Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 726
Filtrar
2.
Science ; 366(6467): 878-881, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727836

RESUMO

Unlike in land plants, photosynthesis in many aquatic plants relies on bicarbonate in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) to compensate for the low diffusivity and potential depletion of CO2 in water. Concentrations of bicarbonate and CO2 vary greatly with catchment geology. In this study, we investigate whether there is a link between these concentrations and the frequency of freshwater plants possessing the bicarbonate use trait. We show, globally, that the frequency of plant species with this trait increases with bicarbonate concentration. Regionally, however, the frequency of bicarbonate use is reduced at sites where the CO2 concentration is substantially above the air equilibrium, consistent with this trait being an adaptation to carbon limitation. Future anthropogenic changes of bicarbonate and CO2 concentrations may alter the species compositions of freshwater plant communities.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Lagos , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Rios , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
3.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 311(10): 735-740, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435740

RESUMO

Primary hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by excessive sweating. The estimated prevalence is between 0.6 and 4.4%, and it can have economic, psychological, and social consequences for affected individuals. Family and genetic studies have suggested a genetic component in the inheritance of the disease. In this review, we summarize the current literature on genetic disposition to primary hyperhidrosis. We Identified 20 studies on Pubmed and Embase in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Probands reported a positive family history in 5.7-65% of cases, and the inheritance appeared to be either autosomal dominant or recessive. Individuals with palmoplantar phenotypes and a positive family history had a younger age of onset. Genetic linkage and genome-wide association studies have identified loci on chromosome 2, 14, and 16. However, the evidence is heterogeneous and limited. It seems that primary hyperhidrosis is polygenically inherited, and considering the impairment, further data to understand the genetic etiology of the disease are needed.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hiperidrose/genética , Idade de Início , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperidrose/epidemiologia , Anamnese , Prevalência
4.
Osteoporos Int ; 30(9): 1767-1778, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278472

RESUMO

Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality and it is important to identify risk factors. This study demonstrates that preexisting cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular biomarkers that are associated with increased 30-day mortality. These findings can be used to identify high-risk patients who might benefit from specialized care. INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD), cardiovascular biomarkers, and 30-day mortality following a hip fracture. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was used to investigate the association between CVD and mortality following hip fracture in a nationwide population-based cohort study. In a subset of the included patients (n = 355), blood samples were available from a local biobank. These samples were used for analyzing the association between specific biochemical markers and mortality. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 113,211 patients were included in the population-based cohort study. Among these, heart failure was present in 9.4%, ischemic heart disease in 15.9%, and ischemic stroke in 12.0%. Within 30 days after the hip fracture, 11,488 patients died, resulting in an overall 30-day mortality of 10.1%. The 30-day mortality was significantly increased in individuals with preexisting CVD with multivariably adjusted odds ratios of 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.60-1.78) for heart failure, 1.23 (1.17-1.29) for ischemic heart disease, and 1.06 (1.00-1.12) for ischemic stroke. In the local database including 355 patients, 41 (11.5%) died within 30 days. The multivariably adjusted odds ratio for 30-day mortality increased with increasing NT-proBNP (2.36 [1.53-3.64] per quartile) and decreased with increasing HDL cholesterol (0.58 [0.41-0.82] per quartile). On this basis, we established a model for predicting the probability of death based on the biochemical markers. CONCLUSION: Preexisting CVD was associated with increased 30-day mortality after a hip fracture. Furthermore, high levels of NT-proBNP and low levels of HDL cholesterol were associated with increased 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Razão de Chances , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/complicações , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Troponina I/sangue
5.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 44(7): e224-e229, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of a positive family history of alopecia areata (AA) have led to the assumption of a genetic component. The Faroe Islands population is small, has been isolated until the 20th century, and is served by only one dermatology clinic, making it highly suitable for genealogical studies. AIM: To determine the incidence of AA and to estimate the recurrence risk ratio (RRR) in five generations and in a nationwide dermatologist-based AA cohort using the Faroese genealogy database. METHODS: All registered cases of AA during the period 1973-2011 were identified from the Faroese national dermatology clinics. The AA cases were linked with the genealogy database covering the entire Faroese population, and the probability of AA among first-, second- and third-degree relatives was calculated. RESULTS: In total, 178 cases of AA were identified, giving a crude incidence of 10.1 per 100 000 person-years (10.9 for women and 9.4 for men). The cumulative incidence proportion over life was 0.8%. There was no apparent trend in the probabilities for AA in first-degree family members compared with second- and third-degree relatives. RRR was > 1 in second-degree family members only. CONCLUSION: A lower prevalence rate of AA was found than previously published. The genealogical study failed to identify any apparent trend in the RRR estimates, questioning the role of genetic factors in AA in the Faroe Islands. However, it is possible that the trend is masked by bias and low power; larger studies are therefore warranted to estimate the heritability of AA.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas/epidemiologia , Alopecia em Áreas/genética , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 139(2): 174-184, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Affective disorders seem associated with aberrant intestinal microbiota but whether this pattern also occurs in individuals at increased heritable risk is unknown. We investigated associations between gut microbiota profiles and affective disorders by comparing monozygotic (MZ) twins concordant (affected twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in remission) and discordant to affective disorders (high-risk) with MZ twins without affective disorders (low-risk). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 128 MZ twins and the microbiome was profiled using 16S rDNA sequencing of the V3-V4 region. RESULTS: Affected twins had a lower diversity and an absence of a specific operational taxonomical unit (OTU) in comparison with low-risk twins. The high-risk twins exhibited the same pattern although the lower diversity was only at a trend level. The OTU belonged to the family Christensenellaceae. The findings were not explained by lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, or psychotropic medication). CONCLUSION: Affected twins in remission and high-risk twins presented aberrant gut microbiota with depletion of a specific OTU. If replicated, this reduced relative sequence absence may together with the globally altered microbiota composition act as a vulnerability marker by accentuating the effect of gene-environment interactions in individuals genetically disposed for an affective disorder.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Classificação/métodos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Indução de Remissão , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
7.
Transfus Med ; 29 Suppl 1: 65-69, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024104

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed at quantifying the healthy donor effect by comparing self-perceived mental and physical health between blood donors and non-donors. BACKGROUND: In theory, the selection process known as the healthy donor effect should result in better self-perceived, health-related quality of life in donors than in non-donors. METHODS: The Short Form-12 data from the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) was compared with the data from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS). Data on age, sex and smoking status were included in the analyses. The multivariable linear regression analysis was stratified by sex and age group intervals. Outcome variables were the mental component score (MCS) and the physical component score (PCS). RESULTS: A total of 28 982 and 36 913 participants from the DTR and the DBDS, respectively, were included in this study. Younger donors had higher MCS than non-donors, whereas MCS was only marginally high in older donors compared with non-donors. In contrast, PCS was almost similar for both young donors and non-donors. With the increase in age, non-donors had lower PCS than donors. CONCLUSIONS: Two selection patterns were revealed. Among young individuals, better self-perceived mental health was associated with a blood donor. With the increase in age, better self-perceived physical health was associated with blood donation.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Transfus Med ; 29 Suppl 1: 23-27, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024114

RESUMO

Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Caracteres Sexuais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Br J Dermatol ; 180(4): 774-781, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by recurrent inflamed nodules. No pathognomonic test is available for HS; hence the diagnosis is based on three clinical criteria. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cross-sectional prevalence and characterize patients with HS in the Danish Blood Donor Study cohort. METHODS: A questionnaire previously developed containing HS screening questions, the Major Depression Inventory, the Short Form-12, as well as questions about height, weight and drinking habits was answered by 27 765 blood donors. RESULTS: The prevalence of HS was 1·8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·6-2·0%] in the cohort of Danish blood donors. Donors with HS were on average 4·7 years younger (P < 0·001), had 1·3 kg m-2 higher mean body mass index (BMI) (P < 0·001) and were significantly more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR) 1·44, 17·9% vs. 13·1%, P = 0·002] compared with donors without HS. Furthermore, significantly more donors with HS were classified as having moderate depression (3·2% vs. 0·7%, P < 0·001). Also, significantly more patients with HS were apprenticeship educated, received educational support and sickness or cash benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HS in the cohort of blood donors was estimated to 1·8% (95% CI 1·6-2·0%). Donors with HS reported characteristics similar to those reported for hospital-based patients with HS such as higher BMI, smoking rates and lower socioeconomic status than donors without HS.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidradenite Supurativa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 28(4): 402-410, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alterations to one-carbon metabolism, especially elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), have been suggested to be both a cause and a consequence of the metabolic syndrome (MS). A deeper understanding of the role of other one-carbon metabolites in MS, including s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the methylation capacity index (SAM:SAH ratio) is required. METHODS AND RESULTS: 118 men and women with MS-risk factors were included in this cross-sectional study and cardiometabolic outcomes along with markers of one-carbon metabolism, including fasting plasma SAM, SAH, Hcy and vitamin B12 concentrations, were analysed. Multiple linear regression models were also used to examine the association between plasma one-carbon metabolites and cardiometabolic health features. We found that fasting plasma concentrations of Hcy, SAM and SAH were all positively correlated with markers of adiposity, including BMI (increase in BMI per 1-SD increase in one-carbon metabolite: 0.92 kg/m2 95% CI (0.28; 1.56), p = 0.005; 0.81 (0.15; 1.47), p = 0.02; 0.67 (-0.01; 1.36), p = 0.05, respectively). Hcy, but not SAM, SAH or SAM:SAH ratio was associated with BMI and body fat percentage after mutual adjustments. SAM concentrations were associated with higher fasting insulin (9.5% 95% CI (0.3; 19.5) per SD increase in SAM, p = 0.04), HOMA-IR (10.8% (0.8; 21.9), p = 0.03) and TNF-α (11.8% (5.0; 19.0), p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found little evidence for associations between SAM:SAH ratio and cardiometabolic variables, but higher plasma concentrations of SAM, SAH and Hcy are related to an overall higher risk of metabolic dysfunctions. The studies were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01719913 &NCT01731366).


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/sangue , S-Adenosilmetionina/sangue , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Allergy ; 73(1): 153-164, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with asthma. However, observational data are prone to confounding and reverse causation. In Mendelian randomization, genetic variants are used as unconfounded markers of exposures to examine causal effects. We examined the causal effect of BMI on asthma, hay fever, allergic sensitization, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). METHODS: We included 490 497 participants in the observational and 162 124 participants in the genetic analyses. A genetic risk score (GRS) was created using 26 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results were pooled in meta-analyses and expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or ß-estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The GRS was significantly associated with asthma (OR=1.009; 95% CI: 1.004, 1.013), but not with hay fever (OR= 0.998; 95% CI: 0.994, 1.002) or allergic sensitization (OR=0.999; 95% CI: 0.986, 1.012) per BMI-increasing allele. The GRS was significantly associated with decrease in FEV1: ß=-0.0012 (95% CI: -0.0019, -0.0006) and FVC: ß=-0.0022 (95% CI: -0.0031, -0.0014) per BMI-increasing allele. Effect sizes estimated by instrumental variable analyses were OR=1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.10) for asthma, a 9 ml decrease in FEV1 (95% CI: 2.0-15 mL decrease) and a 16 ml decrease in FVC (95% CI: 7.0-24 mL decrease) per 1 kg/m2 higher BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the conclusion that increasing BMI is causally related to higher prevalence of asthma and decreased lung function, but not with hay fever or biomarkers of allergy.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Testes de Função Respiratória , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Alelos , Asma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia
12.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 61(8): 952-961, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with cardiovascular disease, guidelines for administration of red blood cells (RBC) are mainly based on studies outside the vascular surgical setting with the recommendation to use a haemoglobin (hb) trigger-level lower than by guidelines from The European Society for Vascular Surgery. Restricting RBC transfusion may affect blood O2 transport with a risk for development of tissue ischaemia and postoperative complications. METHODS: In a single-centre, open-label, assessor blinded trial, 58 vascular surgical patients (> 40 years of age) awaiting open surgery of the infrarenal aorta or infrainguinal arterial bypass surgery undergo a web-based randomisation to one of two groups: perioperative RBC transfusion triggered by hb < 8 g/dl or hb < 9.7 g/dl. Administration of fluid follows an individualised strategy by optimising cardiac stroke volume and near-infrared spectroscopy determines tissue oxygenation. Serious adverse event rates are: myocardial injury (troponin-I ≥ 45 ng/l or ischaemic electrocardiographic findings at day 30), acute kidney injury, death, stroke and severe transfusion reactions. A follow-up visit takes place 30 days after surgery and a follow-up of serious adverse events in the Danish National Patient Register within 90 days is pending. DISCUSSION: This trial is expected to determine whether a RBC transfusion triggered by hb < 9.7 g/dl compared with hb < 8 g/dl results in adequate separation of postoperative hb levels, transfusion of more RBC units and maintains a higher tissue oxygenation. The results will inform the design of a multicentre trial for evaluation of important postoperative outcomes.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Idoso , Anestesia , Protocolos Clínicos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/normas , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas
13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 71(9): 1054-1060, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Observational studies have suggested low serum levels of vitamin B12 or folate to be risk factors of depression and anxiety. However, these results may be biased by confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization studies are not subject to these limitations. The aim was to examine the association of genetic scores of vitamin B12 and folate-associated alleles with depression and anxiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 4126 participants from two Danish population-based studies. Serum vitamin B12 and folate were measured. Weighed allele scores were calculated as the sum of weights (genetic effect sizes) for 12 and two variants increasing circulating levels of vitamin B12 and folate, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by the Symptom Check List (SCL)-90-R, and self-reported doctor-diagnosed depression and anxiety. RESULTS: An increased weighed allele score for serum vitamin B12 was associated with decreased odds of a SCL-90-R score above the 90th percentile (OR 0.540 (95%CI 0.302-0.967)) in Health2006 but not in Inter99, in the pooled analysis (OR 0.817 (95%CI 0.331-2.018)) or with other outcomes. The weighed allele score for serum folate was not associated with any of the measured outcome variables: SCL-90-R scores of depression (pooled OR 0.603 (95%CI 0.101-3.602)), anxiety (pooled OR 0.619 (95%CI 0.110-3.495)), combined score or history of doctor-diagnosed depression or anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our results do not provide evidence for a causal effect of circulating folate or vitamin B12 on the risk of depression or anxiety. However, we cannot rule out small to moderate effects, and thus large scale studies are needed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Ácido Fólico/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vitamina B 12/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Transtorno Depressivo/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 135: 101-4, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) is a prospective, population-based study and biobank. Since 2010, 100,000 Danish blood donors have been included in the study. Prior to July 2015 all participating donors had to complete a paper-based questionnaire. Here we describe the establishment of a digital tablet-based questionnaire platform implemented in blood bank sites across Denmark. METHODS: The digital questionnaire was developed using the open source survey software tool LimeSurvey. The participants accesses the questionnaire online with a standard SSL encrypted HTTP connection using their personal civil registration numbers. The questionnaire is placed at a front-end web server and a collection server retrieves the completed questionnaires. Data from blood samples, register data, genetic data and verification of signed informed consent are then transferred to and merged with the questionnaire data in the DBDS database. RESULTS: The digital platform enables personalized questionnaires, presenting only questions relevant to the specific donor by hiding unneeded follow-up questions on screening question results. New versions of questionnaires are immediately available at all blood collection facilities when new projects are initiated. CONCLUSION: The digital platform is a faster, cost-effective and more flexible solution to collect valid data from participating donors compared to paper-based questionnaires. The overall system can be used around the world by the use of Internet connection, but the level of security depends on the sensitivity of the data to be collected.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Vox Sang ; 111(2): 144-50, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation can lead to anaemia of chronic disease due to the sequestration of iron caused by inflammatory cytokines and the protein hepcidin. However, the effect of low-grade inflammation (LGI) on haemoglobin among healthy individuals is not known. This study examines the effect of LGI on haemoglobin among Danish blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed multivariable linear regression to assess the effect of LGI (i.e. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein above 3 mg/l but below 10 mg/l) on haemoglobin in 17 322 Danish blood donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effect of LGI on the risk of having low haemoglobin (below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively). We adjusted for donation activity, age, sex, low ferritin, oral contraceptives and menopause. All analyses were stratified by current smoking status. RESULTS: LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): -0·11-0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05-1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95% CI: 0·06-0·18). CONCLUSION: In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin through CO exposure.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/análise , Inflamação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doadores de Sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatr Obes ; 11(6): 506-512, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. The children were evaluated at baseline and after up to 5.9 years of treatment (median 1.3 years). RESULTS: Both boys and girls decreased their BMI SDS during treatment with a mean decrease in boys of 0.35 (p < 0.0001) and in girls of 0.22 (p < 0.0001) after 1 year of treatment. There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program was not associated with the degree of obesity at baseline or the degree of weight loss during treatment.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Lanches
17.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 70(5): 613-9, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine the association of genetic risk scores (GRSs) of vitamin B12 and folate-associated variants with blood pressure and lipids. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 12 532 adults from three population-based studies (Inter99, Health2006 and Dan-MONICA10) conducted in Denmark. GRSs were calculated by summarising the number of vitamin B12 and folate increasing alleles. Weighted GRSs were calculated as the sum of weights for each allele corresponding to genetic effects sizes. RESULTS: GRSs for serum vitamin B12 and folate were associated with serum vitamin B12 and folate, respectively. The ß coefficients (95% confidence interval (CI), P-value) for regression of log-transformed serum B12/folate on the weighted GRSs were 0.57 (0.54, 0.61), P<0.001 and 0.85 (0.70, 1.01), P<0.01. No associations were observed between the vitamin B12 GRSs and any of the blood pressure and lipid-related outcomes in the combined analyses. Increasing number of folate increasing alleles was associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations (ß coefficient (95% CI, P-value) for regression of log-transformed HDL on the weighted GRSs, 0.081 (0.015, 0.148), P=0.017), but not with blood pressure, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: GRSs were not associated with blood pressure and lipid levels, except for an association between the GRS for folate and HDL cholesterol. Further studies are needed to determine whether a causal association between folate and HDL cholesterol exists.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Jejum/sangue , Ácido Fólico/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Vitamina B 12/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dinamarca , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Obes Sci Pract ; 2(4): 376-384, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28090342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complication to overweight and obesity, which can be observed already in childhood. Ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle and liver has been shown to associate with the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, the interaction between MetS and ectopic fat may offer clinical relevance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of MetS, or components hereof, and ectopic fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue in children, as well as interactions between these. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-sixteen children and adolescents (95 boys) with overweight/obesity were investigated, as well as 47 controls (22 boys) with normal weight. The assessments included anthropometry, fasting blood biochemistry and blood pressure measurements. Liver and muscle lipid contents were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS: We observed an odds ratio in girls with overweight/obesity of 12.2 (95% confidence interval: [3.8; 49.0]) for exhibiting MetS when hepatic steatosis was present, whereas no association was observed in boys with overweight/obesity (odds ratio 0.7 [0.2; 2.7]). The odds ratio of exhibiting MetS in the presence of muscular steatosis was 3.5 [1.4; 9.5] in girls with overweight/obesity and 1.0 [0.2; 5.6] in boys with overweight/obesity. Similar results were seen for girls with overweight/obesity exhibiting concurrent hepatic and muscular steatoses. CONCLUSION: Hepatic and muscular steatoses were associated with MetS among girls, but not among boys with overweight/obesity.

19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 39(10): 1450-5, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26178293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antibacterials may permanently dysregulate fetal metabolic patterns via epigenetic pathways or by altering maternal microbiota. We examined the association of prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials with overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a prevalence study among Danish schoolchildren aged 7-16 years using data from routine school anthropometric evaluations conducted during 2002-2013. Prenatal exposure to antibacterials was ascertained by using maternal prescription dispensations and infection-related hospital admissions during pregnancy. We defined overweight and obesity among the children using standard age- and sex-specific cutoffs. We computed sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of overweight and obesity associated with exposure to prenatal antibacterials, adjusting for maternal age at delivery, marital status, smoking in pregnancy and multiple gestation; we also stratified the analyses by birth weight. RESULTS: Among 9886 schoolchildren, 3280 (33%) had prenatal exposure to antibacterials. aPRs associated with the exposure were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.45) for overweight and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.03-1.62) for obesity. Among girls, aPRs were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.95-1.42) for overweight and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.82) for obesity. Among boys, aPRs were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.13-1.66) for overweight and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.96-1.73) for obesity. The aPR for overweight was higher among schoolchildren with birth weight <3500 g (aPR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05-1.61) than in schoolchildren with birth weight ⩾3500 g (aPR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.95-1.46). Inversely, the association for obesity was higher among schoolchildren with birth weight ⩾3500 g (aPR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00-1.81) than among those who were <3500 g at birth (aPR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.82-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials is associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity at school age, and this association varies by birth weight.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nutr Diabetes ; 5: e159, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26075636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify gut metagenomic markers associated with estimates of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, and to explore whether the associations between metagenomic and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for body fat, age and habitual dietary intake. METHODS: Faecal DNA from 53 women with obesity was analysed through quantitative metagenomic sequencing and analysis, and a systematic search was performed for bacterial genes associated with estimates of insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Subsequently, the correlations between metagenomic species and metabolic markers were tested by linear regression models, with and without covariate adjustment. RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen metagenomic species correlated with metabolic markers (P<0.001) including Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but also species not previously associated with metabolic markers including Bacteroides faecis and Dorea longicatena. The majority of the identified correlations between bacterial species and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for differences in body fat, age and dietary macronutrient composition; however, the negative correlation with insulin resistance observed for B. longum and F. prausnitzii appeared to be modified by the intake of dietary fibre and fat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that several gut bacterial species are linked to metabolic risk markers in obesity, also after adjustment for potential confounders, such as long-term diet composition. The study supports the use of gut metagenomic markers for metabolic disease prediction and warrants further investigation of causality.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA