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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(9): 1135-1141, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487680

RESUMO

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare cancer that has been treated similarly to colorectal cancer (CRC) in the advanced setting. Incidence has been increasing as detection efforts have been improving for these challenging-to-diagnose tumors, but patients frequently experience prolonged nonspecific symptoms due to delayed diagnosis. As a result of such delays and likely due to variant biology, patient outcomes for SBA are inferior to those for CRC at all stages of diagnosis. Recent molecular studies highlight the genomic differences underpinning these tumors and suggest new future pathways for treatment, distinct from CRC.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(9): 1109-1133, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487687

RESUMO

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract that has increased in incidence across recent years. Often diagnosed at an advanced stage, outcomes for SBA are worse on average than for other related malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Due to the rarity of this disease, few studies have been done to direct optimal treatment, although recent data have shown that SBA responds to treatment differently than colorectal cancer, necessitating a separate approach to treatment. The NCCN Guidelines for Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma were created to establish an evidence-based standard of care for patients with SBA. These guidelines provide recommendations on the workup of suspected SBA, primary treatment options, adjuvant treatment, surveillance, and systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Additionally, principles of imaging and endoscopy, pathologic review, surgery, radiation therapy, and survivorship are described.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(11): 1364-1370, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038052

RESUMO

Background: Pathogenic germline mutations in the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene are rare and associated with highly penetrant familial melanoma and pancreatic cancer in non-Hispanic whites (NHW). To date, the prevalence and impact of CDKN2A rare coding variants (RCV) in racial minority groups remain poorly characterized. We examined the role of CDKN2A RCVs on the risk of pancreatic cancer among minority subjects.Methods: We sequenced CDKN2A in 220 African American (AA) pancreatic cancer cases, 900 noncancer AA controls, and 183 Nigerian controls. RCV frequencies were determined for each group and compared with that of 1,537 NHW patients with pancreatic cancer. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for both a case-case comparison of RCV frequencies in AAs versus NHWs, and case-control comparison between AA cases versus noncancer AA controls plus Nigerian controls. Smaller sets of Hispanic and Native American cases and controls also were sequenced.Results: One novel missense RCV and one novel frameshift RCV were found among AA patients: 400G>A and 258_278del. RCV carrier status was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer among AA cases (11/220; OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.1; P = 0.004) compared with AA and Nigerian controls (17/1,083). Further, AA cases had higher frequency of RCVs: 5.0% (OR, 13.4; 95% CI, 4.9-36.7; P < 0.001) compared with NHW cases (0.4%).Conclusions: CDKN2A RCVs are more common in AA than in NHW patients with pancreatic cancer and associated with moderately increased pancreatic cancer risk among AAs.Impact: RCVs in CDKN2A are frequent in AAs and are associated with risk for pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(11); 1364-70. ©2018 AACR.

4.
Carcinogenesis ; 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800239

RESUMO

Diets with high inflammatory potential are suspected to increase risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Using pooled analyses, we examined whether this association applies to populations from different geographic regions and population subgroups with varying risks for PC, including variation in ABO blood type. Data from six case-control studies (cases, n=2,414; controls, n=4,528) in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) were analyzed, followed by replication in five nested case-control studies (cases, n=1,268; controls, n=4,215) from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Two polymorphisms in the ABO locus (rs505922 and rs8176746) were used to infer participants' blood types. Dietary questionnaire-derived nutrient/food intake was used to compute energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores to assess inflammatory potential of diet. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher E-DII scores, reflecting greater inflammatory potential of diet, were associated with increased PC risk in PanC4 (ORQ5 vs. Q1=2.20, 95% CI=1.85-2.61, Ptrend<0.0001; ORcontinuous=1.20, 95% CI=1.17-1.24), and PanScan (ORQ5 vs. Q1=1.23, 95% CI=0.92-1.66, Ptrend=0.008; ORcontinuous=1.09, 95% CI=1.02-1.15). As expected, genotype-derived non-O blood type was associated with increased PC risk in both the PanC4 and PanScan studies. Stratified analyses of associations between E-DII quintiles and PC by genotype-derived ABO blood type did not show interaction by blood type (Pinteraction=0.10 in PanC4 and Pinteraction=0.13 in PanScan). The results show that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and carrying non-O blood type are each individually, but not interactively, associated with increased PC risk.

5.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 8(6): 985-989, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299358

RESUMO

Background: Treatment options for patients with refractory colorectal cancer are limited and typically provide a chance of only modest benefit. The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefit of inhibiting the JAK/STAT inflammatory pathway with single agent pacritinib in patients with metastatic refractory colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods: A single arm institutional trial was initiated and enrolled patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to at least two standard lines of treatment. Pacritinib 400 mg daily was administered orally continuously in 28 day cycles. Results: The trial was discontinued prior to reaching the planned accrual due to an FDA hold on pacritinib and a lack of treatment benefit. Eleven patients were enrolled and seven were evaluated for response. Median baseline C-reactive protein level was 12.1 (2.1-147) mg/L. One patient had stable disease at eight weeks by RECIST criteria and six progressed. There were no grade 4 or 5 adverse events while patients were on study. The grade 2 and lower AE events experienced were consistent with prior pacritinib trials. Conclusions: In seven evaluable patients there were no objective responses. The trial was discontinued prior to completing planned accrual based on a low likelihood that the progression free survival goal of 4 months would be met.

6.
Invest New Drugs ; 33(4): 963-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25952464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that stabilizes many oncogenic proteins. HSP90 inhibitors may sensitize tumors to cytotoxic agents by causing client protein degradation. Gemcitabine, which has modest activity in pancreas cancer, activates Chk1, a client protein of HSP90. This phase II trial was designed to determine whether 17AAG could enhance the clinical activity of gemcitabine through degradation of Chk1 in patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective study combining gemcitabine and 17AAG enrolled patients with stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma, adequate liver and kidney function, ECOG performance status 0-2, and no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. The primary goal was to achieve a 60 % overall survival at 6 months. Sixty-six patients were planned for accrual, with an interim analysis after 25 patients enrolled. RESULTS: After a futility analysis to achieve the endpoint, accrual was halted with 21 patients enrolled. No complete or partial responses were seen. Forty percent of patients were alive at 6 months. Median overall survival was 5.4 months. Tolerability was moderate, with 65 % of patients having ≥ grade 3 adverse events (AE), and 15 % having grade 4 events. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of clinical activity suggests that targeting Chk1 by inhibiting HSP90 is not important in pancreatic cancer sensitivity to gemcitabine alone. Further studies of HSP90 targeted agents with gemcitabine alone are not warranted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
PLoS One ; 6(3): e18223, 2011 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21455317

RESUMO

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC) is one of most difficult tumors to treat. Much of this is attributed to the late diagnosis. To identify biomarkers for early detection, we examined DNA methylation differences in leukocyte DNA between PaC cases and controls in a two-phase study. In phase I, we measured methylation levels at 1,505 CpG sites in treatment-naïve leukocyte DNA from 132 never-smoker PaC patients and 60 never-smoker healthy controls. We found significant differences in 110 CpG sites (false discovery rate <0.05). In phase II, we tested and validated 88 of 96 phase I selected CpG sites in 240 PaC cases and 240 matched controls (p≤0.05). Using penalized logistic regression, we built a prediction model consisting of five CpG sites (IL10_P348, LCN2_P86, ZAP70_P220, AIM2_P624, TAL1_P817) that discriminated PaC patients from controls (C-statistic = 0.85 in phase I; 0.76 in phase II). Interestingly, one CpG site (LCN2_P86) alone could discriminate resectable patients from controls (C-statistic= 0.78 in phase I; 0.74 in phase II). We also performed methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTL) analysis and identified three CpG sites (AGXT_P180_F, ALOX12_E85_R, JAK3_P1075_R) where the methylation levels were significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate <0.05). Our results demonstrate that epigenetic variation in easily obtainable leukocyte DNA, manifested by reproducible methylation differences, may be used to detect PaC patients. The methylation differences at certain CpG sites are partially attributable to genetic variation. This study strongly supports future epigenome-wide association study using leukocyte DNA for biomarker discovery in human diseases.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sulfitos/farmacologia
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 19(4): 472-8, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21150883

RESUMO

Germline mutations in CDKN2A have been reported in pancreatic cancer families, but genetic counseling for pancreatic cancer risk has been limited by lack of information on CDKN2A mutation carriers outside of selected pancreatic or melanoma kindreds. Lymphocyte DNA from consecutive, unselected white non-Hispanic patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma was used to sequence CDKN2A. Frequencies of mutations that alter the coding of p16INK4 or p14ARF were quantified overall and in subgroups. Penetrance and likelihood of carrying mutations by family history were estimated. Among 1537 cases, 9 (0.6%) carried germline mutations in CDKN2A, including three previously unreported mutations. CDKN2A mutation carriers were more likely to have a family history of pancreatic cancer (P=0.003) or melanoma (P=0.03), and a personal history of melanoma (P=0.01). Among cases who reported having a first-degree relative with pancreatic cancer or melanoma, the carrier proportions were 3.3 and 5.3%, respectively. Penetrance for mutation carriers by age 80 was calculated to be 58% for pancreatic cancer (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-86%), and 39% for melanoma (95% CI 0-80). Among cases who ever smoked cigarettes, the risk for pancreatic cancer was higher for carriers compared with non-carriers (HR 25.8, P=2.1 × 10⁻¹³), but among nonsmokers, this comparison did not reach statistical significance. Germline mutations in CDKN2A among unselected pancreatic cancer patients are uncommon, although notably penetrant, especially among smokers. Carriers of germline mutations of CDKN2A should be counseled to avoid tobacco use to decrease risk of pancreatic cancer in addition to taking measures to decrease melanoma risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Penetrância , Prevalência , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fumar/genética
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