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1.
Rev Fish Biol Fish ; : 1-21, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589856

RESUMO

Improved public understanding of the ocean and the importance of sustainable ocean use, or ocean literacy, is essential for achieving global commitments to sustainable development by 2030 and beyond. However, growing human populations (particularly in mega-cities), urbanisation and socio-economic disparity threaten opportunities for people to engage and connect directly with ocean environments. Thus, a major challenge in engaging the whole of society in achieving ocean sustainability by 2030 is to develop strategies to improve societal connections to the ocean. The concept of ocean literacy reflects public understanding of the ocean, but is also an indication of connections to, and attitudes and behaviours towards, the ocean. Improving and progressing global ocean literacy has potential to catalyse the behaviour changes necessary for achieving a sustainable future. As part of the Future Seas project (https://futureseas2030.org/), this paper aims to synthesise knowledge and perspectives on ocean literacy from a range of disciplines, including but not exclusive to marine biology, socio-ecology, philosophy, technology, psychology, oceanography and human health. Using examples from the literature, we outline the potential for positive change towards a sustainable future based on knowledge that already exists. We focus on four drivers that can influence and improve ocean literacy and societal connections to the ocean: (1) education, (2) cultural connections, (3) technological developments, and (4) knowledge exchange and science-policy interconnections. We explore how each driver plays a role in improving perceptions of the ocean to engender more widespread societal support for effective ocean management and conservation. In doing so, we develop an ocean literacy toolkit, a practical resource for enhancing ocean connections across a broad range of contexts worldwide.

2.
Rev Fish Biol Fish ; : 1-18, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424142

RESUMO

The oceans face a range of complex challenges for which the impacts on society are highly uncertain but mostly negative. Tackling these challenges is testing society's capacity to mobilise transformative action, engendering a sense of powerlessness. Envisaging positive but realistic visions of the future, and considering how current knowledge, resources, and technology could be used to achieve these futures, may lead to greater action to achieve sustainable transformations. Future Seas (www.FutureSeas2030.org) brought together researchers across career stages, Indigenous Peoples and environmental managers to develop scenarios for 12 challenges facing the oceans, leveraging interdisciplinary knowledge to improve society's capacity to purposefully shape the direction of marine social-ecological systems over the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030). We describe and reflect on Future Seas, providing guidance for co-developing scenarios in interdisciplinary teams tasked with exploring ocean futures. We detail the narrative development for two futures: our current trajectory based on published evidence, and a more sustainable future, consistent with the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, which is technically achievable using existing and emerging knowledge. Presentation of Business-as-usual and More Sustainable futures-together-allows communication of both trajectories, whilst also highlighting achievable, sustainable versions of the future. The advantages of the interdisciplinary approach taken include: (1) integrating different perspectives on solutions, (2) capacity to explore interactions between Life Under Water (Goal 14) and other SDGs, and (3) cross-disciplinary learning. This approach allowed participants to conceptualise shared visions of the future and co-design transformative pathways to achieving those futures. Supplementary Information SI: The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s11160-020-09629-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21235, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277537

RESUMO

In an ocean warming hotspot off south-east Australia, many species have expanded their ranges polewards, including the eastern rock lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi. This species is likely extending its range via larval advection into Tasmanian coastal waters, which are occupied by the more commercially important southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Here, thermal tolerances of these lobster species at two life stages were investigated to assess how they may respond to warming ocean temperatures. We found that the pattern, optimum and magnitude of thermal responses differed between performance measures, life stages and species. Sagmariasus verreauxi had a warmer optimal temperature for aerobic scope and escape speed than J. edwardsii. However, J. edwardsii had a higher magnitude of escape speed, indicating higher capacity for escape performance. There were also differences between life stages within species, with the larval stage having higher variation in optimal temperatures between measures than juveniles. This inconsistency in performance optima and magnitude indicates that single performance measures at single life stages are unlikely to accurately predict whole animal performance in terms of life-time survival and fitness. However, combined results of this study suggest that with continued ocean warming, S. verreauxi is likely to continue to extend its distribution polewards and increase in abundance in Tasmania.

4.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1814): 20190461, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131446

RESUMO

Climate change, overfishing, marine pollution and other anthropogenic drivers threaten our global oceans. More effective efforts are urgently required to improve the capacity of marine conservation action worldwide, as highlighted by the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021-2030. Marine citizen science presents a promising avenue to enhance engagement in marine conservation around the globe. Building on an expanding field of citizen science research and practice, we present a global overview of the current extent and potential of marine citizen science and its contribution to marine conservation. Employing an online global survey, we explore the geographical distribution, type and format of 74 marine citizen science projects. By assessing how the projects adhere to the Ten Principles of Citizen Science (as defined by the European Citizen Science Association), we investigate project development, identify challenges and outline future opportunities to contribute to marine science and conservation. Synthesizing the survey results and drawing on evidence from case studies of diverse projects, we assess whether and how citizen science can lead to new scientific knowledge and enhanced environmental stewardship. Overall, we explore how marine citizen science can inform current understanding of marine biodiversity and support the development and implementation of marine conservation initiatives worldwide. This article is part of the theme issue 'Integrative research perspectives on marine conservation'.

6.
J Anim Ecol ; 89(11): 2692-2703, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895913

RESUMO

Individual body size strongly influences the trophic role of marine organisms and the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Quantifying trophic position-individual body size relationships (trophic allometries) underpins the development of size-structured ecosystem models to predict abundance and the transfer of energy through ecosystems. Trophic allometries are well studied for fishes but remain relatively unexplored for cephalopods. Cephalopods are important components of coastal, oceanic and deep-sea ecosystems, and they play a key role in the transfer of biomass from low trophic positions to higher predators. It is therefore important to resolve cephalopod trophic allometries to accurately represent them within size-structured ecosystem models. We assessed the trophic positions of cephalopods in an oceanic pelagic (0-500 m) community (sampled by trawling in a cold-core eddy in the western Tasman Sea), comprising 22 species from 12 families, using bulk tissue stable isotope analysis and amino acid compound-specific stable isotope analysis. We assessed whether ontogenetic trophic position shifts were evident at the species-level and tested for the best predictor of community-level trophic allometry among body size, taxonomy and functional grouping (informed by fin and mantle morphology). Individuals in this cephalopod community spanned two trophic positions and fell into three functional groups on an activity level gradient: low, medium and high. The relationship between trophic position and ontogeny varied among species, with the most marked differences evident between species from different functional groups. Activity-level-based functional group and individual body size are best explained by cephalopod trophic positions (marginal R2  = 0.43). Our results suggest that the morphological traits used to infer activity level, such as fin-to-mantle length ratio, fin musculature and mantle musculature are strong predictors of cephalopod trophic allometries. Contrary to established theory, not all cephalopods are voracious predators. Low activity level cephalopods have a distinct feeding mode, with low trophic positions and little-to-no ontogenetic increases. Given the important role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems, distinct feeding modes could have important consequences for energy pathways and ecosystem structure and function. These findings will facilitate trait-based and other model estimates of cephalopod abundance in the changing global ocean.

7.
Conserv Physiol ; 8(1): coaa065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843966

RESUMO

Predation risk can strongly shape prey ecological traits, with specific anti-predator responses displayed to reduce encounters with predators. Key environmental drivers, such as temperature, can profoundly modulate prey energetic costs in ectotherms, although we currently lack knowledge of how both temperature and predation risk can challenge prey physiology and ecology. Such uncertainties in predator-prey interactions are particularly relevant for marine regions experiencing rapid environmental changes due to climate change. Using the octopus (Octopus maorum)-spiny lobster (Jasus edwardsii) interaction as a predator-prey model, we examined different metabolic traits of sub adult spiny lobsters under predation risk in combination with two thermal scenarios: 'current' (20°C) and 'warming' (23°C), based on projections of sea-surface temperature under climate change. We examined lobster standard metabolic rates to define the energetic requirements at specific temperatures. Routine metabolic rates (RMRs) within a respirometer were used as a proxy of lobster activity during night and day time, and active metabolic rates, aerobic scope and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption were used to assess the energetic costs associated with escape responses (i.e. tail-flipping) in both thermal scenarios. Lobster standard metabolic rate increased at 23°C, suggesting an elevated energetic requirement (39%) compared to 20°C. Unthreatened lobsters displayed a strong circadian pattern in RMR with higher rates during the night compared with the day, which were strongly magnified at 23°C. Once exposed to predation risk, lobsters at 20°C quickly reduced their RMR by ~29%, suggesting an immobility or 'freezing' response to avoid predators. Conversely, lobsters acclimated to 23°C did not display such an anti-predator response. These findings suggest that warmer temperatures may induce a change to the typical immobility predation risk response of lobsters. It is hypothesized that heightened energetic maintenance requirements at higher temperatures may act to override the normal predator-risk responses under climate-change scenarios.

8.
Conserv Physiol ; 8(1): coaa045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494362

RESUMO

Extensions of species' geographical distributions, or range extensions, are among the primary ecological responses to climate change in the oceans. Considerable variation across the rates at which species' ranges change with temperature hinders our ability to forecast range extensions based on climate data alone. To better manage the consequences of ongoing and future range extensions for global marine biodiversity, more information is needed on the biological mechanisms that link temperatures to range limits. This is especially important at understudied, low relative temperatures relevant to poleward range extensions, which appear to outpace warm range edge contractions four times over. Here, we capitalized on the ongoing range extension of a teleost predator, the Australasian snapper Chrysophrys auratus, to examine multiple measures of ecologically relevant physiological performance at the population's poleward range extension front. Swim tunnel respirometry was used to determine how mid-range and poleward range edge winter acclimation temperatures affect metabolic rate, aerobic scope, swimming performance and efficiency and recovery from exercise. Relative to 'optimal' mid-range temperature acclimation, subsequent range edge minimum temperature acclimation resulted in absolute aerobic scope decreasing while factorial aerobic scope increased; efficiency of swimming increased while maximum sustainable swimming speed decreased; and recovery from exercise required a longer duration despite lower oxygen payback. Cold-acclimated swimming faster than 0.9 body lengths sec-1 required a greater proportion of aerobic scope despite decreased cost of transport. Reduced aerobic scope did not account for declines in recovery and lower maximum sustainable swimming speed. These results suggest that while performances decline at range edge minimum temperatures, cold-acclimated snapper are optimized for energy savings and range edge limitation may arise from suboptimal temperature exposure throughout the year rather than acute minimum temperature exposure. We propose incorporating performance data with in situ behaviour and environmental data in bioenergetic models to better understand how thermal tolerance determines range limits.

9.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(6): 809-814, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251381

RESUMO

Ectotherms generally shrink under experimental warming, but whether this pattern extends to wild populations is uncertain. We analysed ten million visual survey records, spanning the Australian continent and multiple decades and comprising the most common coastal reef fishes (335 species). We found that temperature indeed drives spatial and temporal changes in fish body size, but not consistently in the negative fashion expected. Around 55% of species were smaller in warmer waters (especially among small-bodied species), while 45% were bigger. The direction of a species' response to temperature through space was generally consistent with its response to temperature increase through time at any given location, suggesting that spatial trends could help forecast fish responses to long-term warming. However, temporal changes were about ten times faster than spatial trends (~4% versus ~40% body size change per 1 °C change through space and time, respectively). The rapid and variable responses of fish size to warming may herald unexpected impacts on ecosystem restructuring, with potentially greater consequences than if all species were shrinking.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Animais , Austrália , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes , Temperatura
10.
Ambio ; 48(12): 1389-1400, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760631

RESUMO

Rapid biodiversity change that is already occurring across the globe is accelerating, with major and often negative consequences for human well-being. Biodiversity change is partly driven by climate change, but it has many other interacting drivers that are also driving human adaptation, including invasive species, land-use change, pollution and overexploitation. Humans are adapting to changes in well-being that are related with these biodiversity drivers and other forces and pressures. Adaptation, in turn, has feedbacks both for biodiversity change and human well-being; however, to date, these processes have received little science or policy attention. This Special Issue introduces human adaptation to biodiversity change as a science-policy issue. Research on human adaptation to biodiversity change requires new methods and tools as well as conceptual evolution, as social-ecological systems and environmental change adaptation approaches must be reconsidered when they are applied to different processes and contexts-where biodiversity change drivers are highly significant, where people are responding principally to changes in species, species communities and related ecosystem processes, and where adaptation entails changes in the management of biodiversity and related resource use regimes. The research was carried out in different marine and terrestrial environments across the globe. All of the studies consider adaptation among highly biodiversity-reliant populations, including Indigenous Peoples in the Americas and Europe, farmers in Asia and marine resource users in Europe and the Pacific. The concept of autochthonous adaptation is introduced to specifically address adaptation to environmental change in local systems, which also considers that local adaptation is conditioned by multi-scalar influences and occurs in synergy or conflict with adaptations of other non-local agents and actors who enable or constrain autochthonous adaptation options.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Ásia , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
11.
Ambio ; 48(12): 1498-1515, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098878

RESUMO

While governments and natural resource managers grapple with how to respond to climatic changes, many marine-dependent individuals, organisations and user-groups in fast-changing regions of the world are already adjusting their behaviour to accommodate these. However, we have little information on the nature of these autonomous adaptations that are being initiated by resource user-groups. The east coast of Tasmania, Australia, is one of the world's fastest warming marine regions with extensive climate-driven changes in biodiversity already observed. We present and compare examples of autonomous adaptations from marine users of the region to provide insights into factors that may have constrained or facilitated the available range of autonomous adaptation options and discuss potential interactions with governmental planned adaptations. We aim to support effective adaptation by identifying the suite of changes that marine users are making largely without government or management intervention, i.e. autonomous adaptations, to better understand these and their potential interactions with formal adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Austrália , Clima , Mudança Climática , Humanos
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1768): 20180186, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966966

RESUMO

Climate change is leading to shifts in species geographical distributions, but populations are also probably adapting to environmental change at different rates across their range. Owing to a lack of natural and empirical data on the influence of phenotypic adaptation on range shifts of marine species, we provide a general conceptual model for understanding population responses to climate change that incorporates plasticity and adaptation to environmental change in marine ecosystems. We use this conceptual model to help inform where within the geographical range each mechanism will probably operate most strongly and explore the supporting evidence in species. We then expand the discussion from a single-species perspective to community-level responses and use the conceptual model to visualize and guide research into the important yet poorly understood processes of plasticity and adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue 'The role of plasticity in phenotypic adaptation to rapid environmental change'.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Geografia , Modelos Biológicos , Oceanos e Mares
14.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(9): 1348-1349, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127537
15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(11): 5440-5453, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003633

RESUMO

The environmental effects of climate change are predicted to cause distribution shifts in many marine taxa, yet data are often difficult to collect. Quantifying and monitoring species' suitable environmental habitats is a pragmatic approach for assessing changes in species distributions but is underdeveloped for quantifying climate change induced range shifts in marine systems. Specifically, habitat predictions present opportunities for quantifying spatiotemporal distribution changes while accounting for sources of natural climate variation. Here we demonstrate the utility of a marine-based habitat model parameterized using citizen science data and remotely sensed environmental covariates for quantifying shifts in oceanographic habitat suitability over 22 years for a coastal-pelagic fish species in a climate change hotspot. Our analyses account for the effects of natural intra- and interannual climate variability to reveal rapid poleward shifts in core (94.4 km/decade) and poleward edge (108.8 km/decade) oceanographic habitats. Temporal persistence of suitable oceanographic habitat at high latitudes also increased by approximately 3 months over the study period. Our approach demonstrates how marine citizen science data can be used to quantify range shifts, but necessitates shifting focus from species distributions directly, to the distribution of species' environmental habitat preferences.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Participação da Comunidade , Coleta de Dados , Geografia , Oceanos e Mares , Oceano Pacífico , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9558, 2018 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934542

RESUMO

Shifts in species distribution, or 'range shifts', are one of the most commonly documented responses to ocean warming, with important consequences for the function and structure of ecosystems, and for socio-economic activities. Understanding the genetic signatures of range shifts can help build our knowledge of the capacity of species to establish and persist in colonised areas. Here, seven microsatellite loci were used to examine the population connectivity, genetic structure and diversity of Octopus tetricus, which has extended its distribution several hundred kilometres polewards associated with the southwards extension of the warm East Australian Current along south-eastern Australia. The historical distribution and the range extension zones had significant genetic differences but levels of genetic diversity were comparable. The population in the range extension zone was sub-structured, contained relatively high levels of self-recruitment and was sourced by migrants from along the entire geographic distribution. Genetic bottlenecks and changes in population size were detected throughout the range extension axis. Persistent gene flow from throughout the historical zone and moderate genetic diversity may buffer the genetic bottlenecks and favour the range extension of O. tetricus. These characteristics may aid adaptation, establishment, and long-term persistence of the population in the range extension zone.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Genética Populacional , Octopodiformes/genética , Migração Animal , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Filogeografia
17.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 93(1): 284-305, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28568902

RESUMO

Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia/métodos , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Science ; 355(6332)2017 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360268

RESUMO

Distributions of Earth's species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by human-mediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde , Humanos
20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 23(5): 2047-2057, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122146

RESUMO

Shifts in species ranges are a global phenomenon, well known to occur in response to a changing climate. New species arriving in an area may become pest species, modify ecosystem structure, or represent challenges or opportunities for fisheries and recreation. Early detection of range shifts and prompt implementation of any appropriate management strategies is therefore crucial. This study investigates whether 'first sightings' of marine species outside their normal ranges could provide an early warning of impending climate-driven range shifts. We examine the relationships between first sightings and marine regions defined by patterns of local climate velocities (calculated on a 50-year timescale), while also considering the distribution of observational effort (i.e. number of sampling days recorded with biological observations in global databases). The marine trajectory regions include climate 'source' regions (areas lacking connections to warmer areas), 'corridor' regions (areas where moving isotherms converge), and 'sink' regions (areas where isotherms locally disappear). Additionally, we investigate the latitudinal band in which first sightings were recorded, and species' thermal affiliations. We found that first sightings are more likely to occur in climate sink and 'divergent' regions (areas where many rapid and diverging climate trajectories pass through) indicating a role of temperature in driving changes in marine species distributions. The majority of our fish first sightings appear to be tropical and subtropical species moving towards high latitudes, as would be expected in climate warming. Our results indicate that first sightings are likely related to longer-term climatic processes, and therefore have potential use to indicate likely climate-driven range shifts. The development of an approach to detect impending range shifts at an early stage will allow resource managers and researchers to better manage opportunities resulting from range-shifting species before they potentially colonize.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Clima , Temperatura , Clima Tropical
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