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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are often diagnosed in advanced stages. In search of new diagnostic tools, focus has shifted towards the biological properties of the HNSCC, and the number of different biomarkers under investigation is rapidly growing. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to review the current literature regarding aberrantly methylated DNA found in peripheral blood plasma or serum in patients with HNSCC and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these changes. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were clinical studies involving patients with verified HNSCC that reported findings of aberrantly methylated DNA in peripheral blood serum or plasma. We systematically searched PubMed, OVID Embase and Cochrane Library. In addition to the search, we performed forward and backward chaining in references and Web of Science. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO: CRD42019135406. Two authors independently extracted data. The quality and the risk of bias of the included studies were assessed by the QUADAS-2 tool. RESULTS: A total of 1,743 studies were found eligible for screening, while ultimately seven studies were included. All studies were found to have methodological weaknesses, mainly concerning patient selection bias. The best individual marker of HNSCC was Septin 9 in plasma with a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 95%. CONCLUSIONS: None of the aberrantly methylated genes found in the retrieved studies are applicable as single diagnostic markers for HNSCC and the best gene-panels still lack diagnostic accuracy. Future studies may benefit from newer sequencing techniques but validation studies with well-designed cohorts are also needed in the process of developing epigenetic based diagnostic tests for HNSCC.

2.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

3.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(9): 1012-1018, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lactose intolerance (LI) may be considered in patients with unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, but there is no clear consensus on when and how to diagnose the disorder. The LCT-13910 CC genotype is associated with acquired primary lactase deficiency (adult-type hypolactasia; ATH). We aimed to describe the number of tests and test results in the North Denmark Region considering patient age, geographical origin and repeated testing. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction-based LCT-13910 genotype tests registered in the clinical laboratory information system (LABKA II) with data linkage to Danish nationwide registers. RESULTS: Between 18 May 2007 and 31 December 2018, a total of 23,560 individuals were tested. There was a sevenfold increase in the number of tests performed during the study period. About 9.8% of the tests performed in 2018 were repeated testing in the same individuals. Overall, 8.8% of tested individuals were younger than 5 years, 90.7% were of Danish origin and 5.5% originated from outside of Europe. The LCT-13910 CC genotype was identified in 13.3% of all tested individuals, in 16.0% of children younger than 5 years, in 6.8% of Danish individuals and in 90.9% originating from outside of Europe. CONCLUSIONS: In the North Denmark Region, a marked increase in the use of genetic testing for hypolactasia was observed and repeated testing was frequent. Furthermore, the use of the test and the test results were dependent on patient age and geographical origin. Results inform the debate on when and how to use genetic testing in the diagnosing of LI.

4.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 13(6): 655-668, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune surveillance is the dynamic process whereby the immune system identifies and kills tumor cells based on their aberrant expression of stress-related surface molecules or presentation of tumor neoantigens. It plays a crucial role in controlling the initiation and progression of hematologic cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, and it has been reported that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) fails to express specific cell-surface molecules that are necessary for the recognition and elimination of tumor cells. AREAS COVERED: This review is based on a systematic search strategy to identify relevant literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Ten candidate genes are identified based on mutational frequency, and functions with detailed mapping performed for hotspot alterations that may have a functional impact on malignant transformation and decreased immune surveillance efficacy. EXPERT OPINION: Ongoing development of technology and bioinformatics tools combined with data from large clinical cohorts have the potential to define the mutational landscape associated with immune surveillance in DLBCL. Specific functional studies are required to make an unambiguous link between genetic aberrations and biological impact on impaired immune surveillance.

5.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(6): 696-706, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In assisted reproductive technology, aneuploidy is considered a primary cause of failed embryo implantation. This has led to the implementation of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in some clinics. The prevalence of aneuploidy and the use of aneuploidy screening during preimplantation genetic testing for inherited disorders has not previously been reviewed. Here, we systematically review the literature to investigate the prevalence of aneuploidy in blastocysts derived from patients carrying or affected by an inherited disorder, and whether screening for aneuploidy improves clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for articles describing preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders and/or structural rearrangements in combination with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy. Original articles reporting aneuploidy rates at the blastocyst stage and/or clinical outcomes (positive human chorionic gonadotropin, gestational sacs/implantation rate, fetal heartbeat/clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, miscarriage, or live birth/delivery rate on a per transfer basis) were included. Case studies were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 26 identified studies, none were randomized controlled trials, three were historical cohort studies with a reference group not receiving aneuploidy screening, and the remaining were case series. In weighted analysis, 34.1% of 7749 blastocysts were aneuploid. Screening for aneuploidy reduced the proportion of embryos suitable for transfer, thereby increasing the risk of experiencing a cycle without transferable embryos. In pooled analysis the percentage of embryos suitable for transfer was reduced from 57.5% to 37.2% following screening for aneuploidy. Among historical cohort studies, one reported significantly improved pregnancy and birth rates but did not control for confounding, one did not report any statistically significant difference between groups, and one properly designed study concluded that preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy enhanced the chance of achieving a pregnancy while simultaneously reducing the chance of miscarriage following single embryo transfer. CONCLUSIONS: On average, aneuploidy is detected in 34% of embryos when performing a single blastocyst biopsy derived from patients carrying or affected by an inherited disorder. Accordingly, when screening for aneuploidy, the risk of experiencing a cycle with no transferable embryos increases. Current available data on the clinical effect of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy performed concurrently with preimplantation genetic testing for inherited disorders are sparse, rendering the clinical effect from preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy difficult to access.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Transferência Embrionária , Humanos , Mosaicismo , Prevalência
6.
Neonatology ; 116(3): 290-294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352446

RESUMO

The cytochrome C oxidase assembly protein SCO1 gene encodes a mitochondrial protein essential for the mammalian energy metabolism. Only three pedigrees of SCO1mutations have thus far been reported. They all presented with lactate acidosis and encephalopathy. Two had hepatopathy and hypotonia, and the other presented with intrauterine growth retardation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy leading to cardiac failure. Mitochondrial disease may manifest in neonates, but early diagnosis has so far been difficult. Here, we present a novel mutation in the SCO1 gene: in-frame deletion (Gly106del)with a different phenotype without encephalopathy, hepatopathy, hypotonia, or cardiac involvement. Within the first 2 h the girl developed hypoglycemia and severe chronic lactate acidosis. Because of the improved technique in whole exome sequencing, an early diagnosis was made when the girl was only 9 days old, which enabled the prediction of prognosis as well as level of treatment. She died at 1 month of age.


Assuntos
Homozigoto , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Mutação , Diagnóstico Precoce , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/terapia , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(20)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124451

RESUMO

This review summarises the current knowledge on preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Selection and transfer of euploid embryos aim to improve live birth rate (LBR) per embryo transfer, but fluorescence in situ hybridisation-based PGT-A and biopsy of cleavage stage embryos in the 2000s was a disappointment, as studies revealed a reduced LBR. Today, PGT-A includes comprehensive chromosome screening primarily of blastocyst biopsies. The benefit of PGT-A is highly debated: some suggest improved treatment outcome, while others claim, that the procedure is not cost-effective.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Testes Genéticos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
8.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(7A)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950377

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful diagnostic tool, and even though it is still of limited use in clinical practice, genome sequencing will be increasingly applied. Transition to wider genetic screening methods as clinical exome or genome sequencing has the potential to detect more variants of unknown significance as well as secondary findings. It calls for close cooperation between the laboratory geneticist and the medical geneticist. Pre- and post-test genetic counselling must be offered systematically, and always when there is a high risk of finding germ line variants.


Assuntos
Genômica , Medicina de Precisão , Exoma , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
9.
Mol Med ; 24(1): 57, 2018 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiles of normal and tumor tissue reflect both differences in biological processes taking place in vivo and differences in response to stress during surgery and sample handling. The effect of cold (room temperature) ischemia in the time interval between surgical removal of the specimen and freezing is described in a few studies. However, not much is known about the effect of warm (body temperature) ischemia during surgery. METHODS: Three women with primary operable breast cancer underwent in situ biopsies from normal breast and tumor tissue prior to radical mastectomy. Ex vivo biopsies from normal and tumor tissue were collected immediately after surgical excision. The putative effects on gene expression of malignancy (tumor versus normal), surgical manipulation (post- versus pre-surgical) and interaction between the two (differences in effect of surgical manipulation on tumor and normal samples) were investigated simultaneously by Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analysis in this self-matched study. RESULTS: Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrates a marked difference in effect of surgical manipulation on tumor compared to normal tissue. Interestingly, a large proportion of pathways affected by ischemia especially in tumor tissue are pathways considered to be specifically up regulated in tumor tissue compared to normal. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that a large contribution to this differential expression originates from altered response to stress in tumor cells rather than merely representing in vivo differences. It is important to bear this in mind when using gene-expression analysis to deduce biological function, and when collecting material for gene expression profiling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/cirurgia , Transcriptoma , Isquemia Fria , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Quente
10.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 180(14)2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622066

RESUMO

In Denmark, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered within the public healthcare to families with a known risk of an inherited disease in a child - as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. It is a well-established technique with rather well-described perinatal- and neonatal outcomes, being comparable to what is seen following in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). The most common strategy is now to perform trophectoderm biopsy and then vitrify, while the diagnostic test is performed. Until 2013, 134 children have been born following PGD. Today, the clinical pregnancy rates are comparable to those following IVF/ICSI.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/tendências
11.
Oncotarget ; 9(6): 7010-7022, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467946

RESUMO

Epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) cause important differences in the underlying tumor biology and aggressiveness. DNA hypermethylation is central for the development of CRC but the prognostic impact remains elusive. We aimed to assess the association between cell-free hypermethylated DNA and stage and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). We analyzed pre-treatment plasma samples from 193 patients with CRC. Thirty gene-promoter regions were analyzed using methylation specific PCR. We compared the median number (range) of hypermethylated promoter regions with CRC stage, and constructed a multivariable Cox-regression model adjusted for stage, to evaluate the added prognostic information. The median number of hypermethylated promoter regions was nine (0-28) in patients with distant metastasis compared to five (0-19) in patients without metastatic disease (p < 0.0001). The majority of the hypermethylated promoter regions inferred a poor prognosis. Cox-regression analysis adjusted for patient age, sex, pre-treatment CEA-levels, and disease stage, showed that RARB (HR = 1.99, 95% CI [1.07, 3.72]) and RASSF1A (HR = 3.35, 95% CI [1.76, 6.38]) hypermethylation inferred a significant effect on survival. The risk of metastasis increase with the number of cell-free hypermethylated promoter regions. The presence of RARB and RASSF1A hypermethylation indicated aggressive disease, regardless of stage at the time of diagnosis.

12.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Oncotarget ; 8(55): 93942-93956, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212200

RESUMO

Introduction: Few prognostic biomarkers are available for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between the survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and hypermethylated genes in plasma-derived cell-free DNA. Methods: Consecutive patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were prospectively included and staged according to the TNM classification. Methylation-specific PCR of 28 genes was conducted. A survival prediction model independent of cancer stage and stage-specific survival prediction models were developed by multivariable Cox regression analysis using backward stepwise selection. Results: Ninety-five patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included. Patients with more than 10 hypermethylated genes had a HR of 2.03 (95% CI; 1.15-3.57) compared to patients with fewer hypermethylated genes. Three survival prediction models were developed: Total group; (American Society of Anesthesiologists score (ASA)=3, GSTP1, SFRP2, BNC1, SFRP1, TFPI2, and WNT5A) Risk groups 2, 3 and 4 had a HR of 2.65 (95% CI; 1.24-5.66), 4.34 (95% CI; 1.98-9.51) and 21.19 (95% CI; 8.61-52.15), respectively, compared to risk group 1. Stage I-II; (ASA=3, SFRP2, and MESTv2) Risk groups 2, 3 and 4 had a HR of 4.83 (95% CI; 2.01-11.57), 9.12 (95% CI; 2.18-38.25) and 70.90 (95% CI; 12.63-397.96), respectively, compared to risk group 1. Stage IV; (BMP3, NPTX2, SFRP1, and MGMT) Risk group 2 had a HR of 5.23 (95% CI; 2.13-12.82) compared to risk group 1. Conclusion: Prediction models based on cell-free DNA hypermethylation stratified pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients into risk groups according to survival. The models have the potential to work as prognostic biomarkers. However, further validation of the results is required to substantiate the findings.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 141(12): 2489-2497, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857158

RESUMO

Correct staging of pancreatic cancer is paramount, as treatment is stage specific. However, minimally invasive tools to facilitate staging are lacking. DNA promoter hypermethylation is a hallmark of cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate promoter hypermethylation in cell-free DNA as a prognostic marker for stage classification of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Consecutive patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were prospectively included. Plasma samples were obtained before diagnostic work-up and treatment. Patients were staged according to the TNM classification. Methylation-specific PCR of 28 genes was performed. Prognostic prediction models for staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma were developed by multivariable logistic regression analysis using stepwise backwards elimination. Ninety-five patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were included. The mean number of hypermethylated genes was identical for stage I, II and III disease (7.09 (95% CI; 5.51-8.66), 7.00 (95% CI; 5.93-8.07) and 6.77 (95% CI; 5.08-8.46)), respectively, and highly significantly different from stage IV disease (10.24 (95% CI; 8.88-11.60)). The prediction model (SEPT9v2, SST, ALX4, CDKN2B, HIC1, MLH1, NEUROG1, and BNC1) enabled the differentiation of stage IV from stage I-III disease (AUC of 0.87 (cut point 0.55; sensitivity 74%, specificity 87%)). Model (MLH1, SEPT9v2, BNC1, ALX4, CDKN2B, NEUROG1, WNT5A, and TFPI2) enabled the differentiation of stage I-II from stage III-IV disease (AUC of 0.82 (cut point 0.66; sensitivity 73%, specificity 80%)). Cell-free DNA promoter hypermethylation has the potential to be blood-based prognostic markers for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, as panels of hypermethylated genes enables the differentiation according to cancer stage. However, further validation is required.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Idoso , Sistema Livre de Células , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180809, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the western world. Screening is an efficient method of reducing cancer-related mortality. Molecular biomarkers for cancer in general and CRC in particular have been proposed, and hypermethylated DNA from stool or blood samples are already implemented as biomarkers for CRC screening. We aimed to evaluate the performance of proven hypermethylated DNA promoter regions as plasma based biomarkers for CRC detection. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study of 193 CRC patients and 102 colonoscopy-verified healthy controls. Using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated 30 DNA promoter regions previously found to be CRC specific. We used multivariable logistic regression with stepwise backwards selection, and subsequent leave-pair-out cross validation, to calculate the optimism corrected area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for all stage as well as early stage CRC. RESULTS: None of the individual DNA promoter regions provided an overall sensitivity above 30% at a reasonable specificity. However, seven hypermethylated promoter regions (ALX4, BMP3, NPTX2, RARB, SDC2, SEPT9, and VIM) along with the covariates sex and age yielded an optimism corrected AUC of 0.86 for all stage CRC and 0.85 for early stage CRC. Overall sensitivity for CRC detection was 90.7% at 72.5% specificity using a cut point value of 0.5. CONCLUSIONS: Individual hypermethylated DNA promoter regions have limited value as CRC screening markers. However, a panel of seven hypermethylated promoter regions show great promise as a model for CRC detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 3/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Curva ROC , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Sindecana-2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 49: 128-137, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate breast cancer prognosis (disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS)) among carriers of germline BRCA mutations (BRCAm) in Denmark. METHODS: We identified all women in Central and Northern Denmark diagnosed with breast cancer during 2004-2011. We retrieved information on germline BRCAm testing from Clinical Genetics departments and clinical/treatment characteristics from population-based medical registries. Follow-up for recurrence, new primary cancer, and mortality extended from 180days after diagnosis until 31/12/2012. We estimated median DFS and OS and five-year cumulative incidence and incidence rates (IR/1000 person-years), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), for each outcome. RESULTS: Among 9874 patients, 523 (5%) underwent BRCA testing-90 were BRCAm carriers, 433 were BRCA wildtype (BRCAwt). Compared with BRCAwt women, BRCAm carriers were younger, had lower stage, and ER- and HER2- tumors. Median time from diagnosis to BRCA testing was 0.91 years and 1.3 years in BRCAm and BRCAwt women; median follow-up to first event was 3.9 and 3.4 years, respectively. Five-year DFS and OS were higher in BRCAm than BRCAwt women: 88% (95%CI=78.3-93.5) vs. 75.3% (95%CI=70.2-79.6) and 97.8% (95%CI=91.4-99.4) vs 92.2% (95%CI=88.5-94.7), respectively. Five-year IRs of recurrence were 36.7/1000 person-years (95%CI=15.8-72.2) in the BRCAm cohort vs. 58.4 (95%CI=42.9-77.6) in the BRCAwt cohort. CONCLUSIONS: BRCAm carriers may have a better prognosis than BRCAwt women. However, limited testing conducted mainly during follow-up, yielded low numbers for precise estimations, and may be attributable to selection bias.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 8: 117, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of only 5-7%. Difficulties in detecting pancreatic cancer at early stages results in the high mortality and substantiates the need for additional diagnostic tools. Surgery is the only curative treatment and unfortunately only possible in localized tumours. A diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic cancer will have a major impact on patient survival by facilitating early detection and the possibility for curative treatment. DNA promoter hypermethylation is a mechanism of early carcinogenesis, which can cause inactivation of tumour suppressor genes. The aim of this study was to examine promoter hypermethylation in a panel of selected genes from cell-free DNA, as a diagnostic marker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Patients with suspected or biopsy-verified pancreatic cancer were included prospectively and consecutively. Patients with chronic/acute pancreatitis were included as additional benign control groups. Based on an optimized accelerated bisulfite treatment protocol, methylation-specific PCR of a 28 gene panel was performed on plasma samples. A diagnostic prediction model was developed by multivariable logistic regression analysis using backward stepwise elimination. RESULTS: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 95), chronic pancreatitis (n = 97) and acute pancreatitis (n = 59) and patients screened, but negative for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 27), were included. The difference in mean number of methylated genes in the cancer group (8.41 (95% CI 7.62-9.20)) vs the total control group (4.74 (95% CI 4.40-5.08)) was highly significant (p < 0.001). A diagnostic prediction model (age >65, BMP3, RASSF1A, BNC1, MESTv2, TFPI2, APC, SFRP1 and SFRP2) had an area under the curve of 0.86 (sensitivity 76%, specificity 83%). The model performance was independent of cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: Cell-free DNA promoter hypermethylation has the potential to be a diagnostic marker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma and differentiate between malignant and benign pancreatic disease. This study brings us closer to a clinical useful diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer, which is urgently needed. External validation is, however, required before the test can be applied in the clinic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02079363.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema Livre de Células/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Fam Cancer ; 15(4): 507-12, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833046

RESUMO

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G>A and c.8474delC] were found to account for 23 % of the BRCA1 mutations and for 32 % of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 mutation c.3319G>T was, compared to other BRCA1 mutations, associated with a higher risk for ovarian cancer. In conclusion, founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to up to one-third of the families in western Denmark and among these the BRCA1 c.3319G>T mutation is potentially linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Efeito Fundador , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 15, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs). METHODS: We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. RESULTS: Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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