (6 MSH6, 3 MSH2, 1 PMS2). Double somatic MMR PV accounted for the remaining 12 dMMR cases (3.5% of total). CONCLUSIONS: Since double somatic MMR gene PV are as common as Lynch syndrome among endometrial cancer patients, paired tumor and germline testing for patients with non-methylated dMMR tumor may be the most efficient approach for LS screening.

3.
Hum Pathol ; 103: 34-41, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652087

RESUMO

It has been observed that some patients with colorectal cancer due to germline or double somatic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes may have intact protein expression in their tumors as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). This has been speculated to occur more frequently in Lynch syndrome (LS) cases due to pathogenic missense mutations, leading to expression of a full-length but nonfunctional protein with retained antigenicity. Our goals were to study the frequency of unexpected MMR expression in colorectal cancers among LS cases with missense mutations, LS cases with truncating mutations, as well as cases with double somatic MMR mutations and evaluate if the unexpected MMR expression is more common in certain categories. IHC slides were available for 82 patients with MMR deficiency without methylation, which included 56 LS cases and 26 double somatic MMR mutation cases. Sixteen of 82 MMR-defective cases showed unexpected MMR expression, with 10 cases showing tumor staining weaker than the control and 6 cases (7%) showing intact staining. Unexpected MMR expression was most commonly seen with LS cases with missense mutations (4 of 9, 44%), followed by MMR double somatic mutation cases (7 of 26, 27%), and finally by LS cases with truncating mutations (5 of 47, 11%). Cautious interpretation of MMR IHC is advised when dealing with tumor staining that is weaker than the control regardless of the percentage of tumor staining as these cases may harbor pathogenic MMR gene mutations. Missense mutations may account for some LS cases that may be missed by IHC alone. Strict adherence to proper interpretation of IHC with attention to staining intensity and the status of heterodimer partner protein will prevent many potential misses.

4.
Hum Pathol ; 96: 104-111, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783044

RESUMO

Mismatch repair protein (MMR) immunohistochemistry is an important tool in screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. Unusual staining patterns such as heterogeneous MSH6 staining have been reported in colorectal and endometrial cancers. We aim to better understand MSH6 staining heterogeneity in colorectal cancer by comparative sequencing of different tumor areas for MMR and DNA polymerase mutations. Whole-section slides of 1754 colorectal cancers were reviewed for heterogeneous MSH6 staining, defined as discrete tumor areas with abrupt loss of staining juxtaposed to tumor areas with retained staining. Nine cases (0.05%) demonstrated heterogeneous MSH6 staining; none received neoadjuvant therapy prior to the specimen collection. The area of tumor with loss of MSH6 expression ranged from 5% to 60% (average 22%). Four cases had enough tissue remaining in both retained and lost MSH6 areas to perform tumor sequencing on both areas. All 9 cases were negative for MSH6 germline mutation; MSH6 heterogeneous staining was seen in tumors with MLH1 or PMS2 abnormalities (6 cases of MLH1 methylation, 2 PMS2 germline mutation, 1 MLH1 germline mutation). In addition, case 1 also had a somatic POLD1 exonuclease domain mutation (p.Y405C) in the MSH6 loss area but not in the intact area. We recommend reporting MSH6 heterogeneous pattern as MSH6 staining is present with a comment stating that the heterogeneous pattern typically does not indicate germline mutation in MSH6 but is commonly associated with abnormality in another MMR gene such as MLH1 or PMS2, or even other DNA repair genes such as DNA polymerase.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 3-9, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with colorectal cancer are at risk for colorectal cancer, but may not be up to date with colorectal cancer screening. We sought to determine whether a one-time recommendation about needing colorectal cancer screening using patient navigation (PN) was better than just receiving the recommendation only. METHODS: Participants were FDRs of patients with Lynch syndrome-negative colorectal cancer from participating Ohio hospitals. FDRs from 259 families were randomized to a website intervention (528 individuals), which included a survey and personal colorectal cancer screening recommendation, while those from 254 families were randomized to the website plus telephonic PN intervention (515 individuals). Primary outcome was adherence to the personal screening recommendation (to get screened or not to get screened) received from the website. Secondary outcomes examined who benefited from adding PN. RESULTS: At the end of the 14-month follow-up, 78.6% of participants were adherent to their recommendation for colorectal cancer screening with adherence similar between arms (P = 0.14). Among those who received a recommendation to have a colonoscopy immediately, the website plus PN intervention significantly increased the odds of receiving screening, compared with the website intervention (OR: 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.28). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of PN to a website intervention did not improve adherence to a colorectal cancer screening recommendation overall; however, the addition of PN was more effective in increasing adherence among FDRs who needed screening immediately. IMPACT: These findings provide important information as to when the additional costs of PN are needed to assure colorectal cancer screening among those at high risk for colorectal cancer.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1274-1286.e12, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10-5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol ; 17(4): 692-701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673925

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the current understanding of the diagnosis, management, and potential genetic causes of serrated polyposis syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical criteria for serrated polyposis syndrome was recently updated and now includes individuals with five or more serrated polyps proximal to the rectum that are 5 mm in size or greater and at least two that are 10 mm in size of greater as well as individuals with 20 or more serrated polyps throughout the colon with at least five proximal to the rectum. There is a significant risk for colon cancer in first-degree relatives of individuals with serrated polyposis syndrome. However, less than 3% of serrated polyposis syndrome cases are explained by identifiable germline mutations, with mutations in RNF43 being the only currently validated genetic cause. Serrated polyposis syndrome is rarely explained by identifiable germline mutations, but there remains an increased risk for colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives. Referral for genetic counseling and testing is recommended for individuals with serrated polyposis syndrome and a personal history of coexisting adenomatous polyposis or with a concerning family history and can be considered for all individuals with serrated polyposis syndrome. Close endoscopic surveillance of those with serrated polyposis syndrome and their first-degree relatives is recommended. Continued efforts at identifying hereditary causes of serrated polyposis are needed.

8.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 6(1): e000299, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275589

RESUMO

Objective: The plasma-based methylated SEPTIN9 (mSEPT9) is a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test for adults aged 50-75 years who are at average risk for CRC and have refused colonoscopy or faecal-based screening tests. The applicability of mSEPT9 for high-risk persons with Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary CRC condition, has not been assessed. This study sought preliminary evidence for the utility of mSEPT9 for CRC detection in LS. Design: Firstly, SEPT9 methylation was measured in LS-associated CRC, advanced adenoma, and subject-matched normal colorectal mucosa tissues by pyrosequencing. Secondly, to detect mSEPT9 as circulating tumor DNA, the plasma-based mSEPT9 test was retrospectively evaluated in LS subjects using the Epi proColon 2.0 CE assay adapted for 1mL plasma using the "1/1 algorithm". LS case groups included 20 peri-surgical cases with acolonoscopy-based diagnosis of CRC (stages I-IV), 13 post-surgical metastatic CRC, and 17 pre-diagnosis cases. The control group comprised 31 cancer-free LS subjects. Results: Differential hypermethylation was found in 97.3% (36/37) of primary CRC and 90.0% (18/20) of advanced adenomas, showing LS-associated neoplasia frequently produce the mSEPT9 biomarker. Sensitivity of plasma mSEPT9 to detect CRC was 70.0% (95% CI, 48%-88%)in cases with a colonoscopy-based CRC diagnosis and 92.3% (95% CI, 64%-100%) inpost-surgical metastatic cases. In pre-diagnosis cases, plasma mSEPT9 was detected within two months prior to colonoscopy-based CRC diagnosis in 3/5 cases. Specificity in controls was 100% (95% CI 89%-100%). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest mSEPT9 may demonstrate similar diagnostic performance characteristics in LS as in the average-risk population, warranting a well-powered prospective case-control study.

10.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 462-470, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) tumours without MLH1 methylation or germline MMR pathogenic variants (PV) were previously thought to have Lynch syndrome (LS). It is now appreciated that they can have double somatic (DS) MMR PVs. We explored the clinical characteristics between patients with DS tumours and LS in two population-based cohorts. METHODS: We included patients with CRC from Ohio 2013-2016 and Iceland 2000-2009. All had microsatellite instability testing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) of MMR proteins, and MLH1 methylation testing when indicated. Germline next-generation sequencing was performed for all with dMMR tumours; tumour sequencing followed for patients with unexplained dMMR. Clinical characteristics of DS patients and patients with LS were compared. RESULTS: Of the 232 and 51 patients with non-methylated dMMR tumours in the Ohio and Iceland cohorts, respectively, 57.8% (n=134) and 45.1% (n=23) had LS, 32.8% (n=76) and 31.4% (n=16) had DS PVs, 6% (n=14) and 9.8% (n=5) were unexplained and 4.3% (n=10) and 13.7% (n=7) had incorrect IHC. Age of diagnosis for DS patients was older than patients with LS (p=3.73×10-4) in the two cohorts. Patients with LS were more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria (OR=15.81, p=8.47×10-6) and have multiple LS-associated tumours (OR=6.67, p=3.31×10-5). Absence of MLH1/PMS2 was predictive of DS PVs; isolated MSH6 and PMS2 absence was predictive of LS in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with LS are 15× more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria and >5× more likely to have multiple cancers as compared with those with DS tumours. Furthermore, isolated loss of MSH6 or PMS2 protein predicts LS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Fam Cancer ; 18(1): 67-73, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019097

RESUMO

Past methods for estimating the population frequency of familial cancer syndromes have used cases and controls ignoring the familial nature of genetic disease. In this study we modified the capture-recapture method from ecology to estimate the number of families in central Ohio with Lynch syndrome (LS). We screened 1566 colorectal cancer cases and 545 endometrial cancer cases in central Ohio from 1999 to 2005 and identified 58 with LS. We screened an additional 3346 colorectal and 342 endometrial cancer cases from 2013 to 2016 and identified 149 with LS. We found 12 LS mutations shared between families observed in the first and second studies. We identified three individuals between studies who were closely related and eight who were more distantly related. We used identified family relationships and genetic test results to estimate family size and structure. Applying a modified capture-recapture method we estimate 1693 3-generation families in the area who have 288 unique LS causing mutations. Comprehensive colorectal and endometrial cancer screening will take about 20 years to identify 50% of families with LS. This is the first time that the capture-recapture method has been applied to estimate the burden of families with a specific heritable disease. Family structure reveals the potential extent of prevention and the time necessary to identify a proportion of families with LS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Ohio/epidemiologia
12.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(10): 2008-2015.e3, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Guidelines recommend genetic testing of patients with 10 or more cumulative adenomatous polyps. However, little is known about the utility of these tests-especially for older patients. We aimed to determine the prevalence of pathogenic mutations in patients with multiple colorectal polyps, stratified by age. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with 10 or more colorectal polyps who underwent multigene panel testing (MGPT) from March 2012 through December 2016 (n = 3789). Demographic, clinical and family history data were obtained from test requisition forms and accompanying clinic notes, pedigrees, and pathology reports. Subjects were stratified based on reported polyp histology. Primary outcomes of interest were gene mutations associated with adenomatous polyposis, hamartomatous polyposis, and non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndromes. RESULTS: Based on MGPT, the prevalence of mutations in adenomatous polyposis genes decreased with increasing age in all polyp count groups in the adenoma cohort (P < .001 for 10-19, 20-99, and 100 or more polyps). The prevalence of mutations in all genes of interest also decreased with increasing age but remained above 5% in all age and polyp cohorts. Increased age at testing was associated with a significantly lower risk of a mutation in any gene of interest with multivariate analysis. In the hamartoma cohort, the prevalence of mutations in hamartomatous polyposis genes was high regardless of polyp count (40% with 10-19 polyps, 72.1% with 20-99 polyps, and 50% with 100 or more polyps). CONCLUSION: Our findings support continued genetic testing of patients with 10 or more polyps including adenomas and/or hamartomas. MGPT that includes analysis of polyposis and non-polyposis colorectal cancer genes should be considered for these patients given the high proportion with mutations (above 5%) in all age groups.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Pólipos Adenomatosos/genética , Pólipos do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/genética , Prevalência
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
14.
Mod Pathol ; 31(12): 1891-1900, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967423

RESUMO

Universal screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer is recommended, and immunohistochemistry for the mismatch repair proteins is commonly used. To reduce cost, some screen using only MSH6 and PMS2, with reflex to the partner stain if either are absent (two-stain method). An expression pattern revealing absent MSH2 and intact MSH6 is not expected, but could result in failed Lynch syndrome detection. We analyzed tumors with absent MSH2 but any degree of MSH6 expression to determine if the two-stain method could miss MSH2 mutations. One-thousand seven-hundred thirty colorectal cancer patients from the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative underwent tumor screening using microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry. The two-stain method was used for 1235 cases; staining for all four proteins was completed for 495 cases. The proportion of positive cells and staining intensity were reviewed for MSH6, as well as MSH2 when available. Patients with mismatch repair deficiency underwent next-generation sequencing of germline DNA for mismatch repair genes. If negative, tumor next-generation sequencing was performed to assess for somatic mutations. Overall, thirty-three (1.9%, 33/1730) MSH2-absent cases were identified. Of those, fourteen had no MSH6 expression but eight (0.5%, 8/1730) had ambiguous and eleven (0.6%, 11/1730) had convincing MSH6 expression that could have been interpreted as intact. Germline next-generation sequencing identified MSH2 mutations in 11/14 cases with absence of both stains, 7/8 cases with ambiguous MSH6 expression, and 9/11 cases with convincing MSH6 expression. All remaining cases, except one, had double somatic mutations. The two-stain method fails to detect some patients with Lynch syndrome: (1) significant staining weaker than the control may be incorrectly interpreted as intact MSH6, or (2) Weak or focal/patchy MSH6 can be retained with the absence of MSH2. Accordingly, we recommend the four-stain method be used for optimal Lynch syndrome screening detection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/análise , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 19-29, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887214

RESUMO

Present guidelines for classification of constitutional variants do not incorporate inferences from mutations seen in tumors, even when these are associated with a specific molecular phenotype. When somatic mutations and constitutional mutations lead to the same molecular phenotype, as for the mismatch repair genes, information from somatic mutations may enable interpretation of previously unclassified variants. To test this idea, we first estimated likelihoods that somatic variants in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 drive microsatellite instability and characteristic IHC staining patterns by calculating likelihoods of high versus low normalized variant read fractions of 153 mutations known to be pathogenic versus those of 760 intronic passenger mutations from 174 paired tumor-normal samples. Mutations that explained the tumor mismatch repair phenotype had likelihood ratio for high variant read fraction of 1.56 (95% CI 1.42-1.71) at sites with no loss of heterozygosity and of 26.5 (95% CI 13.2-53.0) at sites with loss of heterozygosity. Next, we applied these ratios to 165 missense, synonymous, and splice variants observed in tumors, combining in a Bayesian analysis the likelihood ratio corresponding with the adjusted variant read fraction with pretest probabilities derived from published analyses and public databases. We suggest classifications for 86 of 165 variants: 7 benign, 31 likely benign, 22 likely pathogenic, and 26 pathogenic. These results illustrate that for mismatch repair genes, characterization of tumor mutations permits tumor mutation data to inform constitutional variant classification. We suggest modifications to incorporate molecular phenotype in future variant classification guidelines.


Assuntos
Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Fenótipo
16.
Hum Pathol ; 78: 125-130, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723603

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common form of hereditary colon cancer. Germline mutations in the mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2 (EPCAM), MSH6, and PMS2, followed by a second hit to the remaining allele, lead to cancer development. Universal tumor screening for LS is routinely performed on colon cancer, and screening has identified patients with unexplained MMR deficiency that lack MLH1 methylation and a germline mutation. Tumor sequencing has since identified double somatic (DS) mutations in the MMR gene corresponding with the absent protein in 69% of these patients. We assessed whether histomorphology could distinguish patients with DS mutations from those with LS. Colorectal cancer patients with DS mutations were identified from population-based cohorts from Iceland (2000-2009); Columbus, Ohio (1999-2005); and the state of Ohio (2013-2016). Next-generation sequencing was performed on tumors with unexplained MMR deficiency. Patients with LS from Ohio cohorts were the comparison group. The histologic features associated with MMR deficiency (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Crohn-like reaction, histologic subtype, necrosis) were evaluated. We identified 43 tumors with DS mutations and 48 from patients with LS. There was no significant difference in histologic features between tumors in LS patients and tumors with DS mutations. Because histology of tumors with DS mutations is indistinguishable from those caused by LS, tumor sequencing for evaluation of DS mutations should be considered to help clarify sporadic versus hereditary causes of unexplained MMR deficiency.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(6): 806-813, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596542

RESUMO

Importance: Universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome (LS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is recommended and involves up to 6 sequential tests. Somatic gene testing is performed on stage IV CRCs for treatment determination. The diagnostic workup for patients with CRC could be simplified and improved using a single up-front tumor next-generation sequencing test if it has higher sensitivity and specificity than the current screening protocol. Objective: To determine whether up-front tumor sequencing (TS) could replace the current multiple sequential test approach for universal tumor screening for LS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Tumor DNA from 419 consecutive CRC cases undergoing standard universal tumor screening and germline genetic testing when indicated as part of the multicenter, population-based Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from October 2015 through February 2016 (the prospective cohort) and 46 patients with CRC known to have LS due to a germline mutation in a mismatch repair gene from January 2013 through September 2015 (the validation cohort) underwent blinded TS. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sensitivity of TS compared with microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the detection of LS. Results: In the 465 patients, mean age at diagnosis was 59.9 years (range, 20-96 years), and 241 (51.8%) were female. Tumor sequencing identified all 46 known LS cases from the validation cohort and an additional 12 LS cases from the 419-member prospective cohort. Testing with MSI or IHC, followed by BRAF p.V600E testing missed 5 and 6 cases of LS, respectively. Tumor sequencing alone had better sensitivity (100%; 95% CI, 93.8%-100%) than IHC plus BRAF (89.7%; 95% CI, 78.8%-96.1%; P = .04) and MSI plus BRAF (91.4%; 95% CI, 81.0%-97.1%; P = .07). Tumor sequencing had equal specificity (95.3%; 95% CI, 92.6%-97.2%) to IHC plus BRAF (94.6%; 95% CI, 91.9%-96.6%; P > .99) and MSI plus BRAF (94.8%; 95% CI, 92.2%-96.8%; P = .88). Tumor sequencing identified 284 cases with KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations that could affect therapy for stage IV CRC, avoiding another test. Finally, TS identified 8 patients with germline DPYD mutations that confer toxicity to fluorouracil chemotherapy, which could also be useful for treatment selection. Conclusions and Relevance: Up-front TS in CRC is simpler and has superior sensitivity to current multitest approaches to LS screening, while simultaneously providing critical information for treatment selection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Genes Neoplásicos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/química , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Método Simples-Cego
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 146(3): 588-595, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between mismatch repair (MMR) classification and clinicopathologic features including tumor volume, and explore outcomes by MMR class in a contemporary cohort. METHODS: Single institution cohort evaluating MMR classification for endometrial cancers (EC). MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC)±microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and reflex MLH1 methylation testing was performed. Tumors with MMR abnormalities by IHC or MSI and MLH1 methylation were classified as epigenetic MMR deficiency while those without MLH1 methylation were classified as probable MMR mutations. Clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: 466 endometrial cancers were classified; 75% as MMR proficient, 20% epigenetic MMR defects, and 5% as probable MMR mutations. Epigenetic MMR defects were associated with advanced stage, higher grade, presence of lymphovascular space invasion, and older age. MMR class was significantly associated with tumor volume, an association not previously reported. The epigenetic MMR defect tumors median volume was 10,220mm3 compared to 3321mm3 and 2,846mm3, for MMR proficient and probable MMR mutations respectively (P<0.0001). Higher tumor volume was associated with lymph node involvement. Endometrioid EC cases with epigenetic MMR defects had significantly reduced recurrence-free survival (RFS). Among advanced stage (III/IV) endometrioid EC the epigenetic MMR defect group was more likely to recur compared to the MMR proficient group (47.7% vs 3.4%) despite receiving similar adjuvant therapy. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of early stage recurrences for the different MMR classes. CONCLUSIONS: MMR testing that includes MLH1 methylation analysis defines a subset of tumors that have worse prognostic features and reduced RFS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Inativação Gênica , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Metilação de DNA , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/química , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/análise , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Carga Tumoral/genética
20.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(4): 464-471, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27978560

RESUMO

Importance: Hereditary cancer syndromes infer high cancer risks and require intensive cancer surveillance, yet the prevalence and spectrum of these conditions among unselected patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely undetermined. Objective: To determine the frequency and spectrum of cancer susceptibility gene mutations among patients with early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: Overall, 450 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer younger than 50 years were prospectively accrued from 51 hospitals into the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from January 1, 2013, to June 20, 2016. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry. Germline DNA was tested for mutations in 25 cancer susceptibility genes using next-generation sequencing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with early-onset CRC was determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. Results: In total 450 patients younger than 50 years were included in the study, and 75 gene mutations were found in 72 patients (16%). Forty-eight patients (10.7%) had MMR-deficient tumors, and 40 patients (83.3%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 37 had Lynch syndrome (13, MLH1 [including one with constitutional MLH1 methylation]; 16, MSH2; 1, MSH2/monoallelic MUTYH; 2, MSH6; 5, PMS2); 1 patient had the APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K mutation and a PMS2 variant; 9 patients (18.8%) had double somatic MMR mutations (including 2 with germline biallelic MUTYH mutations); and 1 patient had somatic MLH1 methylation. Four hundred two patients (89.3%) had MMR-proficient tumors, and 32 patients (8%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 9 had mutations in high-penetrance CRC genes (5, APC; 1, APC/PMS2; 2, biallelic MUTYH; 1, SMAD4); 13 patients had mutations in high- or moderate-penetrance genes not traditionally associated with CRC (3, ATM; 1, ATM/CHEK2; 2, BRCA1; 4, BRCA2; 1, CDKN2A; 2, PALB2); 10 patients had mutations in low-penetrance CRC genes (3, APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K; 7, monoallelic MUTYH). Importantly, 24 of 72 patients (33.3%) who were mutation positive did not meet established genetic testing criteria for the gene(s) in which they had a mutation. Conclusions and Relevance: Of 450 patients with early-onset CRC, 72 (16%) had gene mutations. Given the high frequency and wide spectrum of mutations, genetic counseling and testing with a multigene panel could be considered for all patients with early-onset CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Prevalência
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