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2.
Int J Surg ; 72: 25-31, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery are exposed to a high risk of death. A quality improvement (QI) programme to improve the survival for these patients was evaluated in the Enhanced Peri-Operative Care for High-risk patients (EPOCH) trial. This study aims to assess its cost-effectiveness versus usual care from a UK health service perspective. METHODS: Data collected in a subsample of trial participants were employed to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the QI programme and usual care within the 180-day trial period, with results also extrapolated to estimate lifetime costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness was estimated using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The probability of being cost-effective was determined for different cost-effectiveness thresholds (£13,000 to £30,000 per QALY). Analyses were performed for lower-risk and higher-risk subgroups based on the number of surgical indications (single vs multiple). RESULTS: Within the trial period, QI was more costly (£467) but less effective (-0.002 QALYs). Over a lifetime, it was more costly (£1395) and more effective (0.018 QALYs), but did not appear to be cost-effective (ICER: £77,792 per QALY, higher than all cost-effectiveness thresholds; probability of being cost-effective: 28.7%-43.8% across the thresholds). For lower-risk patients, QI was more costly and less effective both within trial period and over a lifetime and it did not appear to be cost-effective. For higher-risk patients, it was more costly and more effective, and did not appear cost-effective within the trial period (ICER: £158,253 per QALY) but may be cost-effective over a lifetime (ICER: £14,293 per QALY). CONCLUSION: The QI programme does not appear cost-effective at standard cost-effectiveness thresholds. For patients with multiple surgical indications, this programme is potentially cost-effective over a lifetime, but this is highly uncertain.

3.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(12): 924-932, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important adverse outcome after major surgery. Peri-operative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDT) may improve outcomes by reducing complications such as AKI. OBJECTIVE: To determine if GDT was associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative AKI according to specific renal biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective substudy of the OPTIMISE trial, a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing peri-operative GDT to usual patient care. SETTING: Four UK National Health Service hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 287 high-risk patients aged at least 50 years undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was AKI defined as urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipase (NGAL) at least 150 ng ml 24 and 72 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes were between-group differences in NGAL measurements and NGAL : creatinine ratios 24 and 72 h after surgery and AKI stage 2 or greater according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: In total, 20 of 287 patients (7%) experienced postoperative AKI of KDIGO grade 2 or 3 within 30 days. The proportion of patients with urinary NGAL at least 150 ng ml 24 or 72 h after surgery was similar in the two groups [GDT 31/144 (21.5%) patients vs. usual patient care 28/143 (19.6%) patients; P = 0.88]. Absolute values of urinary NGAL were also similar at 24 h (GDT 53.5 vs. usual patient care 44.1 ng ml; P = 0.38) and 72 h (GDT 45.1 vs. usual patient care 41.1 ng ml; P = 0.50) as were urinary NGAL : creatinine ratios at 24 h (GDT 45 vs. usual patient care 43 ng mg; P = 0.63) and 72 h (GDT 66 vs. usual patient care 63 ng mg; P = 0.62). The incidence of KDIGO-defined AKI was also similar between the groups [GDT 9/144 (6%) patients vs. usual patient care 11/143 (8%) patients; P = 0.80]. CONCLUSION: In this trial, GDT did not reduce the incidence of AKI amongst high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. This may reflect improving standards in usual patient care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: OPTIMISE Trial Registration ISRCTN04386758.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Low vitamin D is common in the general populationIn nonsurgical populations, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and coronary artery diseaseIn nonsurgical populations, low vitamin D concentrations are also associated with increased risk of some infections and renal injury WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Vitamin D deficiency was common in this surgical populationPreoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomesThere was an association between low vitamin D and a composite of infectious complications, and also evidence for an association with decreased kidney function BACKGROUND:: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml · min · 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.

6.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A clinical trial in 93 National Health Service hospitals evaluated a quality improvement programme for emergency abdominal surgery, designed to improve mortality by improving the patient care pathway. Large variation was observed in implementation approaches, and the main trial result showed no mortality reduction. Our objective therefore was to evaluate whether trial participation led to care pathway implementation and to study the relationship between care pathway implementation and use of six recommended implementation strategies. METHODS: We performed a hospital-level time-series analysis using data from the Enhanced Peri-Operative Care for High-risk patients trial. Care pathway implementation was defined as achievement of >80% median reliability in 10 measured care processes. Mean monthly process performance was plotted on run charts. Process improvement was defined as an observed run chart signal, using probability-based 'shift' and 'runs' rules. A new median performance level was calculated after an observed signal. RESULTS: Of 93 participating hospitals, 80 provided sufficient data for analysis, generating 800 process measure charts from 20 305 patient admissions over 27 months. No hospital reliably implemented all 10 processes. Overall, only 279 of the 800 processes were improved (3 (2-5) per hospital) and 14/80 hospitals improved more than six processes. Mortality risk documented (57/80 (71%)), lactate measurement (42/80 (53%)) and cardiac output guided fluid therapy (32/80 (40%)) were most frequently improved. Consultant-led decision making (14/80 (18%)), consultant review before surgery (17/80 (21%)) and time to surgery (14/80 (18%)) were least frequently improved. In hospitals using ≥5 implementation strategies, 9/30 (30%) hospitals improved ≥6 care processes compared with 0/11 hospitals using ≤2 implementation strategies. CONCLUSION: Only a small number of hospitals improved more than half of the measured care processes, more often when at least five of six implementation strategies were used. In a longer term project, this understanding may have allowed us to adapt the intervention to be effective in more hospitals.

7.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(12): 1718-1731, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Muscle wasting is common amongst patients with persistent critical illness and associated with increased urea production, but reduced creatinine production. We hypothesised that elevated urea:creatinine ratio would provide a biochemical signature of muscle catabolism and characterise prolonged intensive care (ICU) admissions after major trauma. METHODS: Using pre-specified hypotheses, we analysed two existing data sets of adults surviving ≥ 10 days following admission to ICU after major trauma. We analysed trauma-ICU admissions to the major trauma centre serving the North East London and Essex Trauma Network, with a verification cohort of trauma-ICU cases from the MIMIC-III database. We compared serum urea, creatinine, and urea:creatinine ratio (ratio of concentrations in mmol/L) between patients with persistent critical illness (defined as ICU stay of ≥ 10 days) and those discharged from ICU before day 10. In a sub-group undergoing sequential abdominal computerised tomography (CT), we measured change in cross-sectional muscle area (psoas muscle at L4 vertebral level and total muscle at L3 level) and assessed for relationships with urea:creatinine ratio and ICU stay. Results are provided as median [interquartile range]. RESULTS: We included 1173 patients between February 1st, 2012 and May 1st, 2016. In patients with ICU stay ≥ 10 days, day 10 urea:creatinine ratio had increased by 133% [72-215], from 62 [46-78] to 141 [114-178], p < 0.001; this rise was larger (p < 0.001) than in patients discharged from ICU before day 10, 59% [11-122%], 61 [45-75] to 97 [67-128], p < 0.001. A similar separation in trajectory of urea:creatinine ratio was observed in 2876 trauma-ICU admissions from MIMIC-III. In 107 patients undergoing serial CTs, decrease in L4 psoas and L3 muscle cross-sectional areas between CTs significantly correlated with time elapsed (R2 = 0.64 and R2 = 0.59, respectively). Rate of muscle decrease was significantly greater (p < 0.001 for interaction terms) in 53/107 patients with the second CT during evolving, current or recent persistent critical illness. In this group, at the second CT urea:creatinine ratio negatively correlated with L4 psoas and L3 muscle cross-sectional areas (R2 0.39, p < 0.001 and 0.44, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Elevated urea:creatinine ratio accompanies skeletal muscle wasting representing a biochemical signature of persistent critical illness after major trauma. If prospectively confirmed, urea:creatinine ratio is a potential surrogate of catabolism to examine in epidemiological and interventional studies.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired cardiac vagal function, quantified preoperatively as slower heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, is independently associated with perioperative myocardial injury. Parasympathetic (vagal) dysfunction may also promote (extra-cardiac) multi-organ dysfunction, although perioperative data are lacking. Assuming that cardiac vagal activity, and therefore heart rate recovery response, is a marker of brainstem parasympathetic dysfunction, we hypothesized that impaired HRR would be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: In two prospective, blinded, observational cohort studies, we established the definition of impaired vagal function in terms of the HRR threshold that is associated with perioperative myocardial injury (HRR ≤ 12 beats min-1 (bpm), 60 seconds after cessation of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was all-cause morbidity three and five days after surgery, defined using the Post-Operative Morbidity Survey. Secondary outcomes of this analysis were type of morbidity and time to become morbidity-free. Logistic regression and Cox regression tested for the association between HRR and morbidity. Results are presented as odds/hazard ratios [OR or HR; (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: 882/1941 (45.4%) patients had HRR≤12bpm. All-cause morbidity within 5 days of surgery was more common in 585/822 (71.2%) patients with HRR≤12bpm, compared to 718/1119 (64.2%) patients with HRR>12bpm (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.67); p = 0.001). HRR≤12bpm was associated with more frequent episodes of pulmonary (OR:1.31 (1.05-1.62);p = 0.02)), infective (OR:1.38 (1.10-1.72); p = 0.006), renal (OR:1.91 (1.30-2.79); p = 0.02)), cardiovascular (OR:1.39 (1.15-1.69); p<0.001)), neurological (OR:1.73 (1.11-2.70); p = 0.02)) and pain morbidity (OR:1.38 (1.14-1.68); p = 0.001) within 5 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-organ dysfunction is more common in surgical patients with cardiac vagal dysfunction, defined as HRR ≤ 12 bpm after preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN88456378.

12.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(1): 17-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physiological measures of heart failure are common in surgical patients, despite the absence of a diagnosis. Heart rate (HR) increases during exercise are frequently blunted in heart failure (termed chronotropic incompetence), which primarily reflects beta-adrenoreceptor dysfunction. We examined whether chronotropic incompetence was associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a predefined analysis of an international cohort study where participants aged ≥40 yr underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing before noncardiac surgery. Chronotropic incompetence was defined as the ratio of increase in HR during exercise to age-predicted maximal increase in HR <0.6. The primary outcome was myocardial injury within 3 days after surgery, defined by high-sensitivity troponin assays >99th centile. Explanatory variables were biomarkers for heart failure (ventilatory efficiency slope [minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production] ≥34; peak oxygen consumption ≤14 ml kg-1 min-1; HR recovery ≤6 beats min-1 decrease 1 min post-exercise; preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT pro-BNP] >300 pg ml-1). Myocardial injury was compared in the presence or absence of sympathetic (i.e. chronotropic incompetence) or parasympathetic (i.e. impaired HR recovery after exercise) thresholds indicative of dysfunction. Data are presented as odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals). RESULTS: Chronotropic incompetence occurred in 396/1325 (29.9%) participants; only 16/1325 (1.2%) had a heart failure diagnosis. Myocardial injury was sustained by 162/1325 (12.2%) patients. Raised preoperative NT pro-BNP was more common when chronotropic incompetence was <0.6 (OR: 1.57 [1.11-2.23]; P=0.011). Chronotropic incompetence was not significantly associated with myocardial injury (OR: 1.05 [0.74-1.50]; P=0.78), independent of rate-limiting therapy. HR recovery <12 beats min-1 decrease after exercise was associated with myocardial injury in the presence (OR: 1.62 [1.05-2.51]; P=0.03) or absence (OR: 1.60 [1.06-2.39]; P=0.02) of chronotropic incompetence. CONCLUSIONS: Chronotropic incompetence is common in surgical patients. In contrast to parasympathetic dysfunction which was associated with myocardial injury, preoperative chronotropic incompetence (suggestive of sympathetic dysfunction) was not associated with postoperative myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Austrália , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
14.
Lancet ; 393(10187): 2213-2221, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is associated with poor patient outcomes. We studied the effectiveness of a national quality improvement (QI) programme to implement a care pathway to improve survival for these patients. METHODS: We did a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial of patients aged 40 years or older undergoing emergency open major abdominal surgery. Eligible UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals (those that had an emergency general surgical service, a substantial volume of emergency abdominal surgery cases, and contributed data to the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit) were organised into 15 geographical clusters and commenced the QI programme in a random order, based on a computer-generated random sequence, over an 85-week period with one geographical cluster commencing the intervention every 5 weeks from the second to the 16th time period. Patients were masked to the study group, but it was not possible to mask hospital staff or investigators. The primary outcome measure was mortality within 90 days of surgery. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN80682973. FINDINGS: Treatment took place between March 3, 2014, and Oct 19, 2015. 22 754 patients were assessed for elegibility. Of 15 873 eligible patients from 93 NHS hospitals, primary outcome data were analysed for 8482 patients in the usual care group and 7374 in the QI group. Eight patients in the usual care group and nine patients in the QI group were not included in the analysis because of missing primary outcome data. The primary outcome of 90-day mortality occurred in 1210 (16%) patients in the QI group compared with 1393 (16%) patients in the usual care group (HR 1·11, 0·96-1·28). INTERPRETATION: No survival benefit was observed from this QI programme to implement a care pathway for patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Future QI programmes should ensure that teams have both the time and resources needed to improve patient care. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research Programme.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/normas , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medicina Estatal/normas , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Reino Unido
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(4): e513-e522, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal mortality is high in Africa, but few large, prospective studies have been done to investigate the risk factors associated with these poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study was done in patients having caesarean delivery in 183 hospitals across 22 countries in Africa. The inclusion criteria were all consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to participating centres having elective and non-elective caesarean delivery during the 7-day study cohort period. To ensure a representative sample, each hospital had to provide data for 90% of the eligible patients during the recruitment week. The primary outcome was in-hospital maternal mortality and complications, which were assessed by local investigators. The study was registered on the South African National Health Research Database, number KZ_2015RP7_22, and on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03044899. FINDINGS: Between February, 2016, and May, 2016, 3792 patients were recruited from hospitals across Africa. 3685 were included in the postoperative complications analysis (107 missing data) and 3684 were included in the maternal mortality analysis (108 missing data). These hospitals had a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 per 100 000 population (IQR 0·2-2·0). Maternal mortality was 20 (0·5%) of 3684 patients (95% CI 0·3-0·8). Complications occurred in 633 (17·4%) of 3636 mothers (16·2-18·6), which were predominantly severe intraoperative and postoperative bleeding (136 [3·8%] of 3612 mothers). Maternal mortality was independently associated with a preoperative presentation of placenta praevia, placental abruption, ruptured uterus, antepartum haemorrhage (odds ratio 4·47 [95% CI 1·46-13·65]), and perioperative severe obstetric haemorrhage (5·87 [1·99-17·34]) or anaesthesia complications (11·47 (1·20-109·20]). Neonatal mortality was 153 (4·4%) of 3506 infants (95% CI 3·7-5·0). INTERPRETATION: Maternal mortality after caesarean delivery in Africa is 50 times higher than that of high-income countries and is driven by peripartum haemorrhage and anaesthesia complications. Neonatal mortality is double the global average. Early identification and appropriate management of mothers at risk of peripartum haemorrhage might improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in Africa. FUNDING: Medical Research Council of South Africa.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e024256, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The traditional approach of null hypothesis testing dominates the design and analysis of randomised controlled trials. This study aimed to demonstrate how a simple Bayesian analysis could have been used to analyse the Optimisation of Perioperative Cardiovascular Management to Improve Surgical Outcome (OPTIMISE) trial to obtain more clinically interpretable results. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: The OPTIMISE trial was a pragmatic, multicentre, observer-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 734 high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery in 17 acute care hospitals in the UK. Patients were randomly allocated to a cardiac output-guided haemodynamic therapy algorithm for intravenous fluid and inotropic drug administration during and in the 6 hours following surgery (n=368) or to standard care (n=366). The primary outcome was a binary outcome consisting of a composite of predefined 30-day moderate or major complications and mortality. METHODS: We repeated the primary outcome analysis of the OPTIMISE trial using Bayesian statistical methods to calculate the probability that the intervention was superior, and the probability that a clinically relevant difference existed. We explored the impact of a flat prior and an evidence-based prior on our analyses. RESULTS: Although OPTIMISE was not powered to detect a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms for the observed effect size (relative risk=0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.01; p=0.07), by using Bayesian analyses we were able to demonstrate that there was a 96.9% (flat prior) to 99.5% (evidence-based prior) probability that the intervention was superior to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a Bayesian analytical approach provided a different interpretation of the findings of the OPTIMISE trial (compared with the original frequentist analysis), and suggested patient benefit from the intervention. Incorporation of information from previous studies provided further evidence of a benefit from the intervention. Bayesian analyses can produce results that are more easily interpretable and relevant to clinicians and policy-makers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN04386758; Post-results.

17.
Sociol Health Illn ; 41(4): 755-771, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740708

RESUMO

Over two decades, the checklist has risen to prominence in healthcare improvement. This paper contributes to the debate between its proponents and critics, making the case for an Science and Technology Studies-informed understanding of the checklist that demonstrates the limitations of both the "checklist-as-panacea" and "checklist-as-socially-determined" positions. Attending to the checklist as a socio-material object endowed with affordances that call upon clinicians to act (Allen 2012, Hutchby 2001), the study revisits the efforts of a recent improvement initiative, the Enhanced Peri-Operative Care for High-risk patients trial. Rather than a singularised simple tool, this study discusses four different and relationally enacted logics of the checklist as a stop and check tool, a clinical prompt, an audit tool and a clinical record. Each logic is associated with specific temporality, beneficiaries, relationship with material forms, and interpellates (Law 2002) clinicians to initiate specific actions which can conflict. The paper seeks to make the case for intervention to improve such tools and consciously account for the consequences of their design and materiality and calls for supporting such settings and arrangements in which incoherences collected in tools can be locally negotiated.

18.
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e023455, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative morbidity and mortality in older patients with comorbidities undergoing gastrointestinal surgery are a major burden on healthcare systems. Infections after surgery are common in such patients, prolonging hospitalisation and reducing postoperative short-term and long-term survival. Optimal management of perioperative intravenous fluids and inotropic drugs may reduce infection rates and improve outcomes from surgery. Previous small trials of cardiac-output-guided haemodynamic therapy algorithms suggested a modest reduction in postoperative morbidity. A large definitive trial is needed to confirm or refute this and inform widespread clinical practice. METHODS: The Optimisation of Perioperative Cardiovascular Management to Improve Surgical Outcome II (OPTIMISE II) trial is a multicentre, international, parallel group, open, randomised controlled trial. 2502 high-risk patients undergoing major elective gastrointestinal surgery will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio using minimisation to minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring to guide protocolised administration of intravenous fluid combined with low-dose inotrope infusion, or usual care. The trial intervention will be carried out during and for 4 hours after surgery. The primary outcome is postoperative infection of Clavien-Dindo grade II or higher within 30 days of randomisation. Participants and those delivering the intervention will not be blinded to treatment allocation; however, outcome assessors will be blinded when feasible. Participant recruitment started in January 2017 and is scheduled to last 3 years, within 50 hospitals worldwide. ETHICS/DISSEMINATION: The OPTIMISE II trial has been approved by the UK National Research Ethics Service and has been approved by responsible ethics committees in all participating countries. The findings will be disseminated through publication in a widely accessible peer-reviewed scientific journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN39653756.

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