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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with health inequalities. We explored relationships between socioeconomic group and outcomes after elective surgery in the UK National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: We combined data from two observational studies in 115 NHS hospitals and determined socioeconomic group using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) quintiles based on place of residence. Postoperative complications and 3-yr survival were assessed using logistic and Cox regression. Univariate analyses were adjusted for age differences between IMD quintiles. Multivariable analyses were used to account for other baseline risk factors including sex and comorbid disease. Results are reported as n (%), hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Postoperative complications developed in 971/9051 patients (10.7%) and 1597/9043 patients (17.7%) died within 3 yr. Complication rates increased with deprivation (reference group least-deprived IMD5): IMD1 (OR=1.44 [1.17-1.78]; P<0.001), IMD2 (OR=1.38 [1.12-1.70]; P<0.01), IMD3 (OR=1.09 [0.88-1.35]: P=0.44), IMD4 (OR=0.89 [0.71-1.11]; P=0.30). More patients from the most deprived quintile died (IMD1) (n=349, 18.8%) compared with the least deprived (IMD5) (n=297, 15.9%) with a trend across the socioeconomic spectrum (P=0.01). After age adjustment, patients in the most deprived areas experienced reduced 3-yr survival: IMD1 (HR=1.43 [1.23-1.67]; P<0.0001), IMD2 (HR=1.35 [1.15-1.57]; P<0.001), IMD3 (HR=1.04 [0.89-1.23]; P=0.60), and IMD4 (HR=1.11 [0.95-1.30]; P=0.19). This finding persisted in risk-adjusted analyses. Increased complication rates only partially explained this reduced survival. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with worse long-term outcomes after elective surgery. This risk factor should be considered when planning perioperative care for patients from deprived areas.

3.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimum transfusion strategy in patients with fractured neck of femur is uncertain, particularly if there is coexisting cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, single-centre, randomised feasibility trial of two transfusion strategies. We randomly assigned patients undergoing surgery for fractured neck of femur to a restrictive (haemoglobin, 70-90 g L-1) or liberal (haemoglobin, 90-110 g L-1) transfusion strategy throughout their hospitalisation. Feasibility outcomes included: enrolment rate, protocol compliance, difference in haemoglobin, and blood exposure. The primary clinical outcome was myocardial injury using troponin estimations. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiac events, postoperative complications, duration of hospitalisation, mortality, and quality of life. RESULTS: We enrolled 200 (22%) of 907 eligible patients, and 62 (31%) showed decreased haemoglobin (to 90 g L-1 or less) and were thus exposed to the intervention. The overall protocol compliance was 81% in the liberal group and 64% in the restrictive group. Haemoglobin concentrations were similar preoperatively and at postoperative day 1 but lower in the restrictive group on day 2 (mean difference [MD], 7.0 g L-1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-12.4). Lowest haemoglobin within 30 days/before discharge was lower in the restrictive group (MD, 5.3 g L-1; 95% CI, 1.7-9.0). Overall, 58% of patients in the restrictive group received no transfusion compared with 4% in the liberal group (difference in proportion, 54.5%; 95% CI, 36.8-72.2). The proportion with the primary clinical outcome was 14/26 (54%, liberal) vs 24/34 (71%, restrictive), and the difference in proportion was -16.7% (95% CI, -41.3 to 7.8; P=0.18). CONCLUSION: A clinical trial of two transfusion strategies in hip fracture with a clinically relevant cardiac outcome is feasible. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03407573.

4.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 661-671, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma or serum troponin, indicating perioperative myocardial injury (PMI), is common after noncardiac surgery. However, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with the early appearance of circulating microRNAs, which regulate post-translational gene expression. We hypothesised that if PMI and ACS share pathophysiological mechanisms, common microRNA signatures should be evident. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study of samples obtained before and after noncardiac surgery from patients enrolled in two prospective observational studies of PMI (postoperative troponin I/T>99th centile). In cohort one, serum microRNAs were compared between patients with or without PMI, matched for age, gender, and comorbidity. Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantified (qRT-PCR) relative microRNA expression (cycle quantification [Cq] threshold <37) before and after surgery for microRNA signatures associated with ACS, blinded to PMI. In cohort two, we analysed (EdgeR) microRNA from plasma extracellular vesicles using next-generation sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 500). microRNA-messenger RNA-function pathway analysis was performed (DIANA miRPath v3.0/TopGO). RESULTS: MicroRNAs were detectable in all 59 patients (median age 67 yr [61-75]; 42% male), who had similar clinical characteristics independent of developing PMI. In cohort one, serum microRNA expression increased after surgery (mean fold-change) hsa-miR-1-3p: 3.99 (95% confidence interval [CI: 1.95-8.19]; hsa-miR-133-3p: 5.67 [95% CI: 2.94-10.91]; P<0.001). These changes were not associated with PMI. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs from cohorts one (n=48) and two (n=11) identified pathways associated with adrenergic stress and calcium dysregulation, rather than ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating microRNAs associated with cardiac ischaemia were universally elevated in patients after surgery, independent of development of myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(1): 87-97, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is a frequent cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes for postoperative infections remain poorly characterised. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective international cohort study of patients aged ≥45 yr who had noncardiac surgery (VISION), including data describing infection within 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative infection. The secondary outcome was 30 day mortality. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify baseline risk factors for infection. Results are presented as n (%) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Some denominators vary according to rates of missing data. RESULTS: Among 39 996 surgical patients, 3905 (9.8%) experienced 5152 postoperative infections and 715 (1.8%) died. The most frequent infection was surgical site infection (1555/3905 [39.8%]). Infection was most strongly associated with general surgery (OR: 3.74 [3.11-4.49]; P<0.01) and open surgical technique (OR: 2.03 [1.82-2.27]; P<0.01); 30 day mortality was greater amongst patients who experienced infection (262/3905 [6.7%] vs 453/36 091 patients who did not [1.3%]; OR: 3.47 [2.84-4.22]; P<0.01). Mortality was highest amongst patients with CNS infections (OR: 14.72 [4.41-49.12]; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Infection is a common and important complication of noncardiac surgery, which is associated with high mortality. Further research is needed to identify more effective measures to prevent infections after surgery.


Assuntos
Infecções/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
6.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(5): 535-543, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated high-sensitivity troponin (hsTnT) after noncardiac surgery is associated with higher mortality, but the temporal relationship between early elevated troponin and the later development of noncardiac morbidity remains unclear. METHODS: Prospective observational study of patients aged ≥45 yr undergoing major noncardiac surgery at four UK hospitals (two masked to hsTnT). The exposure of interest was early elevated troponin, as defined by hsTnT >99th centile (≥15 ng L-1) within 24 h after surgery. The primary outcome was morbidity 72 h after surgery, defined by the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS). Secondary outcomes were time to become morbidity-free and Clavien-Dindo ≥grade 3 complications. RESULTS: Early elevated troponin (median 21 ng L-1 [16-32]) occurred in 992 of 4335 (22.9%) patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery (mean [standard deviation, sd] age, 65 [11] yr; 2385 [54.9%] male). Noncardiac morbidity was more frequent in 494/992 (49.8%) patients with early elevated troponin compared with 1127/3343 (33.7%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (odds ratio [OR]=1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.25). Patients with early elevated troponin had a higher risk of proven/suspected infectious morbidity (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91) and critical care utilisation (OR=2.05; 95% CI, 1.73-2.43). Clavien-Dindo ≥grade 3 complications occurred in 167/992 (16.8%) patients with early elevated troponin, compared with 319/3343 (9.5%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (OR=1.78; 95% CI, 1.48-2.14). Absence of early elevated troponin was associated with morbidity-free recovery (OR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.39-0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Early elevated troponin within 24 h of elective noncardiac surgery precedes the subsequent development of noncardiac organ dysfunction and may help stratify levels of postoperative care in real time.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 261-270, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) questionnaire might help incorporate self-reported functional capacity into preoperative risk assessment. Nonetheless, prognostically important thresholds in DASI scores remain unclear. We conducted a nested cohort analysis of the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) study to characterise the association of preoperative DASI scores with postoperative death or complications. METHODS: The analysis included 1546 participants (≥40 yr of age) at an elevated cardiac risk who had inpatient noncardiac surgery. The primary outcome was 30-day death or myocardial injury. The secondary outcomes were 30-day death or myocardial infarction, in-hospital moderate-to-severe complications, and 1 yr death or new disability. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to characterise the adjusted association of preoperative DASI scores with outcomes. RESULTS: The DASI score had non-linear associations with outcomes. Self-reported functional capacity better than a DASI score of 34 was associated with reduced odds of 30-day death or myocardial injury (odds ratio: 0.97 per 1 point increase above 34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-0.99) and 1 yr death or new disability (odds ratio: 0.96 per 1 point increase above 34; 95% CI: 0.92-0.99). Self-reported functional capacity worse than a DASI score of 34 was associated with increased odds of 30-day death or myocardial infarction (odds ratio: 1.05 per 1 point decrease below 34; 95% CI: 1.00-1.09), and moderate-to-severe complications (odds ratio: 1.03 per 1 point decrease below 34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: A DASI score of 34 represents a threshold for identifying patients at risk for myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, moderate-to-severe complications, and new disability.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 20(4): 316-326, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695736

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between postoperative intensive care (ICU) admission following emergency general surgery (EGS) and emergency hospital readmission has not been widely investigated. Methods: Retrospective analysis of registry data for patients undergoing EGS in Scotland, 2005-2007. Exposure of interest was ICU admission status (direct from theatre; indirect after initial care on ward; no ICU admission). The primary outcome was emergency hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. Results: Thirty-seven thousand one hundred seventy-three patients were included in the analysis. Overall emergency readmission rate was 8% (n = 2983): 2756 (7.8%) in patients without postoperative ICU admission; 155 (12.1%) with direct ICU admission and 65 (14.7%) with indirect ICU admission. Indirect ICU admission was associated with increased hospital readmission rates (HR 1.24 [1.03, 1.49]; p = 0.024) compared with direct ICU admission. ICU admission was associated with increased three-year readmission rates (p = 0.006) and costs (p < 0.001) compared with initial ward care. Conclusion: Indirect ICU admission is associated with increased emergency hospital readmission and healthcare costs for patients undergoing EGS.

12.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(12): 924-932, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important adverse outcome after major surgery. Peri-operative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDT) may improve outcomes by reducing complications such as AKI. OBJECTIVE: To determine if GDT was associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative AKI according to specific renal biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective substudy of the OPTIMISE trial, a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing peri-operative GDT to usual patient care. SETTING: Four UK National Health Service hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 287 high-risk patients aged at least 50 years undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was AKI defined as urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipase (NGAL) at least 150 ng ml 24 and 72 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were between-group differences in NGAL measurements and NGAL : creatinine ratios 24 and 72 h after surgery and AKI stage 2 or greater according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: In total, 20 of 287 patients (7%) experienced postoperative AKI of KDIGO grade 2 or 3 within 30 days. The proportion of patients with urinary NGAL at least 150 ng ml 24 or 72 h after surgery was similar in the two groups [GDT 31/144 (21.5%) patients vs. usual patient care 28/143 (19.6%) patients; P = 0.88]. Absolute values of urinary NGAL were also similar at 24 h (GDT 53.5 vs. usual patient care 44.1 ng ml; P = 0.38) and 72 h (GDT 45.1 vs. usual patient care 41.1 ng ml; P = 0.50) as were urinary NGAL : creatinine ratios at 24 h (GDT 45 vs. usual patient care 43 ng mg; P = 0.63) and 72 h (GDT 66 vs. usual patient care 63 ng mg; P = 0.62). The incidence of KDIGO-defined AKI was also similar between the groups [GDT 9/144 (6%) patients vs. usual patient care 11/143 (8%) patients; P = 0.80]. CONCLUSION: In this trial, GDT did not reduce the incidence of AKI amongst high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. This may reflect improving standards in usual patient care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: OPTIMISE Trial Registration ISRCTN04386758.

13.
Int J Surg ; 72: 25-31, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery are exposed to a high risk of death. A quality improvement (QI) programme to improve the survival for these patients was evaluated in the Enhanced Peri-Operative Care for High-risk patients (EPOCH) trial. This study aims to assess its cost-effectiveness versus usual care from a UK health service perspective. METHODS: Data collected in a subsample of trial participants were employed to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the QI programme and usual care within the 180-day trial period, with results also extrapolated to estimate lifetime costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The probability of being cost-effective was determined for different cost-effectiveness thresholds (£13,000 to £30,000 per QALY). Analyses were performed for lower-risk and higher-risk subgroups based on the number of surgical indications (single vs multiple). RESULTS: Within the trial period, QI was more costly (£467) but less effective (-0.002 QALYs). Over a lifetime, it was more costly (£1395) and more effective (0.018 QALYs), but did not appear to be cost-effective (ICER: £77,792 per QALY, higher than all cost-effectiveness thresholds; probability of being cost-effective: 28.7%-43.8% across the thresholds). For lower-risk patients, QI was more costly and less effective both within trial period and over a lifetime and it did not appear to be cost-effective. For higher-risk patients, it was more costly and more effective, and did not appear cost-effective within the trial period (ICER: £158,253 per QALY) but may be cost-effective over a lifetime (ICER: £14,293 per QALY). CONCLUSION: The QI programme does not appear cost-effective at standard cost-effectiveness thresholds. For patients with multiple surgical indications, this programme is potentially cost-effective over a lifetime, but this is highly uncertain.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emergências , Inglaterra , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medicina Estatal/economia , Medicina Estatal/normas
15.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A clinical trial in 93 National Health Service hospitals evaluated a quality improvement programme for emergency abdominal surgery, designed to improve mortality by improving the patient care pathway. Large variation was observed in implementation approaches, and the main trial result showed no mortality reduction. Our objective therefore was to evaluate whether trial participation led to care pathway implementation and to study the relationship between care pathway implementation and use of six recommended implementation strategies. METHODS: We performed a hospital-level time-series analysis using data from the Enhanced Peri-Operative Care for High-risk patients trial. Care pathway implementation was defined as achievement of >80% median reliability in 10 measured care processes. Mean monthly process performance was plotted on run charts. Process improvement was defined as an observed run chart signal, using probability-based 'shift' and 'runs' rules. A new median performance level was calculated after an observed signal. RESULTS: Of 93 participating hospitals, 80 provided sufficient data for analysis, generating 800 process measure charts from 20 305 patient admissions over 27 months. No hospital reliably implemented all 10 processes. Overall, only 279 of the 800 processes were improved (3 (2-5) per hospital) and 14/80 hospitals improved more than six processes. Mortality risk documented (57/80 (71%)), lactate measurement (42/80 (53%)) and cardiac output guided fluid therapy (32/80 (40%)) were most frequently improved. Consultant-led decision making (14/80 (18%)), consultant review before surgery (17/80 (21%)) and time to surgery (14/80 (18%)) were least frequently improved. In hospitals using ≥5 implementation strategies, 9/30 (30%) hospitals improved ≥6 care processes compared with 0/11 hospitals using ≤2 implementation strategies. CONCLUSION: Only a small number of hospitals improved more than half of the measured care processes, more often when at least five of six implementation strategies were used. In a longer term project, this understanding may have allowed us to adapt the intervention to be effective in more hospitals.

16.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(12): 1718-1731, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Muscle wasting is common amongst patients with persistent critical illness and associated with increased urea production, but reduced creatinine production. We hypothesised that elevated urea:creatinine ratio would provide a biochemical signature of muscle catabolism and characterise prolonged intensive care (ICU) admissions after major trauma. METHODS: Using pre-specified hypotheses, we analysed two existing data sets of adults surviving ≥ 10 days following admission to ICU after major trauma. We analysed trauma-ICU admissions to the major trauma centre serving the North East London and Essex Trauma Network, with a verification cohort of trauma-ICU cases from the MIMIC-III database. We compared serum urea, creatinine, and urea:creatinine ratio (ratio of concentrations in mmol/L) between patients with persistent critical illness (defined as ICU stay of ≥ 10 days) and those discharged from ICU before day 10. In a sub-group undergoing sequential abdominal computerised tomography (CT), we measured change in cross-sectional muscle area (psoas muscle at L4 vertebral level and total muscle at L3 level) and assessed for relationships with urea:creatinine ratio and ICU stay. Results are provided as median [interquartile range]. RESULTS: We included 1173 patients between February 1st, 2012 and May 1st, 2016. In patients with ICU stay ≥ 10 days, day 10 urea:creatinine ratio had increased by 133% [72-215], from 62 [46-78] to 141 [114-178], p < 0.001; this rise was larger (p < 0.001) than in patients discharged from ICU before day 10, 59% [11-122%], 61 [45-75] to 97 [67-128], p < 0.001. A similar separation in trajectory of urea:creatinine ratio was observed in 2876 trauma-ICU admissions from MIMIC-III. In 107 patients undergoing serial CTs, decrease in L4 psoas and L3 muscle cross-sectional areas between CTs significantly correlated with time elapsed (R2 = 0.64 and R2 = 0.59, respectively). Rate of muscle decrease was significantly greater (p < 0.001 for interaction terms) in 53/107 patients with the second CT during evolving, current or recent persistent critical illness. In this group, at the second CT urea:creatinine ratio negatively correlated with L4 psoas and L3 muscle cross-sectional areas (R2 0.39, p < 0.001 and 0.44, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Elevated urea:creatinine ratio accompanies skeletal muscle wasting representing a biochemical signature of persistent critical illness after major trauma. If prospectively confirmed, urea:creatinine ratio is a potential surrogate of catabolism to examine in epidemiological and interventional studies.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac vagal function, quantified preoperatively as slower heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, is independently associated with perioperative myocardial injury. Parasympathetic (vagal) dysfunction may also promote (extra-cardiac) multi-organ dysfunction, although perioperative data are lacking. Assuming that cardiac vagal activity, and therefore heart rate recovery response, is a marker of brainstem parasympathetic dysfunction, we hypothesized that impaired HRR would be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: In two prospective, blinded, observational cohort studies, we established the definition of impaired vagal function in terms of the HRR threshold that is associated with perioperative myocardial injury (HRR ≤ 12 beats min-1 (bpm), 60 seconds after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was all-cause morbidity three and five days after surgery, defined using the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey. Secondary outcomes of this analysis were type of morbidity and time to become morbidity-free. Logistic regression and Cox regression tested for the association between HRR and morbidity. Results are presented as odds/hazard ratios [OR or HR; (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: 882/1941 (45.4%) patients had HRR≤12bpm. All-cause morbidity within 5 days of surgery was more common in 585/822 (71.2%) patients with HRR≤12bpm, compared to 718/1119 (64.2%) patients with HRR>12bpm (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.67); p = 0.001). HRR≤12bpm was associated with more frequent episodes of pulmonary (OR:1.31 (1.05-1.62);p = 0.02)), infective (OR:1.38 (1.10-1.72); p = 0.006), renal (OR:1.91 (1.30-2.79); p = 0.02)), cardiovascular (OR:1.39 (1.15-1.69); p<0.001)), neurological (OR:1.73 (1.11-2.70); p = 0.02)) and pain morbidity (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.68); p = 0.001) within 5 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-organ dysfunction is more common in surgical patients with cardiac vagal dysfunction, defined as HRR ≤ 12 bpm after preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN88456378.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Traumatismos Cardíacos/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Perioper Med (Lond) ; 8: 2, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338159

RESUMO

Perioperative fluid and hemodynamic management have been much-debated topics over the last few years. Recently, a number of large trials have been published to help inform this debate. The Restrictive versus Liberal Fluid Therapy for Major Abdominal Surgery (RELIEF) study is the largest trial to date of perioperative fluid management. The 3000-patient trial comparing 2 different fluid regimes showed that a restrictive fluid regimen during and up to 24 h after surgery was associated with an increase in acute kidney injury (AKI). This result is at odds with a recent trend to a more restrictive fluid approach during major surgery and suggests that practice may have become too restrictive. A moderately liberal (aiming for 1-2 l positive) or goal-directed approach is therefore recommended.

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