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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202121010101, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known to be substantially heritable; however, the contribution of genetic variation across the allele frequency spectrum to this heritability remains uncertain. The authors used two new homogeneous cohorts to estimate the heritability of OCD from inherited genetic variation and contrasted the results with those of previous studies. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,090 Swedish-born individuals diagnosed with OCD and 4,567 control subjects, all genotyped for common genetic variants, specifically >400,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.01. Using genotypes of these SNPs to estimate distant familial relationships among individuals, the authors estimated the heritability of OCD, both overall and partitioned according to MAF bins. RESULTS: Narrow-sense heritability of OCD was estimated at 29% (SE=4%). The estimate was robust, varying only modestly under different models. Contrary to an earlier study, however, SNPs with MAF between 0.01 and 0.05 accounted for 10% of heritability, and estimated heritability per MAF bin roughly followed expectations based on a simple model for SNP-based heritability. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that common inherited risk variation (MAF ≥0.01) accounts for most of the heritable variation in OCD. SNPs with low MAF contribute meaningfully to the heritability of OCD, and the results are consistent with expectation under the "infinitesimal model" (also referred to as the "polygenic model"), where risk is influenced by a large number of loci across the genome and across MAF bins.

2.
Neuropsychology ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dispersion in cognitive test performance within a single testing session is proposed as an early marker of poor brain health. Existing research, however, has not investigated factors that may explain individual differences in cognitive dispersion. We investigate the extent to which the Big Five personality traits are associated with cognitive dispersion in older adulthood. METHOD: To promote transparency and reliability, we applied preregistration and conceptual replication via coordinated analysis. Drawing data from seven longitudinal studies of aging (Ntotal = 33,581; Mage range = 56.4-71.2), cognitive dispersion scores were derived from cognitive test results. Independent linear regression models were fit in each study to examine personality traits as predictors of dispersion scores, adjusting for mean cognitive performance and sociodemographics (age, sex, education). Results from individual studies were synthesized using random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Synthesized results revealed that openness was positively associated with cognitive dispersion, 0.028, 95% CI [0.003, 0.054]. There was minimal evidence for associations between cognitive dispersion and the other personality traits in independent analyses or meta-analyses. Mean cognitive scores were negatively associated with cognitive dispersion across the majority of studies, while sociodemographic variables were not consistently associated with cognitive dispersion. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of openness were associated with greater cognitive dispersion across seven independent samples, indicating that individuals higher in openness had more dispersion across cognitive tests. Further research is needed to investigate mechanisms that may help to explain the link between openness and cognitive dispersion, as well as to identify additional individual factors, beyond personality traits, that may be associated with cognitive dispersion. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 248, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, it is not known whether familial factors, such as genetics and shared environmental factors, underlie this association. We analyzed the association between frailty and the risk of dementia in a large twin cohort and examined the role of familial factors in the association. METHODS: The Rockwood frailty index (FI) based on 44 health deficits was used to assess frailty. The population-level association between FI and the risk of all-cause dementia was analyzed in 41,550 participants of the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) study (full sample, aged 41-97 years at baseline), using Cox and competing risk models. A subsample of 10,487 SALT participants aged 65 and older who received a cognitive assessment (cognitive sample) was used in a sensitivity analysis to assess the effect of baseline cognitive level on the FI-dementia association. To analyze the influence of familial effects on the FI-dementia association, a within-pair analysis was performed. The within-pair model was also used to assess whether the risk conferred by frailty varies by age at FI assessment. RESULTS: A total of 3183 individuals were diagnosed with dementia during the 19-year follow-up. A 10% increase in FI was associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07, 1.18)) in the full sample adjusted for age, sex, education, and tobacco use. A significant association was likewise found in the cognitive sample, with an HR of 1.13 (95% CI 1.09, 1.20), adjusted for age, sex, and cognitive level at baseline. The associations were not attenuated when adjusted for APOE ɛ4 carrier status or considering the competing risk of death. After adjusting for familial effects, we found no evidence for statistically significant attenuation of the effect. The risk conferred by higher FI on dementia was constant after age 50 until very old age. CONCLUSIONS: A higher level of frailty predicts the risk of dementia and the association appears independent of familial factors. Targeting frailty might thus contribute to preventing or delaying dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Fragilidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/genética , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/genética , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined the extent to which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder, is linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and any dementia, neurodegenerative diseases, across generations. METHODS: A nationwide cohort born between 1980 and 2001 (index persons) were linked to their biological relatives (parents, grandparents, uncles/aunts) using Swedish national registers. We used Cox models to examine the cross-generation associations. RESULTS: Among relatives of 2,132,929 index persons, 3042 parents, 171,732 grandparents, and 1369 uncles/aunts had a diagnosis of AD. Parents of individuals with ADHD had an increased risk of AD (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89). The associations attenuated but remained elevated in grandparents and uncles/aunts. The association for early-onset AD was stronger than late-onset AD. Similar results were observed for any dementia. DISCUSSION: ADHD is associated with AD and any dementia across generations. The associations attenuated with decreasing genetic relatedness, suggesting shared familial risk between ADHD and AD.

7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença das Coronárias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
8.
Horm Behav ; 136: 105054, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488063

RESUMO

Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (ß = -0.05 educational years, 95% CI -0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (ß = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers.

9.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1276-1282, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493870

RESUMO

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is a prevalent age-related polygenic disease that accounts for 50-70% of dementia cases. Currently, only a fraction of the genetic variants underlying Alzheimer's disease have been identified. Here we show that increased sample sizes allowed identification of seven previously unidentified genetic loci contributing to Alzheimer's disease. This study highlights microglia, immune cells and protein catabolism as relevant to late-onset Alzheimer's disease, while identifying and prioritizing previously unidentified genes of potential interest. We anticipate that these results can be included in larger meta-analyses of Alzheimer's disease to identify further genetic variants that contribute to Alzheimer's pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Microglia/citologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Tamanho da Amostra
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256476, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how self-reported leisure-time physical activity (PA) changes during the adult life span, and to study how PA is related to cardiovascular risk factors using longitudinal studies. METHODS: Several Swedish population-based longitudinal studies were used in the present study (PIVUS, ULSAM, SHE, and SHM, ranging from hundreds to 30,000 participants) to represent information across the adult life span in both sexes. Also, two cross-sectional studies were used as comparison (EpiHealth, LifeGene). PA was assessed by questionnaires on a four or five-level scale. RESULTS: Taking results from several samples into account, an increase in PA from middle-age up to 70 years was found in males, but not in females. Following age 70, a decline in PA was seen. Young adults reported both a higher proportion of sedentary behavior and a higher proportion high PA than the elderly. Females generally reported a lower PA at all ages. PA was mainly associated with serum triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, but also weaker relationships with fasting glucose, blood pressure and BMI were found. These relationships were generally less strong in elderly subjects. CONCLUSION: Using data from multiple longitudinal samples the development of PA over the adult life span could be described in detail and the relationships between PA and cardiovascular risk factors were portrayed. In general, a higher or increased physical activity over time was associated with a more beneficial cardiovascular risk factor profile, especially lipid levels.

11.
Aging Cell ; 20(9): e13459, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431594

RESUMO

Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome and strongly associated with disability, mortality and hospitalization. Frailty is commonly measured using the frailty index (FI), based on the accumulation of a number of health deficits during the life course. The mechanisms underlying FI are multifactorial and not well understood, but a genetic basis has been suggested with heritability estimates between 30 and 45%. Understanding the genetic determinants and biological mechanisms underpinning FI may help to delay or even prevent frailty. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of a frailty index in European descent UK Biobank participants (n = 164,610, 60-70 years) and Swedish TwinGene participants (n = 10,616, 41-87 years). FI calculation was based on 49 or 44 self-reported items on symptoms, disabilities and diagnosed diseases for UK Biobank and TwinGene, respectively. 14 loci were associated with the FI (p < 5*10-8 ). Many FI-associated loci have established associations with traits such as body mass index, cardiovascular disease, smoking, HLA proteins, depression and neuroticism; however, one appears to be novel. The estimated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability of the FI was 11% (0.11, SE 0.005). In enrichment analysis, genes expressed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly downregulated (adjusted p < 0.05). We also used Mendelian randomization to identify modifiable traits and exposures that may affect frailty risk, with a higher educational attainment genetic risk score being associated with a lower degree of frailty. Risk of frailty is influenced by many genetic factors, including well-known disease risk factors and mental health, with particular emphasis on pathways in the brain.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 16990-17023, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230219

RESUMO

Frailty is influenced by numerous genetic and environmental factors. However, sex differences in how these factors affect frailty, and the gene-environment interplay among frailty and two of its well-established risk factors, unhealthy body mass index (BMI) and low education, are less clear. In a large sample of 42,994 Swedish twins, we used structural equation models to estimate the genetic (heritability) and environmental sources of variance in frailty, defined as the frailty index (FI), separately in men and women. Genetic and individual-specific environmental factors contributed approximately equally to the FI variance. The heritability of FI was slightly, but significantly, higher in women (52%) than in men (45%), yet we found only weak-to-no indication of different sources of genetic variance influencing frailty across sexes. We observed a small-to-moderate genetic overlap between FI and BMI, and that the correlation between FI and education was largely explained by environmental factors common to twins in a pair. Additionally, genetic factors accounted for more of FI variation at both low and high BMI levels, with similar patterns in both sexes. In conclusion, the twin-based heritability of frailty is higher in women than in men, and different mechanisms may underlie the associations of frailty with BMI and education.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Gêmeos
13.
J Res Pers ; 922021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083845

RESUMO

There are individual differences in the rates of cognitive decline across later adulthood. Personality traits are among the factors that may account for these differences. The current project investigated whether personality traits were associated with trajectories of cognitive decline, and whether the associations were different before and after dementia diagnosis. The data was analyzed using linear mixed effects regression. Across study aims is a focus on replicability and generalizability. Each question was addressed in four independent longitudinal studies (EAS, MAP, ROS, SATSA), then meta-analyzed, providing estimates of replicability. Results indicated that low neuroticism and high openness were associated with total cognitive function. We detected evidence for cognitive decline in all four samples, and openness was associated with decline post dementia diagnosis.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3417, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099642

RESUMO

Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer's disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study results (discovery n = 409,435 and validation size n = 58,190). Here, we add six variants associated with Alzheimer's disease risk (near APP, CHRNE, PRKD3/NDUFAF7, PLCG2 and two exonic variants in the SHARPIN gene). Assessment of the polygenic risk score and stratifying by APOE reveal a 4 to 5.5 years difference in median age at onset of Alzheimer's disease patients in APOE ɛ4 carriers. Because of this study, the underlying mechanisms of APP can be studied to refine the amyloid cascade and the polygenic risk score provides a tool to select individuals at high risk of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 2174-2182, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: frailty shows an upward trajectory with age, and higher levels increase the risk of mortality. However, it is less known whether the shape of frailty trajectories differs by age at death or whether the rate of change in frailty is associated with mortality. OBJECTIVES: to assess population frailty trajectories by age at death and to analyse whether the current level of the frailty index (FI) i.e. the most recent measurement or the person-specific rate of change is more predictive of mortality. METHODS: 3,689 individuals from three population-based cohorts with up to 15 repeated measurements of the Rockwood frailty index were analysed. The FI trajectories were assessed by stratifying the sample into four age-at-death groups: <70, 70-80, 80-90 and >90 years. Generalised survival models were used in the survival analysis. RESULTS: the FI trajectories by age at death showed that those who died at <70 years had a steadily increasing trajectory throughout the 40 years before death, whereas those who died at the oldest ages only accrued deficits from age ~75 onwards. Higher level of FI was independently associated with increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.47-1.91), whereas the rate of change was no longer significant after accounting for the current FI level. The effect of the FI level did not weaken with time elapsed since the last measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty trajectories differ as a function of age-at-death category. The current level of FI is a stronger marker for risk stratification than the rate of change.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
16.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(3): 1325-1334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship among neuroticism, smoking, and Parkinson's disease (PD) is less examined. OBJECTIVE: To examine the causal associations between neuroticism, smoking initiation, and the risk of PD. METHODS: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) design in a network framework. Summary statistics from meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were based on large cohorts of European ancestry. Study participants were from various cohort studies for neuroticism and smoking initiation, and case-control studies or cohort studies of PD from previously published GWAS meta-analyses. Patients with PD were ascertained from either clinical visit or self-reported. RESULTS: The two-sample MR analysis showed no evidence for a causal association between neuroticism and PD risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95%confidence intervals [CIs] 0.67 to 1.12). While we did not find a significant association between neuroticism and PD, one SNP, rs58879558 (located in MAPT region), was associated with both neuroticism and PD. We found a significant association of neuroticism on smoking initiation (OR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.05 to 1.14). Further, our results provided evidence for a protective effect of smoking initiation on the risk of PD (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.62 to 0.91). CONCLUSION: These findings do not support a causal association of neuroticism on PD risk. However, they provide evidence for a causal relationship between neuroticism and smoking initiation and a strong causal effect of smoking initiation on a reduced risk of PD.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 85, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms are important in aging and may be involved in late-life changes in cognitive abilities. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study of leukocyte DNA methylation in relation to level and change in cognitive abilities, from midlife through late life in 535 Swedish twins. RESULTS: Methylation levels were measured with the Infinium Human Methylation 450 K or Infinium MethylationEPIC array, and all sites passing quality control on both arrays were selected for analysis (n = 250,816). Empirical Bayes estimates of individual intercept (age 65), linear, and quadratic change were obtained from latent growth curve models of cognitive traits and used as outcomes in linear regression models. Significant sites (p < 2.4 × 10-7) were followed up in between-within twin pair models adjusting for familial confounding and full-growth modeling. We identified six significant associations between DNA methylation and level of cognitive abilities at age 65: cg18064256 (PPP1R13L) with processing speed and spatial ability; cg04549090 (NRXN3) with spatial ability; cg09988380 (POGZ), cg25651129 (-), and cg08011941 (ENTPD8) with working memory. The genes are involved in neuroinflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders, and ATP metabolism. Within-pair associations were approximately half that of between-pair associations across all sites. In full-growth curve models, associations between DNA methylation and cognitive level at age 65 were of small effect sizes, and associations between DNA methylation and longitudinal change in cognitive abilities of very small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte DNA methylation was associated with level, but not change in cognitive abilities. The associations were substantially attenuated in within-pair analyses, indicating they are influenced in part by genetic factors.

18.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(14): 1319-1327, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis and obesity are diseases with high prevalence, and they share common etiologies. We investigated the sex-specific genetic susceptibility to hip and knee osteoarthritis necessitating total joint replacement (TJR), and how body mass index (BMI) moderated the heritability of these osteoarthritis phenotypes. METHODS: We linked 29,893 twin pairs with information on BMI in the Swedish Twin Registry with the Swedish National Patient Register to identify twins who underwent primary TJR of the hip or knee combined with a concomitant diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis of these joints. Structural equation modeling was used to calculate the heritability of hip and knee osteoarthritis treated with TJR, with estimates adjusted for the first available BMI, birth year, and sex. We also investigated how heritability varied with BMI treated as a continuous variable. RESULTS: Similar heritability estimates for hip replacement (0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59 to 0.70]) and knee replacement (0.57 [95% CI, 0.50 to 0.64]) were found. Heritability decreased with higher BMI in both sexes for hip replacement and in men for knee replacement. In contrast, heritability for knee replacement increased with higher BMI in women; the estimate was 0.37 (90% likelihood interval [LI], 0.25 to 0.49) for a BMI of 20 kg/m2 and 0.87 (90% LI, 0.68 to 0.94) for a BMI of 35 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, heritability explained, on average, about half of the susceptibility to undergo primary TJR of the hip or knee with the indication of primary osteoarthritis, but it varied with BMI and sex. We demonstrated substantial heritability for knee replacement in obese women. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/cirurgia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Osteoartrite do Quadril/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia/epidemiologia , Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
EBioMedicine ; 66: 103318, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarker-disease relationships are extensively investigated. However, associations between common clinical biomarkers and healthspan, the disease-free lifespan, are largely unknown. We aimed to explore the predictive values of ten biomarkers on healthspan and lifespan, and to identify putative causal mechanisms. METHODS: Using data from 12,098 Swedish individuals aged 47-94 years, we examined both serum concentrations and genetically predicted levels of ten glycemic, lipid-, inflammatory, and hematological biomarkers. During a follow-up period of up to 16 years, 3681 incident cases of any chronic disease (i.e., end of healthspan) and 2674 deaths (i.e., end of lifespan) were documented. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the associations of a one standard deviation increase in biomarkers with healthspan and lifespan. FINDINGS: Seven out of ten serum biomarkers were significantly associated with risks of any chronic disease and death; elevated glycemic biomarkers and high-density lipoprotein-related biomarkers showed the strongest detrimental (hazard ratio [HR] 1·29 [95% CI 1·24-1·34]) and protective effects (HR 0·92 [95% CI 0·89-0·96]), respectively. Genetic predisposition to elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) was associated with increased risks of any chronic disease (HR 1·05 [95% CI 1·02-1·09]); genetically determined higher C-reactive protein correlated with lower death risks (HR 0·91 [95% CI 0·87-0·95]). Notably, the genetically proxied FBG-healthspan association was largely explained by serum FBG concentration. INTERPRETATION: Circulating concentrations of glycemic, lipid-, and inflammatory biomarkers are predictive of healthspan and lifespan. Glucose control is a putative causal mechanism and a potential intervention target for healthspan maintenance. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Swedish Research Council (2015-03,255, 2018-02,077), FORTE (2013-2292), the Loo & Hans Osterman Foundation, the Foundation for Geriatric Diseases, the Magnus Bergwall Foundation, the Strategic Research Program in Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet (SH, JJ), the China Scholarship Council, and the Swedish National Graduate School for Competitive Science on Ageing and Health. The Swedish Twin Registry is managed by Karolinska Institutet and receives funding as an infrastructure through the Swedish Research Council, 2017-00,641.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Nível de Saúde , Longevidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Mov Disord ; 36(8): 1919-1926, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal inflammation has been linked with Parkinson's disease (PD). Microscopic colitis (MC) is an intestinal inflammatory disease with unknown relationship with PD. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association of MC with PD risk. METHODS: In this nationwide matched cohort study in Sweden, PD incidence was compared between 12,609 patients with histologically confirmed MC and a matched population cohort of 58,879 MC-free individuals and a sibling cohort comprising all unaffected siblings of the MC patients (NMC /NSibling  = 6281/12,351). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of ~7 years, we identified 449 incident PD diagnoses among the MC patients and the population cohort. Overall, MC was associated with an adjusted HR of 1.76 for PD, but the association attenuated substantially during follow-up. In the time-varying effects model, PD hazard was 3.45-fold (95% CI: 2.42, 4.93) higher during the first 2 years after biopsy and 1.80-fold (95% CI: 1.23, 2.64) higher during the following 3 years among MC versus MC-free individuals but was not different beyond 5 years after biopsy (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.54). This temporal pattern of MC-PD associations persisted when comparing MC patients to their siblings. In a post hoc case-control analysis, we also detected a strong association between MC and preexisting PD (odds ratio: 3.46; 95% CI: 2.91, 4.12). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that MC may not be a risk factor for PD; instead, it may co-occur with PD as a comorbidity or develop after a diagnosis of PD. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Colite Microscópica , Doença de Parkinson , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
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