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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 159-163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816277

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is an important aspect of mother-newborn relationship and is of great benefit for the baby. Unfortunately, many drugs taken by the mother may pass into her milk and exert an effect on the newborn. Very limited data is available and a cautionary approach is warranted especially when the woman receives anticancer treatment including chemotherapy , hormonal treatment and the recently introduced target agents as well as monoclonal antibodies. In all these conditions breastfeeding should be put on hold.More and more often physicians are faced with women that are pregnant years after the diagnosis of cancer: this has long been considered dangerous for the mother, but data show that prognosis is definitely not worse. If the woman is no longer being actively treated, breastfeeding is advisable every time it is possible, even if patients that received breast radiation may be unable to produce a sufficient amount of milk on that side.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Lactação , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/terapia , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactação/efeitos da radiação , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 195-197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816282

RESUMO

Pregnancy and lactation represent the most effective protective elements against breast cancer; counter-intuitively breast cancer incidence shows a small but noticeable increase up to 5 years after delivery. The cumulative effect is however favourable and women show a reduction in breast cancer risk which is proportional to the total duration of lactation and to the number of full-term pregnancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Lactação , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(26): 3012-3023, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673153

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Young women with germline BRCA mutations have unique reproductive challenges. Pregnancy after breast cancer does not increase the risk of recurrence; however, very limited data are available in patients with BRCA mutations. This study investigated the impact of pregnancy on breast cancer outcomes in patients with germline BRCA mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based, retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients were diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2012 with invasive early breast cancer at age ≤ 40 years and harbored deleterious germline BRCA mutations. Primary end points were pregnancy rate, and disease-free survival (DFS) between patients with and without a pregnancy after breast cancer. Pregnancy outcomes and overall survival (OS) were secondary end points. Survival analyses were adjusted for guarantee-time bias controlling for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Of 1,252 patients with germline BRCA mutations (BRCA1, 811 patients; BRCA2, 430 patients; BRCA1/2, 11 patients) included, 195 had at least 1 pregnancy after breast cancer (pregnancy rate at 10 years, 19%; 95% CI, 17% to 22%). Induced abortions and miscarriages occurred in 16 (8.2%) and 20 (10.3%) patients, respectively. Among the 150 patients who gave birth (76.9%; 170 babies), pregnancy complications and congenital anomalies occurred in 13 (11.6%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. Median follow-up from breast cancer diagnosis was 8.3 years. No differences in DFS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.23; P = .41) or OS (adjusted HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.56; P = .66) were observed between the pregnancy and nonpregnancy cohorts. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy after breast cancer in patients with germline BRCA mutations is safe without apparent worsening of maternal prognosis and is associated with favorable fetal outcomes. These results provide reassurance to patients with BRCA-mutated breast cancer interested in future fertility.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): e360-e368, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615119

RESUMO

The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology and the European Society for Paediatric Oncology jointly developed clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines for the management of adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 25 years with non-epithelial ovarian cancers, including malignant ovarian germ cell tumours, sex cord-stromal tumours, and small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcaemic type. The developmental process of these guidelines is based on a systematic literature review and critical appraisal process involving an international multidisciplinary developmental group consisting of experts from relevant disciplines (paediatric oncology, paediatric surgery, medical oncology, pathology, psycho-oncology, gynaecological oncology, and reproductive endocrinology). Given the specific and often complex issues involved in treating this group of patients, fertility sparing surgery and decrease of acute and long-term toxicities from treatment were important criteria for guidelines definition. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 54 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Tumori ; : 300891620944218, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies diagnosed during pregnancy, with an incidence of 1:3000 pregnancies. Its rising incidence is related to the trend to postpone childbearing during the last 30 years. Breast cancer during pregnancy should not be managed differently from the nonpregnant setting. Chemotherapy is reported to be safe after the first trimester, whereas trastuzumab and tamoxifen are contraindicated regardless of the trimester. CASE DESCRIPTION: A patient diagnosed with breast cancer recurrence during pregnancy was exposed to both tamoxifen and trastuzumab during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. In addition, docetaxel was administered during the second and third trimesters, without subsequent fetal malformations or obstetric complications. CONCLUSIONS: When conception occurs inadvertently during assumption of tamoxifen or anti-HER2 agents, their effects on the fetus and on the course of pregnancy are not completely understood. Further studies are needed in this setting, highlighting the importance to share clinical experiences.

6.
Breast ; 53: 1-7, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although randomized controlled clinical trials are optimal to evaluate the effect of an experimental therapy, single-arm trials are required whenever randomization is unethical or not feasible, such as de-escalation studies. We propose using prospectively identified historical controls to place results of single-arm, de-escalation trials into context. METHODS: POSITIVE is a prospective, single-arm study in young women with hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer to determine if temporarily interrupting adjuvant endocrine therapy in order to become pregnant increases the risk of a breast cancer event. After 272 women enrolled in POSITIVE, we identified a cohort of 1499 SOFT/TEXT patients potentially eligible to enroll in POSITIVE who did not interrupt endocrine therapy. Method I used the SOFT/TEXT cohort to calculate annualized hazard rates by a piecewise exponential model. Method II used the SOFT/TEXT cohort to group-match SOFT/TEXT patients to POSITIVE patients; sample sets of SOFT/TEXT patients were randomly drawn 5000 times to obtain sets having patient, disease, and treatment characteristics more balanced with POSITIVE participants. RESULTS: Compared with SOFT/TEXT, POSITIVE participants were younger, less likely to be overweight/obese, had fewer positive nodes, and fewer received aromatase inhibitor or chemotherapy. The estimated 3-year breast cancer free interval event rates were 9.5% (95% CI: 7.9%,11.1%) for Method I and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.8%,10.9%) for Method II, compared with 5.8% initially assumed when POSITIVE was designed. CONCLUSION: External control datasets should be identified before launching single-arm, de-escalation trials and methods applied during their conduct to provide context for interim monitoring and interpretation of the final analysis.

7.
Future Oncol ; 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567377

RESUMO

Aim: This article refers to the European School of Oncology Clinical Training Centers (CTCs) program, which is a granted Fellowships program dedicated to young oncologists in training. Materials & methods: A total of 74 fellowships were offered by several CTCs during the last 7 years. Candidates were enrolled for 3-6 months of training rotations as fellows or observers in more than 30 training programs in well known Cancer Centers around Europe. Fellowships were covering medical, surgical, radiation and pediatric oncology specialties, laboratory diagnostic training and experimental, translational and clinical research. Fellows originated from Europe, Latin America and Mediterranean Africa. Results: Analysis of the questionnaire assessment showed that 95.5% of the fellows evaluated CTC programs with an 'excellent' or 'very good' score, while 100% declare that they had reached their objectives. Conclusion: The European School of Oncology CTC program designed for an additional practical education abroad meets the needs of young oncologists.

8.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102976, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389896

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of the European School of Oncology's (ESO) Masterclass (MCO) in Clinical Oncology on the career development of young participants. MCO represents the flagship educational activity of ESO and is organized annually, mostly in collaboration with the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) in five different geographical regions. A questionnaire consisting of 21 questions was sent to all doctors who attended the ESO MCOs from 2009 to 2016. The 228 responders were mostly from European countries and hold the specialty of Medical Oncology. Ninety-five percent of them evaluated ESO MCOs as "extremely useful" or "useful" for their professional career. Around 60% were trained at University Hospitals or Cancer Institutes and currently, one-third of them are employed in Academic Centers. Eighty percent have performed translational or clinical research and 77.5% were able to publish in pertinent international journals. The contribution of ESO MCOs to trainees' career development in different oncology disciplines around the world is discussed.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Oncologia/educação , Neoplasias , Médicos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303982

RESUMO

In this article, we report on the clinical case presentations that have been delivered during the ESO or ESO-ESMO Masterclasses in Clinical Oncology in the last 10 years. Masterclasses have been held in three different geographical continents including Europe, Middle East, and Latin America, in which participants had to submit a clinical case and present it either in front of a tumor board (multidisciplinary-like sessions) or in small groups. Clinical case presentation is a unique part of the educational program preparing young oncologists to present and discuss their own patients with distinguished experts. In each Masterclass, between 40 and 55 clinical cases-depending on the number of participants-are presented. All presentations are assessed and evaluated by faculty members as well as by the rest of the participants.

13.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 13: 930, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281427

RESUMO

Between 5% and 10% of women have distant metastases when they receive a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. Metastatic BC is associated with poor prognosis but advances in systemic treatments have improved survival rates in recent decades. Debates about local primary tumour management in metastatic stages continue, but multiple studies have shown that primary tumour surgery can be beneficial. BC is one of the most commonly diagnosed neoplasias during pregnancy. Treatment of pregnant BC patients should follow the standard treatment of young, non-pregnant patients as closely as possible. We present the case of a young, pregnant patient with metastatic BC with a complete clinical response to chemotherapy followed by surgical treatment.

14.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 38(5): 835-844, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914152

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and practice of physicians towards fertility and pregnancy-related issues in young BRCA-mutated breast cancer patients. DESIGN: Physicians attending two international breast cancer conferences completed a 26-item questionnaire exploring fertility preservation, pregnancy during (BCP) or after breast cancer. A statistical comparison was carried out of the responses exploring the same issues in young breast cancer patients overall or specifically in those with BRCA mutations. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 273 physicians. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (33% versus 40%; P = 0.009) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues during chemotherapy (74% versus 81%; P = 0.001) were less commonly suggested in BRCA-mutated patients than in the overall breast cancer population. 42% of respondents agreed or were neutral on the statement that ovarian stimulation should not be considered safe in BRCA-mutated breast cancer patients. 45% and 30% agreed or were neutral on the statement that pregnancy in breast cancer survivors may increase the risk of recurrence in BRCA-mutated patients or in the overall breast cancer population, respectively (P < 0.001). 15% and 3% disagreed that transplanting the cryopreserved ovarian tissue can be considered safe in BRCA-mutated patients or in the overall breast cancer population, respectively (P < 0.001). 33.3% were against the addition of platinum agents as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in BRCA-mutated patients with BCP. CONCLUSIONS: Several misconceptions on fertility preservation and pregnancy-related issues in breast cancer patients persist even among physicians directly involved in breast cancer care. Focused research efforts to address these issues in BRCA-mutated breast cancer patients and education to improve physicians' knowledge and adherence to available guidelines are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Preservação da Fertilidade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/psicologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Breast ; 42: 41-49, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility and pregnancy-related issues are major concerns for young breast cancer patients. Limited data are available on physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practice in these fields. METHODS: A 26-item questionnaire exploring 3 different topics (fertility preservation, pregnancy after breast cancer and breast cancer during pregnancy) was sent by email to physicians attending the 2016 3rd European School of Oncology (ESO) - European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Breast Cancer in Young Women Conference (BCY3) and the 15th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2017 (BCC 2017). Given the selected sample, survey respondents were expected to have a higher than average interest in the management of breast cancer patients. Descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 273 physicians (105 at BCY3 and 168 at BCC 2017) completed the survey; 37.0%, 46.9% and 34.8% reported never having consulted the available international guidelines on fertility preservation, pregnancy after breast cancer and management of breast cancer during pregnancy, respectively. Up to 18.3% of respondents did not know if the different fertility preservation options were available in their country; 22.3% suggested that controlled ovarian stimulation should not be considered safe in patients with hormone receptor-positive disease. A total of 30.4% of respondents agreed or were neutral on the statement that pregnancy in breast cancer survivors may increase the risk of recurrence. Regarding breast cancer during pregnancy, 23.8% and 38.1% disagreed or were neutral on the statements that endocrine therapy and anti-HER2 agents should be avoided during pregnancy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Further educational initiatives are needed to improve physicians' knowledge and adherence to available guidelines when addressing fertility and pregnancy-related issues in young breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Preservação da Fertilidade/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Oncologia/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Sociedades Médicas/normas
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(3): 337-346, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awareness is growing that cancer can be treated during pregnancy, but the effect of this change on maternal and neonatal outcomes is unknown. The International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy (INCIP) registers the incidence and maternal, obstetric, oncological, and neonatal outcomes of cancer occurring during pregnancy. We aimed to describe the oncological management and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of patients registered in INCIP and treated in the past 20 years, and assess associations between cancer type or treatment modality and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This descriptive cohort study included pregnant patients with cancer registered from all 37 centres (from 16 countries) participating in the INCIP registry. Oncological, obstetric, and neonatal outcome data of consecutive patients diagnosed with primary invasive cancer during pregnancy between Jan 1, 1996, and Nov 1, 2016, were retrospectively and prospectively collected. We analysed changes over time in categorical patient characteristics, outcomes, and treatment methods with log-binomial regression. We used multiple logistic regression to analyse preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) or preterm contractions, small for gestational age, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The INCIP registry study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00330447, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: 1170 patients were included in the analysis and 779 (67%) received treatment during pregnancy. Breast cancer was the most common malignant disease (462 [39%]). Every 5 years, the likelihood of receiving treatment during pregnancy increased (relative risk [RR] 1·10, 95% CI 1·05-1·15), mainly related to an increase of chemotherapeutic treatment (1·31, 1·20-1·43). Overall, 955 (88%) of 1089 singleton pregnancies ended in a livebirth, of which 430 (48%) of 887 pregnancies ended preterm. Each 5 years, we observed more livebirths (RR 1·04, 95% CI 1·01-1·06) and fewer iatrogenic preterm deliveries (0·91, 0·84-0·98). Our data suggest a relationship between platinum-based chemotherapy and small for gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 3·12, 95% CI 1·45-6·70), and between taxane chemotherapy and NICU admission (OR 2·37, 95% CI 1·31-4·28). NICU admission seemed to depend on cancer type, with gastrointestinal cancers having highest risk (OR 7·13, 95% CI 2·86-17·7) and thyroid cancers having lowest risk (0·14, 0·02-0·90) when compared with breast cancer. Unexpectedly, the data suggested that abdominal or cervical surgery was associated with a reduced likelihood of NICU admission (OR 0·30, 95% CI 0·17-0·55). Other associations between treatment or cancer type and outcomes were less clear. INTERPRETATION: Over the years, the proportion of patients with cancer during pregnancy who received antenatal treatment increased, especially treatment with chemotherapy. Our data indicate that babies exposed to antenatal chemotherapy might be more likely to develop complications, specifically small for gestational age and NICU admission, than babies not exposed. We therefore recommend involving hospitals with obstetric high-care units in the management of these patients. FUNDING: Research Foundation-Flanders, European Research Council, Charles University, Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Peso ao Nascer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/induzido quimicamente , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(4): 426-429, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087485

RESUMO

Safety of pregnancy in women with history of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer remains controversial. In this multicenter case-control study, 333 patients with pregnancy after breast cancer were matched (1:3) to 874 nonpregnant patients of similar characteristics, adjusting for guaranteed time bias. Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis; groups were compared with the log-rank test. All reported P values were two-sided. At a median follow-up of 7.2 years after pregnancy, no difference in disease-free survival was observed between pregnant and nonpregnant patients with ER-positive (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 1.26, P = .68) or ER-negative (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.53 to 1.06, P = .10) disease. No overall survival (OS) difference was observed in ER-positive patients (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.18, P = .32); ER-negative patients in the pregnant cohort had better OS (HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.90, P = .01). Abortion, time to pregnancy, breastfeeding, and type of adjuvant therapy had no impact on patients' outcomes. This study provides reassuring evidence on the long-term safety of pregnancy in breast cancer survivors, including those with ER-positive disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Breast ; 35: 177-181, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756339

RESUMO

When breast cancer is diagnosed during pregnancy, treatment should be as close; as possible to what is used in non-pregnant patients. This requires accurate local and systemic staging: ultrasound (US) is used for local staging and allows adequate evaluation of the liver and pelvis, but chest and bones cannot be explored and imaging techniques involving exposure to ionizing radiation would be needed. However, since imaging techniques involving ionizing radiation and the use of radionuclides should be limited, whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) without administration of contrast agent represents a very interesting alternative, but limited data is available. In this paper we describe the obstetrical and oncological outcome of 14 patients in whom breast cancer was diagnosed during the second or third trimester of pregnancy and that were staged using WB-MRI. Median age of the patient at diagnosis was 35 years (range 20-36), median gestational age at MRI was 30 weeks (range 13-32) and median age at delivery was 38 weeks (range 32-38). At birth, one new-born presented respiratory distress syndrome and one jaundice. We conclude that diffusion-weighted MRI is feasible accurate and safe for the mother and for the foetus. It may represent the staging technique of choice in pregnant women diagnosed with breast cancer after the first trimester of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado da Gravidez , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 59: 61-70, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750297

RESUMO

Fertility and pregnancy-related issues represent one of the main areas of concerns for young women with breast cancer. Carrying a germline deleterious BRCA mutation adds additional burden on this regard due to the specific issues that should be considered during the oncofertility counseling of this special patient group. Despite the availability of a growing amount of data in the general breast cancer population on the feasibility and safety of fertility preservation and pregnancy after diagnosis, numerous challenges remain for BRCA-mutated breast cancer patients in whom very limited studies have been performed so far. Therefore, studies aiming to address the specific issues of these patients, including the impact of the mutation on their fertility potential, the safety and efficacy of the different strategies for fertility preservation, and the feasibility of having a pregnancy after diagnosis, should be considered a research priority. The aim of the present manuscript is to perform an in depth overview on the role of BRCA mutations in breast cancer with a specific focus on their impact on reproductive potential, and to discuss the fertility and pregnancy issues faced by BRCA-mutated breast cancer patients. The final goal of this manuscript is to highlight current and upcoming knowledge in this field for trying to help physicians dealing with these patients during oncofertility counseling.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
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