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1.
Ocul Surf ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An altered ocular surface microbiota may contribute to the pathophysiology of dry eye disease. The aim of the study was to explore potential differences in microbiota diversity and composition in aqueous tear-deficient dry eye (with and without ocular graft-versus-host disease) compared with controls. METHODS: Swab samples from the inferior fornix of the conjunctiva were obtained from patients with aqueous tear-deficient dry eye with and without ocular graft-versus-host disease (n = 18, n = 21, respectively) and controls (n = 28). Isolated bacterial DNA from swabs were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: Decreased microbiota diversity was observed in patients with aqueous tear-deficient dry eye (p ≤ 0.003) who also showed a difference in microbiota composition compared with controls (p = 0.001). Although several genera were less abundant in aqueous tear-deficient dry eye, a minimal core ocular surface microbiota comprising five genera was shared by >75% of the study participants: Enhydrobacter, Brevibacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Cutibacterium. Pseudomonas was identified as a bacterial biomarker for controls and Bacilli for patients with aqueous tear-deficient dry eye. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular surface microbiota in patients with aqueous tear-deficient dry eye was characterized by an aberrant microbiota composition in comparison to controls, with decreased diversity and reduced relative abundances of several genera. Additionally, a few genera were present in most of the study population, indicating that a minimal core ocular surface microbiota may exist.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) mutations in a cohort of children and adolescents with overweight or obesity and to determine whether treatment responses differed between carriers and noncarriers. METHODS: Using target region capture sequencing, an MC4R mutation screen was performed in 1261 Danish children and adolescents enrolled at a tertiary multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment center. Measurements of anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood biochemistry including lipid and hormone levels, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were performed at baseline and throughout treatment. RESULTS: Of 1209 children and adolescents that met all criteria to be included in the described analyses, 30 (2.5%) carried damaging or unresolved MC4R mutations. At baseline, mutation carriers exhibited higher concentrations of plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (p = 0.003), and lower concentrations of plasma thyroxine (p = 0.010) compared to noncarriers. After a median of 1 year of treatment (range 0.5-4.0 years), body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) was reduced in noncarriers but not in carriers, and this difference in treatment response was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Furthermore, HDL cholesterol was reduced in carriers, a response significantly different from that of noncarriers (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Among Danish children and adolescents with overweight or obesity entering a tertiary lifestyle intervention, 2.5% carried damaging or unresolved MC4R mutations. In contrast to noncarriers, carriers of damaging or unresolved MC4R mutations failed to reduce their BMI SDS during obesity treatment, indicating a need for personalized treatment based on the MC4R genotype.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933808

RESUMO

It is well-established in preclinical studies that various probiotics may improve behaviours related to psychiatric disease. We have previously shown that probiotics protected against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced depressive-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, whereas FSL rats on control (CON) diet were unaffected. Therefore, we hypothesised that a dysmetabolic component of depression may exist that involves the gut microbiota and that such component may be reflected in the plasma metabolome. The aims of the present study post hoc analyses were 1) to study the effect of probiotics on gut microbiota composition and its association with depressive-like behaviour in FSL rats, and 2) to identify plasma metabolites associated with gut microbiota and depressive-like behaviour. Forty-six FSL rats were fed CON or HFD and treated with multi-species probiotics (nine Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus species) for 12 weeks. Faecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA (VR4) gene amplicon sequencing (Illumina MiSeq), and an untargeted plasma metabolomics was performed. We found that probiotics increased the relative faecal abundance of the Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera in HFD-fed rats only. Also, a HFD-induced microbiota component associated with depressive-like behaviour was identified, and probiotics improved the component score. Finally, the plasma levels of 44 metabolites correlated with the depression-related microbiota component, and three such metabolites had good predictive ability for depressive-like behaviour. Potentially, our findings imply that a subtype of depression characterised by a diet-induced, pro-depressant gut microbiota may exist and that analysis of related plasma metabolites may reveal aberrant microbiota functioning related to depression.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947608

RESUMO

Elevated postprandial plasma glucose is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the inter-individual postprandial plasma glucose response varies partly depending on the intestinal microbiome composition and function. We analyzed data from Danish adults (n = 106), who were self-reported healthy and attended the baseline visit of two previously reported randomized controlled cross-over trials within the Gut, Grain and Greens project. Plasma glucose concentrations at five time points were measured before and during three hours after a standardized breakfast. Based on these data, we devised machine learning algorithms integrating bio-clinical, as well as shotgun-sequencing-derived taxa and functional potentials of the intestinal microbiome to predict individual postprandial glucose excursions. In this post hoc study, we found microbial and clinical features, which predicted up to 48% of the inter-individual variance of postprandial plasma glucose responses (Pearson correlation coefficient of measured vs. predicted values, R = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.84, p<0.001). The features were age, fasting serum triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, BMI, fasting total serum cholesterol, abundance of Bifidobacterium genus, richness of metagenomics species and abundance of a metagenomic species annotated to Clostridiales at order level. A model based only on microbial features predicted up to 14% of the variance in postprandial plasma glucose excursions (R = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.64, p = 0.04). Adding fasting glycaemic measures to the model including microbial and bio-clinical features increased the predictive power to R = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.89, p<0.001), explaining more than 60% of the inter-individual variance of postprandial plasma glucose concentrations. The outcome of the study points to a potential role of the taxa and functional potentials of the intestinal microbiome. If validated in larger studies our findings may be included in future algorithms attempting to develop personalized nutrition, especially for prediction of individual blood glucose excursions in dys-glycaemic individuals.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944759

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity is the slope of the plasma glucose-insulin secretion relationship and is a key predictor of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no large-scale studies looking at the genetic determinants of beta cell glucose sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To understand the genetic determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity using genome-wide meta-analysis and candidate gene studies. DESIGN: We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis for beta-cell glucose sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects from 6 independent cohorts (n=5,706). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was calculated from mixed-meal and oral glucose tolerance tests, and its associations between known glycaemia related SNPS and GWAS SNPs were estimated using linear regression models. RESULTS: Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was moderately heritable (h 2 ranged between 34 to 55%) using SNP and family-based analyses. GWAS meta-analysis identified multiple correlated SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene and GIPR-QPCTL gene loci that reached genome-wide significance, with SNP rs2238691 in GIPR-QPCTL (P-value=2.64x10 -9) and rs9368219 in the CDKAL1 (P-value=3.15x10 -9) showing the strongest association with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. These loci surpassed genome-wide significance when the GWAS meta-analysis was repeated after exclusion of the diabetic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, glycemia associated SNPs in or near the HHEX and IGF2B2 loci were also associated with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. CONCLUSION: We show that, variation at the GIPR-QPCTL and CDKAL1 loci are key determinants of pancreatic beta cell glucose sensitivity.

6.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887946

RESUMO

Observational findings achieved during the past two decades suggest that the intestinal microbiota may contribute to the metabolic health of the human host and, when aberrant, to the pathogenesis of various common metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic liver disease, cardio-metabolic diseases and malnutrition. However, to gain a mechanistic understanding of how the gut microbiota affects host metabolism, research is moving from descriptive microbiota census analyses to cause-and-effect studies. Joint analyses of high-throughput human multi-omics data, including metagenomics and metabolomics data, together with measures of host physiology and mechanistic experiments in humans, animals and cells hold potential as initial steps in the identification of potential molecular mechanisms behind reported associations. In this Review, we discuss the current knowledge on how gut microbiota and derived microbial compounds may link to metabolism of the healthy host or to the pathogenesis of common metabolic diseases. We highlight examples of microbiota-targeted interventions aiming to optimize metabolic health, and we provide perspectives for future basic and translational investigations within the nascent and promising research field.

7.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886190

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Abnormal gut microbiota and blood metabolome profiles have been reported both in children and adults with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes as well as in adults with type 1 diabetes and advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy. In this study we aimed to investigate the gut microbiota and a panel of targeted plasma metabolites in individuals with type 1 diabetes of long duration without and with different levels of albuminuria. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we included 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 50 healthy control individuals. Individuals with type 1 diabetes were categorised into three groups according to historically measured albuminuria: (1) normoalbuminuria (<3.39 mg/mmol); (2) microalbuminuria (3.39-33.79 mg/mmol); and (3) macroalbuminuria (≥33.90 mg/mmol). From faecal samples, the gut microbiota composition at genus level was characterised by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and in plasma a targeted profile of 31 metabolites was analysed with ultra HPLC coupled to MS/MS. RESULTS: Study participants were aged 60 ± 11 years (mean ± SD) and 42% were women. The individuals with type 1 diabetes had had diabetes for a mean of 42 ± 15 years and had an eGFR of 75 ± 25 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2. Measures of the gut microbial beta diversity differed significantly between healthy controls and individuals with type 1 diabetes, either with micro- or macroalbuminuria. Taxonomic analyses showed that 79 of 324 genera differed in relative abundance between individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls and ten genera differed significantly among the three albuminuria groups with type 1 diabetes. For the measured plasma metabolites, 11 of 31 metabolites differed significantly between individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. When individuals with type 1 diabetes were stratified by the level of albuminuria, individuals with macroalbuminuria had higher plasma concentrations of indoxyl sulphate and L-citrulline than those with normo- or microalbuminuria and higher plasma levels of homocitrulline and L-kynurenine compared with individuals with normoalbuminuria. Whereas plasma concentrations of tryptophan were lower in individuals with macroalbuminuria compared with those with normoalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We demonstrate that individuals with type 1 diabetes of long duration are characterised by aberrant profiles of gut microbiota and plasma metabolites. Moreover, individuals with type 1 diabetes with initial stages of diabetic nephropathy show different gut microbiota and plasma metabolite profiles depending on the level of albuminuria. Graphical abstract.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102932, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary advice remains the cornerstone of prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, understanding the efficacy of dietary interventions is confounded by the challenges inherent in assessing free living diet. Here we profiled dietary metabolites to investigate glycaemic deterioration and cardiometabolic risk in people at risk of or living with T2D. METHODS: We analysed data from plasma collected at baseline and 18-month follow-up in individuals from the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) cohort 1 n = 403 individuals with normal or impaired glucose regulation (prediabetic) and cohort 2 n = 458 individuals with new onset of T2D. A dietary metabolite profile model (Tpred) was constructed using multivariable regression of 113 plasma metabolites obtained from targeted metabolomics assays. The continuous Tpred score was used to explore the relationships between diet, glycaemic deterioration and cardio-metabolic risk via multiple linear regression models. FINDINGS: A higher Tpred score was associated with healthier diets high in wholegrain (ß=3.36 g, 95% CI 0.31, 6.40 and ß=2.82 g, 95% CI 0.06, 5.57) and lower energy intake (ß=-75.53 kcal, 95% CI -144.71, -2.35 and ß=-122.51 kcal, 95% CI -186.56, -38.46), and saturated fat (ß=-0.92 g, 95% CI -1.56, -0.28 and ß=-0.98 g, 95% CI -1.53, -0.42 g), respectively for cohort 1 and 2. In both cohorts a higher Tpred score was also associated with lower total body adiposity and favourable lipid profiles HDL-cholesterol (ß=0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.03, 0.1), (ß=0.08 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.04, 0.1), and triglycerides (ß=-0.1 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.2, -0.03), (ß=-0.2 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.3, -0.09), respectively for cohort 1 and 2. In cohort 2, the Tpred score was negatively associated with liver fat (ß=-0.74%, 95% CI -0.67, -0.81), and lower fasting concentrations of HbA1c (ß=-0.9 mmol/mol, 95% CI -1.5, -0.1), glucose (ß=-0.2 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.4, -0.05) and insulin (ß=-11.0 pmol/mol, 95% CI -19.5, -2.6). Longitudinal analysis showed at 18-month follow up a higher Tpred score was also associated lower total body adiposity in both cohorts and lower fasting glucose (ß=-0.2 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.3, -0.01) and insulin (ß=-9.2 pmol/mol, 95% CI -17.9, -0.4) concentrations in cohort 2. INTERPRETATION: Plasma dietary metabolite profiling provides objective measures of diet intake, showing a relationship to glycaemic deterioration and cardiometabolic health. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no. 115,317 (DIRECT), resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) and EFPIA companies.

9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(9): 1544-1553, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pediatric obesity associates with both low-grade inflammation and cardiometabolic risk on the population level. Yet on an individual patient level, overweight/obesity does not always equal increased cardiometabolic risk. In this study, we examine whether low-grade inflammation associates with cardiometabolic risk in Danish children, independent of degree of adiposity. We further assess the value of integrating multiple inflammation markers to identify children with very-high cardiometabolic risk profiles. METHOD AND RESULTS: We studied 2192 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years from an obesity clinic cohort and a population-based cohort, in a cross-sectional study design. Anthropometry, blood pressure, pubertal stage and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed, and biomarkers including fasting serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cells (WBC), resistin, lipid profile and glucose metabolism were measured. Adjusted correlation analysis and odds ratios were calculated. We found that, independent of degree of adiposity, having high-normal inflammation marker concentrations associated with increased cardiometabolic risk: for girls, hsCRP >0.57-9.98 mg/L (mid/upper tertile) associated with ~2-fold higher odds of dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis (vs. lower tertile). For both sexes, WBC >7.0-12.4 109/L (upper tertile) associated with 2.5-fold higher odds of insulin resistance. Lastly, children with multiple inflammation markers in the high-normal range exhibited the most severe cardiometabolic risk profile. CONCLUSION: Low-grade inflammation associates with cardiometabolic risk in children independent of degree of adiposity. The associations vary with sex and inflammation marker measured. Finally, integrating multiple low-grade inflammation markers identifies a very-high-risk subgroup of children with overweight/obesity and may have clinical value.

10.
PLoS Med ; 17(6): e1003149, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and causes serious health complications in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Early diagnosis of NAFLD is important, as this can help prevent irreversible damage to the liver and, ultimately, hepatocellular carcinomas. We sought to expand etiological understanding and develop a diagnostic tool for NAFLD using machine learning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilized the baseline data from IMI DIRECT, a multicenter prospective cohort study of 3,029 European-ancestry adults recently diagnosed with T2D (n = 795) or at high risk of developing the disease (n = 2,234). Multi-omics (genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) and clinical (liver enzymes and other serological biomarkers, anthropometry, measures of beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and lifestyle) data comprised the key input variables. The models were trained on MRI-image-derived liver fat content (<5% or ≥5%) available for 1,514 participants. We applied LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) to select features from the different layers of omics data and random forest analysis to develop the models. The prediction models included clinical and omics variables separately or in combination. A model including all omics and clinical variables yielded a cross-validated receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROCAUC) of 0.84 (95% CI 0.82, 0.86; p < 0.001), which compared with a ROCAUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.81, 0.83; p < 0.001) for a model including 9 clinically accessible variables. The IMI DIRECT prediction models outperformed existing noninvasive NAFLD prediction tools. One limitation is that these analyses were performed in adults of European ancestry residing in northern Europe, and it is unknown how well these findings will translate to people of other ancestries and exposed to environmental risk factors that differ from those of the present cohort. Another key limitation of this study is that the prediction was done on a binary outcome of liver fat quantity (<5% or ≥5%) rather than a continuous one. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed several models with different combinations of clinical and omics data and identified biological features that appear to be associated with liver fat accumulation. In general, the clinical variables showed better prediction ability than the complex omics variables. However, the combination of omics and clinical variables yielded the highest accuracy. We have incorporated the developed clinical models into a web interface (see: https://www.predictliverfat.org/) and made it available to the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03814915.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2695, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483258

RESUMO

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders influenced by lifestyle and genetic factors that are characterized by insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, a prominent site of glucose disposal. Numerous genetic variants have been associated with obesity and T2D, of which the majority are located in non-coding DNA regions. This suggests that most variants mediate their effect by altering the activity of gene-regulatory elements, including enhancers. Here, we map skeletal muscle genomic enhancer elements that are dynamically regulated after exposure to the free fatty acid palmitate or the inflammatory cytokine TNFα. By overlapping enhancer positions with the location of disease-associated genetic variants, and resolving long-range chromatin interactions between enhancers and gene promoters, we identify target genes involved in metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle. The majority of these genes also associate with altered whole-body metabolic phenotypes in the murine BXD genetic reference population. Thus, our combined genomic investigations identified genes that are involved in skeletal muscle metabolism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
12.
Nature ; 581(7808): 310-315, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433607

RESUMO

Microbiome community typing analyses have recently identified the Bacteroides2 (Bact2) enterotype, an intestinal microbiota configuration that is associated with systemic inflammation and has a high prevalence in loose stools in humans1,2. Bact2 is characterized by a high proportion of Bacteroides, a low proportion of Faecalibacterium and low microbial cell densities1,2, and its prevalence varies from 13% in a general population cohort to as high as 78% in patients with inflammatory bowel disease2. Reported changes in stool consistency3 and inflammation status4 during the progression towards obesity and metabolic comorbidities led us to propose that these developments might similarly correlate with an increased prevalence of the potentially dysbiotic Bact2 enterotype. Here, by exploring obesity-associated microbiota alterations in the quantitative faecal metagenomes of the cross-sectional MetaCardis Body Mass Index Spectrum cohort (n = 888), we identify statin therapy as a key covariate of microbiome diversification. By focusing on a subcohort of participants that are not medicated with statins, we find that the prevalence of Bact2 correlates with body mass index, increasing from 3.90% in lean or overweight participants to 17.73% in obese participants. Systemic inflammation levels in Bact2-enterotyped individuals are higher than predicted on the basis of their obesity status, indicative of Bact2 as a dysbiotic microbiome constellation. We also observe that obesity-associated microbiota dysbiosis is negatively associated with statin treatment, resulting in a lower Bact2 prevalence of 5.88% in statin-medicated obese participants. This finding is validated in both the accompanying MetaCardis cardiovascular disease dataset (n = 282) and the independent Flemish Gut Flora Project population cohort (n = 2,345). The potential benefits of statins in this context will require further evaluation in a prospective clinical trial to ascertain whether the effect is reproducible in a randomized population and before considering their application as microbiota-modulating therapeutics.


Assuntos
Disbiose/epidemiologia , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prevalência
13.
Gut ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with renal failure suffer from symptoms caused by uraemic toxins, possibly of gut microbial origin, as deduced from studies in animals. The aim of the study is to characterise relationships between the intestinal microbiome composition, uraemic toxins and renal failure symptoms in human end-stage renal disease (ESRD). DESIGN: Characterisation of gut microbiome, serum and faecal metabolome and human phenotypes in a cohort of 223 patients with ESRD and 69 healthy controls. Multidimensional data integration to reveal links between these datasets and the use of chronic kidney disease (CKD) rodent models to test the effects of intestinal microbiome on toxin accumulation and disease severity. RESULTS: A group of microbial species enriched in ESRD correlates tightly to patient clinical variables and encode functions involved in toxin and secondary bile acids synthesis; the relative abundance of the microbial functions correlates with the serum or faecal concentrations of these metabolites. Microbiota from patients transplanted to renal injured germ-free mice or antibiotic-treated rats induce higher production of serum uraemic toxins and aggravated renal fibrosis and oxidative stress more than microbiota from controls. Two of the species, Eggerthella lenta and Fusobacterium nucleatum, increase uraemic toxins production and promote renal disease development in a CKD rat model. A probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis decreases abundance of these species, reduces levels of toxins and the severity of the disease in rats. CONCLUSION: Aberrant gut microbiota in patients with ESRD sculpts a detrimental metabolome aggravating clinical outcomes, suggesting that the gut microbiota will be a promising target for diminishing uraemic toxicity in those patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03010696).

14.
Diabetologia ; 63(7): 1324-1332, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291466

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate whether the impact of obesity and unfavourable lifestyle on type 2 diabetes risk is accentuated by genetic predisposition. METHODS: We examined the joint association of genetic predisposition, obesity and unfavourable lifestyle with incident type 2 diabetes using a case-cohort study nested within the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort in Denmark. The study sample included 4729 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes during a median 14.7 years of follow-up, and a randomly selected cohort sample of 5402 individuals. Genetic predisposition was quantified using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 193 known type 2 diabetes-associated loci (excluding known BMI loci) and stratified into low (quintile 1), intermediate and high (quintile 5) genetic risk groups. Lifestyle was assessed by a lifestyle score composed of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. We used Prentice-weighted Cox proportional-hazards models to test the associations of the GRS, obesity and lifestyle score with incident type 2 diabetes, as well as the interactions of the GRS with obesity and unfavourable lifestyle in relation to incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and unfavourable lifestyle were associated with higher risk for incident type 2 diabetes regardless of genetic predisposition (p > 0.05 for GRS-obesity and GRS-lifestyle interaction). The effect of obesity on type 2 diabetes risk (HR 5.81 [95% CI 5.16, 6.55]) was high, whereas the effects of high genetic risk (HR 2.00 [95% CI 1.76, 2.27]) and unfavourable lifestyle (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.06, 1.30]) were relatively modest. Even among individuals with low GRS and favourable lifestyle, obesity was associated with a >8-fold risk of type 2 diabetes compared with normal-weight individuals in the same GRS and lifestyle stratum. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Having normal body weight is crucial in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, regardless of genetic predisposition.

15.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163918

RESUMO

Fasting duration has been associated with lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher 2-hour post-load levels, and research has indicated an adverse effect of 'weekend behavior' on human metabolism. We investigated associations of fasting duration and weekday of examination with glucose, insulin, glucagon and incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This cross-sectional study is based on data from the ADDITION-PRO study, where 2082 individuals attended a health examination including an OGTT. Linear regression analysis was applied to study the associations of overnight fasting duration and day of the week with glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to an OGTT. We found that a one hour longer fasting duration was associated with 1.7% (95%CI:0.8,2.5) higher 2-hour glucose levels, as well as a 3.0% (95%CI:1.3,4.7) higher GIP and 2.3% (95%CI:0.3,4.4) higher GLP-1 response. Fasting insulin levels were 20.6% (95%CI:11.2,30.7) higher on Mondays compared to the other weekdays, with similar fasting glucose levels (1.7%, 95%CI:0.0,3.4). In this study longer overnight fasting duration was associated with a worsening of glucose tolerance and increased incretin response to oral glucose. We found higher fasting insulin levels on Mondays compared to the other days of the week, potentially indicating worsened glucose regulation after the weekend.

16.
Diabetologia ; 63(4): 744-756, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002573

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is well established that physical activity, abdominal ectopic fat and glycaemic regulation are related but the underlying structure of these relationships is unclear. The previously proposed twin-cycle hypothesis (TC) provides a mechanistic basis for impairment in glycaemic control through the interactions of substrate availability, substrate metabolism and abdominal ectopic fat accumulation. Here, we hypothesise that the effect of physical activity in glucose regulation is mediated by the twin-cycle. We aimed to examine this notion in the Innovative Medicines Initiative Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (IMI DIRECT) Consortium cohorts comprised of participants with normal or impaired glucose regulation (cohort 1: N ≤ 920) or with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (cohort 2: N ≤ 435). METHODS: We defined a structural equation model that describes the TC and fitted this within the IMI DIRECT dataset. A second model, twin-cycle plus physical activity (TC-PA), to assess the extent to which the effects of physical activity in glycaemic regulation are mediated by components in the twin-cycle, was also fitted. Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control were modelled from frequently sampled 75 g OGTTs (fsOGTTs) and mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs) in participants without and with diabetes, respectively. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed using MRI, and physical activity through wrist-worn triaxial accelerometry. Results are presented as standardised beta coefficients, SE and p values, respectively. RESULTS: The TC and TC-PA models showed better fit than null models (TC: χ2 = 242, p = 0.004 and χ2 = 63, p = 0.001 in cohort 1 and 2, respectively; TC-PA: χ2 = 180, p = 0.041 and χ2 = 60, p = 0.008 in cohort 1 and 2, respectively). The association of physical activity with glycaemic control was primarily mediated by variables in the liver fat cycle. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These analyses partially support the mechanisms proposed in the twin-cycle model and highlight mechanistic pathways through which insulin sensitivity and liver fat mediate the association between physical activity and glycaemic control.

17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 69, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An aberrant composition of the salivary microbiota has been found in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and in pregnant women salivary microbiota composition has been associated with preeclampsia and pre-term birth. Pregnant women, who develop gestational diabetes (GDM), have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. In the present study we assessed whether GDM is linked to variation in the oral microbial community by examining the diversity and composition of the salivary microbiota. METHOD: In this observational study the salivary microbiota of pregnant women with GDM (n = 50) and normal glucose regulation (n = 160) in third trimester and 9 months postpartum was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region. GDM was diagnosed in accordance with the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. Cross-sectional difference in alpha diversity was assessed using Student's t-test and longitudinal changes were assessed by mixed linear regression. Cross-sectional and longitudinal difference in beta diversity was assessed by permutational multivariate analyses of variance. Differentially abundant genera and OTUs were identified by negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In the third trimester, two species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), while eight OTUs postpartum were differentially abundant in women with GDM compared with normoglycaemic women. OTU richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness decreased from late pregnancy to 9 months after delivery regardless of glycaemic status. CONCLUSION: GDM is associated with a minor aberration of the salivary microbiota during late pregnancy and postpartum. For unknown reasons richness of the salivary microbiota decreased from late pregnancy to postpartum, which might be explained by the physiological changes of the immune system during human pregnancy.

18.
Glycobiology ; 30(8): 500-515, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039448

RESUMO

Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are found in all domains of life, and at least 87 distinct genes encoding proteins related to GHs are found in the human genome. GHs serve diverse functions from digestion of dietary polysaccharides to breakdown of intracellular oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycolipids. Congenital disorders of GHs (CDGHs) represent more than 30 rare diseases caused by mutations in one of the GH genes. We previously used whole-exome sequencing of a homogenous Danish population of almost 2000 individuals to probe the incidence of deleterious mutations in the human glycosyltransferases (GTs) and developed a mutation map of human GT genes (GlyMAP-I). While deleterious disease-causing mutations in the GT genes were very rare, and in many cases lethal, we predicted deleterious mutations in GH genes to be less rare and less severe given the higher incidence of CDGHs reported worldwide. To probe the incidence of GH mutations, we constructed a mutation map of human GH-related genes (GlyMAP-II) using the Danish WES data, and correlating this with reported disease-causing mutations confirmed the higher prevalence of disease-causing mutations in several GH genes compared to GT genes. We identified 76 novel nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) in 32 GH genes that have not been associated with a CDGH phenotype, and we experimentally validated two novel potentially damaging nsSNVs in the congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency gene, SI. Our study provides a global view of human GH genes and disease-causing mutations and serves as a discovery tool for novel damaging nsSNVs in CDGHs.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 16(1): e1008544, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978080

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of the small and isolated Greenlandic population is advantageous for identification of novel genetic variants associated with cardio-metabolic traits. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with body mass index (BMI), to expand the knowledge of the genetic and biological mechanisms underlying obesity. Stage 1 BMI-association analyses were performed in 4,626 Greenlanders. Stage 2 replication and meta-analysis were performed in additional cohorts comprising 1,058 Yup'ik Alaska Native people, and 1,529 Greenlanders. Obesity-related traits were assessed in the stage 1 study population. We identified a common variant on chromosome 11, rs4936356, where the derived G-allele had a frequency of 24% in the stage 1 study population. The derived allele was genome-wide significantly associated with lower BMI (beta (SE), -0.14 SD (0.03), p = 3.2x10-8), corresponding to 0.64 kg/m2 lower BMI per G allele in the stage 1 study population. We observed a similar effect in the Yup'ik cohort (-0.09 SD, p = 0.038), and a non-significant effect in the same direction in the independent Greenlandic stage 2 cohort (-0.03 SD, p = 0.514). The association remained genome-wide significant in meta-analysis of the Arctic cohorts (-0.10 SD (0.02), p = 4.7x10-8). Moreover, the variant was associated with a leaner body type (weight, -1.68 (0.37) kg; waist circumference, -1.52 (0.33) cm; hip circumference, -0.85 (0.24) cm; lean mass, -0.84 (0.19) kg; fat mass and percent, -1.66 (0.33) kg and -1.39 (0.27) %; visceral adipose tissue, -0.30 (0.07) cm; subcutaneous adipose tissue, -0.16 (0.05) cm, all p<0.0002), lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -0.12 (0.04), p = 0.00021), and favorable lipid levels (triglyceride, -0.05 (0.02) mmol/l, p = 0.025; HDL-cholesterol, 0.04 (0.01) mmol/l, p = 0.0015). In conclusion, we identified a novel variant, where the derived G-allele possibly associated with lower BMI in Arctic populations, and as a consequence also leaner body type, lower insulin resistance, and a favorable lipid profile.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Inuítes/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adiposidade , Colesterol/sangue , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Groenlândia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Metaboloma , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma concentrations of liver enzymes are routinely used as markers of liver injury in adults and children. Currently, the age- and sex-specific effects of adiposity on pediatric liver enzyme concentrations are unclear. METHODS: We included participants from 2 cohorts of Danish children and adolescents: 1858 from a population-based cohort and 2155 with overweight or obesity, aged from 6 to 18 years. Age- and sex-specific percentile curves were calculated for fasting plasma concentrations of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in both cohorts. Hepatic fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 458 participants. RESULTS: Concentrations of ALT, AST, LDH, and ALP decreased with age in both girls and boys, while GGT and bilirubin were comparable across age groups in girls and increased slightly with age in boys. Children and adolescents with overweight or obesity exhibited higher concentrations of ALT in all age groups. Concentrations of ALT, and to a lesser degree GGT, increased with age in boys with overweight or obesity. Optimal ALT cut-points for diagnosing hepatic steatosis (liver fat content > 5%) was 24.5 U/L for girls (sensitivity: 55.6%, specificity: 84.0%), and 34.5 U/L for boys (sensitivity: 83.7%, specificity: 68.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric normal values of liver enzymes vary with both age and sex. Overweight and obesity is associated with elevated biochemical markers of liver damage. These findings emphasize the need for prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab XX: 0-0, 2019).

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