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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 135881, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874751

RESUMO

Billions of people globally, living with various degrees of water insecurity, obtain their household and drinking water from diverse sources that can absorb a disproportionate amount of a household's income. In theory, there are income and expenditure thresholds associated with effective mitigation of household water insecurity, but there is little empirical research about these mechanisms and thresholds in low- and middle-income settings. This study used data from 3655 households from 23 water-insecure sites in 20 countries to explore the relationship between cash water expenditures (measured as a Z-score, percent of income, and Z-score of percent of income) and a household water insecurity score, and whether income moderated that relationship. We also assessed whether water expenditures moderated the relationships between water insecurity and both food insecurity and perceived stress. Using tobit mixed effects regression models, we observed a positive association between multiple measures of water expenditures and a household water insecurity score, controlling for demographic characteristics and accounting for clustering within neighborhoods and study sites. The positive relationships between water expenditures and water insecurity persisted even when adjusted for income, while income was independently negatively associated with water insecurity. Water expenditures were also positively associated with food insecurity and perceived stress. These results underscore the complex relationships between water insecurity, food insecurity, and perceived stress and suggest that water infrastructure interventions that increase water costs to households without anti-poverty and income generation interventions will likely exacerbate experiences of household water insecurity, especially for the lowest-income households.

2.
Rural Remote Health ; 19(4): 5349, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Geographic measures of accessibility can quantify inequitable distributions of health care. Although closest distance measures are often used in Aotearoa New Zealand these may not reflect patient use of health care. This research examines patterns of patient enrolment in general practitioner (GP) services from a geospatial perspective. METHODS: Patient enrolment records (n=137 596) from one primary health organisation were examined and geographic information systems used to determine whether patients enrolled with their closest GP service. A binomial logistic regression was performed to examine factors associated with the bypass of GP services closer to patients' homes. RESULTS: Overall 68.1% of patients in the sample bypassed the GP service closest to their home, while rates of GP bypass varied across the Waikato region and between rural and urban areas. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that rurality of patient residence, patient ethnicity, patient age, area-level socioeconomic deprivation, sex, distance to the closest GP clinic, clinic after-hours availability, Māori service provider status, GP and nurse full time equivalent hours, and clinic fees were statistically significant predictors of increased closest-GP bypass. While residents of major urban areas had high rates of GP bypass, this was followed by patients living in rural areas - patients living more than 20 km from the closest GP service had exceptionally high rates of GP bypass. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that most patients in the Waikato region do not enrol with the GP service closest to their home and it outlines several factors, including rurality of residence, associated with the GP bypass. Closest distance accessibility measures may be inappropriate in mixed urban-rural settings, and researchers should consider other approaches to quantifying spatial equity. Health services should also be designed to better reflect the realities of the populations they serve.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642028

RESUMO

Prior research has suggested that disadvantaged neighborhood contexts alter the etiology of youth antisocial behavior (ASB). Unfortunately, these studies have relied exclusively on governmental data collected in administratively-defined neighborhoods (e.g., Census tracts or block groups, zip codes), a less than optimal approach for studying neighborhood effects. It would thus be important to extend prior findings of GxE using neighborhood sampling techniques, in which disadvantage is assessed via resident informant-reports of the neighborhood. The current study sought to do just this, examining two independent twin samples from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Neighborhood disadvantage was assessed via maternal and neighbor informant-reports, the latter of which were analyzed multiple ways (i.e., all neighbors within 1 km, nearest neighbor, and all neighbors within the County). Analyses revealed clear and consistent evidence of moderation by neighborhood disadvantage, regardless of informant or the specific operationalization of neighborhood. Shared environmental influences on ASB were observed to be several-fold larger in disadvantaged contexts, while genetic influences were proportionally more influential in advantaged neighborhoods. Such findings indicate that neighborhood disadvantage exerts rather profound effects on the origins of youth ASB. Efforts should now be made to identify the active ingredients of neighborhood disadvantage.

4.
Health Promot Int ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407790

RESUMO

Reducing children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising is an accepted strategy to end childhood obesity. This study aimed to (i) measure children's space-time exposures to unhealthy food advertising in public outdoor spaces, using GPS and wearable cameras; and (ii) test effectiveness of banning options. We compiled data (collected July 2014-June 2015) on 138 12-year-old children in Wellington, New Zealand, using wearable cameras and GPS devices worn over 4 days. In 2017-18, we linked 59 150 images taken in public outdoor spaces to GPS data. Of these, 1631 contained unhealthy food advertising exposures, defined as ≥50% of an advertisement observed in each image. We examined spatial patterns using kernel density mapping and graphed space-time trends. We interpolated a kriged exposure rate across Wellington to estimate exposure reductions for potential bans. Children were exposed to 7.4 (95% CI 7.0-7.8) unhealthy food advertisements/hour spent in outdoor public spaces. Exposures occurred in shopping centres, residential areas and sports facilities, commonly involving fast food, sugary drinks and ice cream. Peak exposure times were weekend afternoons/evenings and weekdays before/after school. In Wellington, we estimated that banning such advertising within 400 m of playgrounds would yield a 33% reduction in exposure, followed by in residential areas (27%), within 400 m of schools (25%), and 50% for a ban combining all above. This work documents the extent of children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising and the potential impact of bans. Given the ubiquity of advertising in public spaces, this New Zealand research offers innovative methods and findings likely relevant in other jurisdictions.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221977, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469889

RESUMO

Research linking green space and mental health abounds. It also appears that oceanic blue spaces may be salutogenic, benefitting mental health through their expansive viewscapes, and possibly auditory and olfactory stimuli. Yet, it is unknown whether the same is true for freshwater bodies. In this ecological study, we explored associations between hospitalizations for anxiety/mood disorder in Michigan (>30,000) and proximity to the North American Great Lakes. As a sensitivity analysis, we examined associations for 15 different inland lake sizes. Results showed small, protective effects for distance to Great Lake (ß = 0.06, p<0.001) and percentage of inland lakes (ß = -0.04, p = 0.004). Unexpectedly, shorter distance to nearest inland lake was associated with higher anxiety/mood disorder hospitalizations. The protective effects of percentage area covered by inland lakes was observed for all lake sizes. These initial findings provide a foundation for future individual-level research with finer measurement of health outcomes and blue space exposure.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior work has robustly suggested that social processes in the neighborhood (i.e. informal social control, social cohesion, norms) influence child conduct problems (CP) and related outcomes, but has yet to consider how these community-level influences interact with individual-level genetic risk for CP. The current study sought to do just this, evaluating neighborhood-level social processes as etiologic moderators of child CP for the first time. METHODS: We made use of two nested samples of child and adolescent twins within the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): 5649 families who participated in in the Michigan Twins Project (MTP) and 1013 families who participated in the Twin Study of Behavioral and Emotional Development (TBED-C). The neighborhood social processes of informal social control, social cohesion, and norms were assessed using neighborhood sampling techniques, in which residents of each twin family's neighborhood reported on the social processes in their neighborhood. Standard biometric GxE analyses evaluated the extent to which they moderated the etiology of CP. RESULTS: The 'no moderation' model provided the best fit to the data in nearly all cases, arguing against neighborhood social processes as etiologic moderators of youth CP. CONCLUSIONS: The neighborhood social processes evaluated here do not appear to exert their effects on child CP via etiologic moderation. The documented links between neighborhood social processes and child CP are thus likely to reflect a different etiologic process. Possibilities include environmental main effects of neighborhood social processes on child CP, or genotype-environment correlations.

7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(2): 158-166, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to quantify children's exposure to alcohol marketing via product packaging using wearable cameras, observing sociodemographic differences and contextual features of exposure. METHOD: In Wellington, New Zealand, 167 children (ages 11-13; 53% girls) wore wearable cameras for 4 consecutive days. The cameras automatically captured images approximately every 7 seconds. Image data (n = 700,000 images) were coded through content analysis to determine the extent of children's exposure to alcohol marketing via product packaging. Negative binomial regression models were used to calculate rates of exposure per day and to examine differences between groups. RESULTS: Children were exposed to alcohol marketing via product packaging 7.7 times per day, on average. Product packaging contained limited health information and lacked defining features that could provide visual cues to children to differentiate alcohol from other commodities. No statistically significant differences by sociodemographic characteristics were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Children are frequently exposed to alcohol marketing via product packaging. Such exposure normalizes alcohol in children's environments and fails to send accurate information to children about the health risks associated with alcohol consumption. Mandatory labeling on alcohol product packaging, including prominent health warnings (text, pictorial, and graphic), or plain packaging, provides governments an opportunity to substantially reduce children's overall exposure to alcohol marketing and potentially increase children's awareness of the risks associated with alcohol consumption.

8.
Int Health ; 11(3): 163-165, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576501

RESUMO

Water insecurity massively undermines health, especially among impoverished and marginalized communities. Emerging evidence shows that household-to-household water sharing is a widespread coping strategy in vulnerable communities. Sharing can buffer households from the deleterious health effects that typically accompany seasonal shortages, interruptions of water services and natural disasters. Conversely, sharing may also increase exposure to pathogens and become burdensome and distressing in times of heightened need. These water sharing systems have been almost invisible within global health research but need to be explored, because they can both support and undermine global public health interventions, planning and policy.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Saúde Global , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
9.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 713-725, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021669

RESUMO

Although there is growing recognition that disadvantaged contexts attenuate genetic influences on youth misbehavior, it is not yet clear how this dampening occurs. The current study made use of a "geographic contagion" model to isolate specific contexts contributing to this effect, with a focus on nonaggressive rule-breaking behaviors (RB) in the families' neighbors. Our sample included 847 families residing in or near modestly-to-severely disadvantaged neighborhoods who participated in the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Neighborhood sampling techniques were used to recruit neighbors residing within 5km of a given family (the mean number of neighbors assessed per family was 13.09; range, 1-47). Analyses revealed clear evidence of genotype-environment interactions by neighbor RB, such that sibling-level shared environmental influences on child RB increased with increasing neighbor self-reports of their own RB, whereas genetic influences decreased. Moreover, this moderation appeared to be driven by geographic proximity to neighbors. Sensitivity analyses further indicated that this effect was specifically accounted for by higher levels of neighbor joblessness, rather than elements of neighbor RB that would contribute to neighborhood blight or crime. Such findings provocatively suggest that future genotype-environment interactions studies should integrate the dynamic networks of social contagion theory.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Características de Residência , Irmãos , Meio Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Sistema de Registros , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
10.
JMIR Ment Health ; 5(4): e61, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is the leading cause of diseases globally and is often characterized by a lack of social connection. With the rise of social media, it is seen that Twitter users are seeking Web-based connections for depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify communities where Twitter users tweeted using the hashtag #MyDepressionLooksLike to connect about depression. Once identified, we wanted to understand which community characteristics correlated to Twitter users turning to a Web-based community to connect about depression. METHODS: Tweets were collected using NCapture software from May 25 to June 1, 2016 during the Mental Health Month (n=104) in the northeastern United States and Washington DC. After mapping tweets, we used a Poisson multilevel regression model to predict tweets per community (county) offset by the population and adjusted for percent female, percent population aged 15-44 years, percent white, percent below poverty, and percent single-person households. We then compared predicted versus observed counts and calculated tweeting index values (TIVs) to represent undertweeting and overtweeting. Last, we examined trends in community characteristics by TIV using Pearson correlation. RESULTS: We found significant associations between tweet counts and area-level proportions of females, single-person households, and population aged 15-44 years. TIVs were lower than expected (TIV 1) in eastern, seaboard areas of the study region. There were communities tweeting as expected in the western, inland areas (TIV 2). Counties tweeting more than expected were generally scattered throughout the study region with a small cluster at the base of Maine. When examining community characteristics and overtweeting and undertweeting by county, we observed a clear upward gradient in several types of nonprofits and TIV values. However, we also observed U-shaped relationships for many community factors, suggesting that the same characteristics were correlated with both overtweeting and undertweeting. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Web-based communities, rather than replacing physical connection, may complement or serve as proxies for offline social communities, as seen through the consistent correlations between higher levels of tweeting and abundant nonprofits. Future research could expand the spatiotemporal scope to confirm these findings.

11.
Aust J Rural Health ; 26(5): 336-341, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To propose a framework for examining both the spatial equity and sustainability of GP services. DESIGN: A conceptual discussion based on a systematic literature review of spatial equity definitions and methods. SETTING: Improving the spatial equity of health services is a key step in achieving health equity. Health systems should contribute to achieving health equity and maintain equitable services into the future. The GP services are a key component of primary health care, which often aims to promote health equity. Despite the importance of spatially equitable and sustainable GP services, a framework for analysis has not yet been established. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Examples of how the proposed framework could be implemented are provided from the New Zealand health care context. RESULT: The framework entails three steps: (i) defining spatial equity and sustainability; (ii) estimating current and future distributions of health services and needs; and (iii) quantifying spatial equity and sustainability. In step (i), a needs-based distribution is the most common definition of spatial equity, while sustainability is the ability to provide ongoing equitable access. Step (ii) depends on current and future estimates of access and need within a well-defined geographical area. In step (iii), spatial equity and sustainability should be quantified through measures, such as the Gini coefficient. Current and future levels of spatial equity should then be compared to assess the sustainability of equitable GP services. CONCLUSION: This article outlines a novel conceptual framework for examining the spatial equitability and sustainability of GP services.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural/provisão & distribução , Análise Espacial
12.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 53(5): 626-633, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052769

RESUMO

Aims: Children's exposure to alcohol marketing is typically measured using self-report data, television viewing data or street marketing audits, which are subject to bias and often do not provide quantifiable measures of daily exposure. This article describes an innovative methodology to capture the world in which children live using wearable cameras. Short summary: Children wearing wearable cameras were exposed 4.5 times per day to alcohol marketing in multiple places and via a range of marketing media. The results reinforce calls for legislative restrictions and a global response to alcohol marketing in order to protect children and reduce alcohol-related harm. Methods: Children aged 11-13 years (n = 167) wore cameras that automatically captured images approximately every 7 s for a 4-day period between June 2014 and July 2015. Content analysis of images (n = 700,000) was manually undertaken to assess children's exposure to alcohol marketing. Results: On average, children were exposed to alcohol marketing 4.5 (95% CI: 3.3, 6.0) times per day, excluding within off-licence retailers, on screens and product packaging. Children were exposed at home (47%), on-licence alcohol retailers (19%), off-licence shop fronts (16%) and sporting venues (12%), and via sports sponsorship (31%) and shop front signage (31%) and merchandise (25%). The highest exposure rates were found among Maori (5.4 times higher than New Zealand European) and Pacific (3.0 times higher than New Zealand European), and boys (2.0 times higher than girls). Conclusions: These findings highlight the urgent need to implement strict legislative restrictions on all forms of alcohol marketing to fulfil the World Health Organization Global Alcohol Strategy.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Meios de Comunicação , Marketing/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência
13.
Health Place ; 52: 240-246, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015181

RESUMO

We systematically reviewed the current use of Google Street View (GSV) in health research and characterized major themes, strengths and weaknesses in order to highlight possibilities for future research. Of 54 qualifying studies, we found that most used GSV to assess the neighborhood built environment, followed by health policy compliance, study site selection, and disaster preparedness. Most studies were conducted in urban areas of North America, Europe, or New Zealand, with few studies from South America or Asia and none from Africa or rural areas. Health behaviors and outcomes of interest in these studies included injury, alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and mental health. Major strengths of using GSV imagery included low cost, ease of use, and time saved. Identified weaknesses were image resolution and spatial and temporal availability, largely in developing regions of the world. Despite important limitations, GSV is a promising tool for automated environmental assessment for health research. Currently untapped areas of health research using GSV include identification of sources of air, soil or water pollution, park design and usage, amenity design and longitudinal research on neighborhood conditions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Características de Residência , Big Data , Planejamento Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Software , População Urbana
14.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 736, 2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found extensive geographic and demographic differences in tobacco use. These differences have been found to be reduced by effective public policies, including banning smoking in public spaces. Smokefree outdoor spaces reduce secondhand smoke exposure and de-normalize smoking. METHODS: After previously publishing a study of smokefree indoor and outdoor space policies, it was brought to the authors' attention that the dataset used in analyses was incomplete (Lowrie et al., BMC Public Health 17:456, 2017). The current manuscript is a corrected version. Here, we include analyses for outdoor space policies. We evaluated regional and demographic differences in the proportion of the population (both adult and child) covered by smokefree outdoor space policies for school grounds and playgrounds enacted in the United States prior to 2014. RESULTS: Children had a low level of protection in playgrounds and schools (8% covered nationwide in both settings). Significant differences in coverage were found by ethnicity, region, income, and education (p < 0.001). The odds of having a smokefree playgrounds policy was lower for jurisdictions with higher proportions of poor households, households with no high school diploma, whites and the Alaska/Hawaii region. Increased ethnic heterogeneity was found to be a significant predictor of increased odds of having a smokefree playgrounds policy, meaning that diversity is protective, with differential effect by region (p < 0.001) - which may relate to urbanicity. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in smokefree outdoor space policies have potential to exacerbate existing health inequities. A national increase in smokefree outdoor space policies to protect children in playgrounds and schools is a crucial intervention to reduce such inequities.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 799, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945576

RESUMO

The authors have retracted this article [1] because of an error with the data extraction process.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28587134

RESUMO

Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image (n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Recreação , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 456, 2017 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28511682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found extensive geographic and demographic differences in tobacco use. These differences have been found to be reduced by effective public policies, including banning smoking in public spaces. Smokefree indoor and outdoor spaces reduce secondhand smoke exposure and denormalize smoking. METHODS: We evaluated regional and demographic differences in the proportion of the population covered by smokefree policies enacted in the United States prior to 2014, for both adults and children. RESULTS: Significant differences in coverage were found by ethnicity, region, income, and education (p < 0.001). Smokefree policy coverage was lower for jurisdictions with higher proportions of poor households, households with no high school diploma and the Southeast region. Increased ethnic heterogeneity was found to be a significant predictor of coverage in indoor "public spaces generally", meaning that diversity is protective, with differential effect by region (p = 0.004) - which may relate to urbanicity. Children had a low level of protection in playgrounds and schools (~10% covered nationwide) - these spaces were found to be covered at lower rates than indoor spaces. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in smokefree space policies have potential to exacerbate existing health inequities. A national increase in smokefree policies to protect children in playgrounds and schools is a crucial intervention to reduce such inequities.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Política Pública , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 53(3): e89-e95, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455122

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper reports on a new methodology to objectively study the world in which children live. The primary research study (Kids'Cam Food Marketing) illustrates the method; numerous ancillary studies include exploration of children's exposure to alcohol, smoking, "blue" space and gambling, and their use of "green" space, transport, and sun protection. METHODS: One hundred sixty-eight randomly selected children (aged 11-13 years) recruited from 16 randomly selected schools in Wellington, New Zealand used wearable cameras and GPS units for 4 days, recording imagery every 7 seconds and longitude/latitude locations every 5 seconds. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015. Analysis commenced in 2015 and is ongoing. Bespoke software was used to manually code images for variables of interest including setting, marketing media, and product category to produce variables for statistical analysis. GPS data were extracted and cleaned in ArcGIS, version 10.3 for exposure spatial analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 1.4 million images and 2.2 million GPS coordinates were generated (most were usable) from many settings including the difficult to measure aspects of exposures in the home, at school, and during leisure time. The method is ethical, legal, and acceptable to children and the wider community. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology enabled objective analysis of the world in which children live. The main arm examined the frequency and nature of children's exposure to food and beverage marketing and provided data on difficult to measure settings. The methodology will likely generate robust evidence facilitating more effective policymaking to address numerous public health concerns.


Assuntos
Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Obesidade/etiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação
20.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169819, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095427

RESUMO

Due to the ubiquity of mobile phones around the globe, studies are beginning to analyze their influence on health. Prior work from developed countries highlights negative mental health outcomes related to overuse of mobile phones. However, there is little work on mental health impacts of mobile phone use or ownership in developing countries. This is an important gap to address because there are likely variations in mental health impacts of mobile phones between developing and developed countries, due to cultural nuances to phone use and distinct variations in financial models for obtaining mobile phone access in developing countries. To address this gap, this study analyzes survey data from 92 households in sparse, rural villages in Uganda to test two hypotheses about mobile phone ownership and mental health in a developing country context: (i) Mobile phone ownership is higher among more privileged groups, compared to less privileged groups (ie, wealth and ethnicity); and (ii) mobile phone ownership is positively associated with a culturally-relevant indicator of mental health, 'feelings of peace'. Results indicate that households with mobile phones had higher levels of wealth on average, yet no significant differences were detected by ethnicity. As hypothesized, mobile phone ownership was associated with increased mental well-being for persons without family nearby (in the District) (p = 0.038) after adjusting for wealth, ethnicity and amount of land for crops and land for grazing. Mobile phone ownership was not significantly associated with increased mental well-being for persons with family nearby. These findings are consistent with studies of mobile phone use in other sub-Saharan African countries which find that phones are important tools for social connection and are thus beneficial for maintaining family ties. One might infer then that this increased feeling of mental well-being for persons located farther from family stems from the ability to maintain family connections. These findings are quite different from work in developed countries where mobile phone use is a source of technology-related stress or technostress.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Mental , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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