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1.
J Nematol ; 52: 1-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722902

RESUMO

Deladenus brevis n. sp. is described and illustrated based upon its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characters. The new species is mainly characterized by its small body size (367-454 µm long females and 350, 391 µm long males) and has small lateral vulval flaps. It is further characterized by having six lines in the lateral fields, cephalic region slightly expanded, narrower adjacent to the body, short 6 to 7 µm long stylet with three posteriorly sloped knobs, no post-vulval uterine sac (PUS), conical tail, narrowing to a rounded tip, and rare males with slender tylenchoid spicules and bursa reaching the tail tip. By having six lines in the lateral fields, the new species was compared with five known species of the genus, namely D. apopkaetus, D. cocophilus, D. durus, D. obtusicaudatus, and D. persicus, having comparable number (six or seven) of lines in the lateral fields. It was further compared with D. pakistanensis having lateral vulval flaps. The differences with above-mentioned species are discussed. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using nearly full length small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU D2-D3 rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI mtDNA) gene sequences, D. brevis n. sp. formed clade with species of the genus with different clade support values in Bayesian inference.Deladenus brevis n. sp. is described and illustrated based upon its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characters. The new species is mainly characterized by its small body size (367-454 µm long females and 350, 391 µm long males) and has small lateral vulval flaps. It is further characterized by having six lines in the lateral fields, cephalic region slightly expanded, narrower adjacent to the body, short 6 to 7 µm long stylet with three posteriorly sloped knobs, no post-vulval uterine sac (PUS), conical tail, narrowing to a rounded tip, and rare males with slender tylenchoid spicules and bursa reaching the tail tip. By having six lines in the lateral fields, the new species was compared with five known species of the genus, namely D. apopkaetus, D. cocophilus, D. durus, D. obtusicaudatus, and D. persicus, having comparable number (six or seven) of lines in the lateral fields. It was further compared with D. pakistanensis having lateral vulval flaps. The differences with above-mentioned species are discussed. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using nearly full length small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU D2-D3 rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI mtDNA) gene sequences, D. brevis n. sp. formed clade with species of the genus with different clade support values in Bayesian inference.

2.
J Nematol ; 52: 1-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449330

RESUMO

Ektaphelenchoides pini, the type species of the genus Ektaphelenchoides, was recovered from wood and bark samples of a dead broadleaf forest tree collected from the forests of Golestan province in north of Iran. The recovered population is mainly characterized by massive wide spicules of males with well-developed condylus marked by indentations at the apex and simple distal tip. It was further characterized by 756 to 947 µm long females having a cephalic region slightly separated from the rest body by a shallow depression, 20 to 23 µm stylet with wide lumen lacking conophore and knobs, excretory pore (E pore) at about one metacorpus length behind it, or 92 to 106 µm from anterior end and hemizonid just posterior to it, vagina anteriorly inclined, post uterine sac (PUS) ca 1.2 times vulval body width long, posterior body region elongate conoid, ending to a filiform tip, no functional rectum, a vestigial anus and common males with dorsally convex tail ending to an elongate spike and two pairs of precloacal (P2) and caudal (P3) large papillae at 5 to 6 µm distance anterior to cloacal opening and 30 to 41% of tail, respectively and lacking the single precloacal papilla (P1). In molecular phylogenetic analyses using small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU, LSU rDNA) sequences, the Iranian population of E. pini fell in a clade including species of three genera Ektaphelenchus, Ektaphelenchoides, and Devibursaphelenchus in SSU, and a clade including species of Ektaphelenchus and Ektaphelenchoides in LSU tree, in close association with an isolate identified as E. pini in the latter phylogeny with high (0.99) Bayesian posterior probability (BPP). The comparisons with the type and French populations, as well as phylogenetic affinities of the species using ribosomal data, are discussed. This is the first report of E. pini from Iran, and its first simultaneous morphological and molecular phylogenetic study. New observations on some species of the genus were also presented and discussed.Ektaphelenchoides pini, the type species of the genus Ektaphelenchoides, was recovered from wood and bark samples of a dead broadleaf forest tree collected from the forests of Golestan province in north of Iran. The recovered population is mainly characterized by massive wide spicules of males with well-developed condylus marked by indentations at the apex and simple distal tip. It was further characterized by 756 to 947 µm long females having a cephalic region slightly separated from the rest body by a shallow depression, 20 to 23 µm stylet with wide lumen lacking conophore and knobs, excretory pore (E pore) at about one metacorpus length behind it, or 92 to 106 µm from anterior end and hemizonid just posterior to it, vagina anteriorly inclined, post uterine sac (PUS) ca 1.2 times vulval body width long, posterior body region elongate conoid, ending to a filiform tip, no functional rectum, a vestigial anus and common males with dorsally convex tail ending to an elongate spike and two pairs of precloacal (P2) and caudal (P3) large papillae at 5 to 6 µm distance anterior to cloacal opening and 30 to 41% of tail, respectively and lacking the single precloacal papilla (P1). In molecular phylogenetic analyses using small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU, LSU rDNA) sequences, the Iranian population of E. pini fell in a clade including species of three genera Ektaphelenchus, Ektaphelenchoides, and Devibursaphelenchus in SSU, and a clade including species of Ektaphelenchus and Ektaphelenchoides in LSU tree, in close association with an isolate identified as E. pini in the latter phylogeny with high (0.99) Bayesian posterior probability (BPP). The comparisons with the type and French populations, as well as phylogenetic affinities of the species using ribosomal data, are discussed. This is the first report of E. pini from Iran, and its first simultaneous morphological and molecular phylogenetic study. New observations on some species of the genus were also presented and discussed.

3.
J Nematol ; 52: 1-10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329292

RESUMO

Cephalenchus driekieae n. sp. is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characteristics. This new species is mainly characterized by its short stylet 11.5 to 13.0 µm, and 13.5 to 17.5 µm long pharyngeal overlap extending over the intestine. It could further be delimited by 451 to 526 µm long females with a prominently annulated cuticle, dorso-ventral amphidial openings as shown using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four lines in the lateral field, anchor-shaped stylet knobs, empty spermatheca, elongate conoid tail with finely rounded tip and males absent. The shortest stylet and long pharyngeal overlap, distinguish this new species from previously described members and update the characteristics of the genus. With four lines in the lateral field, this new species was morphologically compared with four previously described species with this feature and another species with a short stylet. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the partial small and large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (SSU and LSU rDNA D2-D3) sequences showed that it was clustered with other Cephalenchus spp. in both SSU and LSU trees, retaining the monophyly of the genus. This new species from South Africa updates the biogeography of the genus.Cephalenchus driekieae n. sp. is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characteristics. This new species is mainly characterized by its short stylet 11.5 to 13.0 µm, and 13.5 to 17.5 µm long pharyngeal overlap extending over the intestine. It could further be delimited by 451 to 526 µm long females with a prominently annulated cuticle, dorso-ventral amphidial openings as shown using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four lines in the lateral field, anchor-shaped stylet knobs, empty spermatheca, elongate conoid tail with finely rounded tip and males absent. The shortest stylet and long pharyngeal overlap, distinguish this new species from previously described members and update the characteristics of the genus. With four lines in the lateral field, this new species was morphologically compared with four previously described species with this feature and another species with a short stylet. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using the partial small and large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (SSU and LSU rDNA D2-D3) sequences showed that it was clustered with other Cephalenchus spp. in both SSU and LSU trees, retaining the monophyly of the genus. This new species from South Africa updates the biogeography of the genus.

4.
J Nematol ; 52: 1-11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185944

RESUMO

Seinura italiensis n. sp. isolated from the medium soil imported from Italy is described and illustrated using morphological and molecular data. The new species is characterized by having short body (477 (407-565) µm and 522 (469-590) µm for males and females, respectively), three lateral lines, stylet lacking swellings at the base, and excretory pore at the base or slightly anterior to base of metacorpus; females have 58.8 (51.1-69.3) µm long post-uterine sac (PUS), elongate conical tail with its anterior half conoid, dorsally convex, and ventrally slightly concave and the posterior half elongated, narrower, with finely rounded to pointed tip and males having seven caudal papillae and 14.1 (12.6-15.0) µm long spicules. Morphologically, the new species is similar to S. caverna, S. chertkovi, S. christiei, S. hyrcania, S. longicaudata, S. persica, S. steineri, and S. tenuicaudata. The differences of the new species with aforementioned species are discussed. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using near full-length small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU rDNA D2-D3 expansion segments) sequences, the new species fell into a clade including three previously described/sequenced species of the genus in both SSU and LSU Bayesian phylogenetic trees.Seinura italiensis n. sp. isolated from the medium soil imported from Italy is described and illustrated using morphological and molecular data. The new species is characterized by having short body (477 (407-565) µm and 522 (469-590) µm for males and females, respectively), three lateral lines, stylet lacking swellings at the base, and excretory pore at the base or slightly anterior to base of metacorpus; females have 58.8 (51.1-69.3) µm long post-uterine sac (PUS), elongate conical tail with its anterior half conoid, dorsally convex, and ventrally slightly concave and the posterior half elongated, narrower, with finely rounded to pointed tip and males having seven caudal papillae and 14.1 (12.6-15.0) µm long spicules. Morphologically, the new species is similar to S. caverna, S. chertkovi, S. christiei, S. hyrcania, S. longicaudata, S. persica, S. steineri, and S. tenuicaudata. The differences of the new species with aforementioned species are discussed. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using near full-length small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU rDNA D2-D3 expansion segments) sequences, the new species fell into a clade including three previously described/sequenced species of the genus in both SSU and LSU Bayesian phylogenetic trees.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4671(2): zootaxa.4671.2.7, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716058

RESUMO

Labrys khuzestanensis n. sp. was recovered from the rhizosphere of a palm tree in southwestern Iran and described using morphological and molecular data. The new species was characterized by combination of the following features: its 590-675 µm long body, finely annulated cuticle in light microscopy (LM), lateral field with two smooth incisures, cephalic region dorso-ventrally flattened with protuberant, elongate and laterally extended labial plate, appearing a V-shaped piece in lateral view, amphidial openings as longitudinal slits confined to labial plate in scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images, stylet 7.5-9.0 µm long, elongated fusiform median bulb with faint valvular apparatus, excretory pore wide with moderately sclerotized duct and elongate filiform tail with finely rounded tip. Compared to four currently known species under the genus, the new species has a remarkably larger and more prominent labial plate as revealed by SEM and trapezoid cephalic region under LM. The molecular phylogenetic analyses of the new species using partial SSU rDNA revealed it has close affinity with three species of Labrys (L. chinensis, L. fuzhouensis and L. filiformis) in Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods and occupied a placement inside their clade. L. fujianensis, the other species of the genus, occupied a distant placement to the aforementioned clade. This is the second species of Labrys being originally described from Iran, representing the third species of Labrys occurring in the country.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242223

RESUMO

Three populations of Xiphinema primum n. sp. and two populations of X. pachtaicum were recovered from natural forests and cultural regions of northern Iran. Both species belong to the X. americanum-group and were characterized by their morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The new species, which was recovered in three locations, belongs to the X. brevicolle-complex and is characterized by 2124-2981 µm long females with a widely rounded lip region separated from the rest of the body by a depression, 103-125 µm long odontostyle, two equally developed genital branches with endosymbiont bacteria inside the ovary, which are visible under light microscope (LM), vulva located at 51.8-58.0%, the tail is 26-37 µm long with a bluntly rounded end and four juvenile developmental stages. It was morphologically compared with nine similar species viz. X. brevicolle, X. diffusum, X. incognitum, X. himalayense, X. luci, X. parabrevicolle, X. paramonovi, X. parataylori and X. taylori. The second species, X. pachtaicum, was recovered in two geographically distant points close to city of Amol. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species were performed using partial sequences of the D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA D2-D3), the internal-transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS = ITS1+5.8S+ITS2), and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI mtDNA) regions. The Iranian population of X. pachtaicum was also phylogenetically studied based upon its LSU rDNA D2-D3 sequences. Both species were also inspected for their putative endosymbiont bacteria. Candidatus Xiphinematobacter sp. was detected from two examined populations of the new species, whereas the second endosymbiont bacterium, detected from three examined isolates of X. pachtaicum, was related to the plant and fungal endosymbionts of the family Burkholderiaceae. The phylogenetic analyses of the two endosymbiont bacteria were performed using partial sequences of 16S rDNA. In cophylogenetic analyses, significant levels of cophylogenetic signal were observed using both LSU rDNA D2-D3 and COI mtDNA markers of the host nematodes and 16S rDNA marker of the endosymbiont bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Nematoides , Filogenia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/microbiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0214147, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042773

RESUMO

The most prevalent dagger nematode recovered from rhizospheric soil samples of forest trees in the Afratakhteh region of Golestan province (Iran) was Xiphinema afratakhtehnsis sp. nov. and it is described and illustrated with integrative approaches using both morphological and molecular criteria. It belongs to the morphospecies group 6 of the intragenic historical grouping of Xiphinema non-americanum species. The new species is characterized by females with 3.3-4.9 mm sized body, lip region separated from the rest of body by a depression, anteriorly expanded, 16-18 µm wide, vulva located at 47.2-58.5%, odontostyle 155-173 µm and odontophore 89-107 µm long, female genital system composed of two equally developed branches, the tubular part of each having spines, short symmetrically rounded female tail to symmetrically rounded with a small mucro-like projection at the end in a few females, rare males (n = 1 out of 74 females) with 83 µm long dorylaimoid spicules and four juvenile developmental stages. The third-stage juveniles (J3) have a characteristic tail shape (short, symmetrically conical with a club-shaped long mucro) demarcating the species, and being typologically useful for its separation from closely similar species (except X. cohni, with currently no data on its juvenile stages) viz. X. adenohystherum, X. iranicum, X. mazandaranense, X. nuragicum, X. pyrenaicum, X. robbinsi, X. sphaerocephalum and X. zagrosense. Molecular phylogenetic studies using genomic (partial large subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genes: D2-D3 and ITS1 rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI mtDNA) revealed the new species forming a unique lineage in all reconstructed trees using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. The sequenced isolates of the new species formed a monophyletic group in the D2-D3 tree. The sequenced isolates of the new species for their COI mtDNA formed four subclades in COI mtDNA phylogeny, and four haplotypes in corresponding analysis.


Assuntos
Florestas , Variação Genética/genética , Nematoides/genética , Animais , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Nematoides/classificação , Filogenia
8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215731, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083668

RESUMO

Two ektaphelenchid nematodes representing one new and one known species are illustrated and characterized using morphological and molecular data. Ektaphelenchus kanzakii n. sp. is mainly characterized by its tripartite stylet having a well visible wide lumen, encompassing a sclerotized and acute anterior part (the conus), a short and slightly tapering middle part (the conophore) that is equally sclerotized but clearly separate from the conus, and a long posterior part that is cylindrical and only weakly sclerotized (the shaft) without basal knobs or swellings. It is further characterized by 863.5 (772-926) µm long females having 23.8 (21.2-27.0) µm long total stylet, distinctly annulated cuticle, three lines in lateral field, vulva at 76.6 (75.3-80.0)%, no rectum, vestigial anus in some individuals, conical posterior body end (tail) with narrow ventrally bent tip, common males in population with two pairs of caudal papillae (the single precloacal papilla and the third caudal pair lacking), spicules with dorsally bent tip and conical tail with sharp or blunt tip. The new species is morphologically compared with close species having conical posterior body end and stylet lacking basal knobs or swellings. Iranian population of Devibursaphelenchus teratospicularis, the second studied species, is characterized by 679.5 (620-709) µm long females having 18.6 (17.5-20.0) µm long total stylet with similar structure to the previous species, subcylindrical body end with widely rounded tip, and rare males with typical spicules of this species and a pair of precloacal and a pair of caudal papillae. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the two recovered species using small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU and LSU rDNA) partial sequences revealed they have close phylogenetic affinities with Ektaphelenchus obtusus in both reconstructed trees. However, species of both genera Ektaphelenchus and Devibursaphelenchus don't form monophyletic groups in SSU and LSU trees. New observations on stylet structure of the two presently studied and some other ektaphelenchid species having available light microphotographs (LM) yielded on definition of a new term "conophore" for the middle part of the ektaphelenchid-type tripartite stylet.


Assuntos
Rabditídios/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia , Rabditídios/classificação
9.
J Nematol ; 50(3): 343-354, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451419

RESUMO

Labrys filiformis n. sp., the second species of the rare genus Labrys , was recovered from natural forests of Gilan province and is described based upon morphological and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by its smooth cuticle under light microscopy, lateral field with two incisures forming a single plain band, lip region continuous with body contour, dorso-ventrally flattened and forming four poorly prominent lobes, having a dorso-ventrally narrower protuberant labial plate laterally extended to the amphidial margins, oral area (oral plate) dorso-ventrally elongated and embedded in the labial plate with six small labial sensilla surrounding the slightly prominent oral aperture, amphidial apertures as longitudinally lemniscatic slits bordered by the labial plate extensions which are overlapped at the middle length of amphids, stylet delicate, 6 to 7 µm long, elongate weakly developed fusiform median bulb with weak valve, wide excretory pore with long and heavily sclerotized duct, offset spermatheca filled with small spheroid sperm cells, 106 to 127 µm long elongate-conoid tail with filiform distal region and finely rounded tip. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed using a near-full length fragment of the 18S rDNA and the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rDNA using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. In the inferred phylogenetic tree with 18S rDNA, the new species has a close affinity with several isolates of the type species, Labrys chinensis . The reconstructed phylogenetic tree using partial 28S rDNA, revealed the new species is nested inside the putative monophyletic group of several populations of L. chinensis .

10.
J Nematol ; 50(3): 437-452, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451426

RESUMO

One new and one known species of the genus Aphelenchoides from Iran are studied. Aphelenchoides giblindavisi n. sp. is mainly characterized by having five lines in the lateral fields at mid-body, and a single mucro with several tiny nodular protuberances, giving a warty appearance to it, as revealed by detailed scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies. The new species is further characterized by having a body length of 546 to 795 µm in females and 523 to 679 µm in males, rounded lip region separated from the rest body by a shallow depression, 10 to 11 µm long stylet with small basal swellings, its conus shorter than the shaft ( m = 36-43), 52 to 69 µm long postvulval uterine sac (PUS), males with 16 to 18 µm long arcuate spicules, and three pairs of caudal papillae. The new species was morphologically compared with two species of the genus having five lines in the lateral fields namely A. paramonovi and A. shamimi and species having a warty-surfaced mucro at tail end and similar morphometric data ranges. The morphological features and morphometrics of the second studied species, A. helicus , agreed well with the data given for the type population. However, detailed study of fresh females revealed it has three drop-shaped stylet knobs and long PUS, making it typologically similar to the genus Robustodorus , meriting its taxonomic revision, i.e., transferring to it. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using partial small and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU and LSU rDNA) sequences, the new species formed a clade with A. heidelbergi in both SSU and LSU D2-D3 trees. The species A. helicus , however, clustered inside a well-supported clade of the genus Robustodorus in both trees, corroborating its newly proposed taxonomic placement as Robustodorus helicus n. comb.

11.
J Nematol ; 50(2): 207-218, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451438

RESUMO

Longidorus azarbaijanensis n. sp. is described and illustrated using morphological and molecular data. It was recovered in West Azarbaijan province, northwestern Iran, from the rhizospheric soil of foxtail weed. The new species is characterized by having 5.4 to 6.8 mm long females, offset, anteriorly flat lip region and separated from the rest of the body by a shallow constriction, funnel-shaped amphidial pouches, the guiding ring at 23 to 27 µm from the anterior end, 73 to 81 and 44 to 50 µm long odontostyle and odontophore, respectively, 95.0 to 113.5 µm long pharyngeal bulb, didelphic-amphidelphic reproductive system with long tubular uteri lacking sperm cells, vulva located at 52.0% to 56.4%, conical tail dorsally convex, ventrally flat, with bluntly rounded wide tip, for juvenile developmental stages and absence of males. The general body shape of the new species is similar to that of five known species of the genus namely L. euonymus, L. perangustus, L. persicus, L. protae and L. sturhani . The morphological differences of the new species with the aforementioned species are discussed. For all the aforementioned species (except L. protae, currently lacking molecular data) the differences of the new species was also confirmed with differences in molecular sequences of D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rDNA and the corresponding phylogenetic analyses. The partial sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the new species was also used in phylogenetic analyses. In partial 28S tree, the clade including the new species and six other species ( L. attenuatus, Longidorus sp. and four above-mentioned species having molecular data for this fragment) was well supported in Bayesian inference. In the ITS1 tree, the new species formed a clade with L. euonymus , L. perangustus and L. persicus , as in 28S tree. This is one of the cases from which the morphologically similar species are separated using molecular sequences.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4369(3): 406-418, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689881

RESUMO

Malenchus geraerti n. sp., recovered from natural regions of northern Iran, is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular data. The new species is characterized by having females with a short body, an anteriorly wide S-shaped amphidial opening narrowing posteriorly, cuticle with prominent annuli, lateral field a plain band with smooth margins, muscular metacorpus with well-developed valve and corresponding plates, spermatheca filled with small spheroid sperm cells, vulva sunken in body with large epiptygma and no flap, and conical tail tapering gradually to a more or less pointed tip. Males of the new species are characterized by having a short body, tylenchoid spicules, adcloacal bursa with smooth margin and tail similar to that of the female. Morphologically, the new species is similar to five known species of the genus: M. fusiformis, M. machadoi, M. pachycephalus, M. solovjovae and M. undulatus. It most closely resembles M. pachycephalus, but as a cryptic species it can be differentiated using morphological and molecular characteristics. Comparisons with the four other aforementioned species are also discussed. Molecular phylogenetic studies using partial sequences of small and large subunit ribosomal DNA fragments reveal that the new species forms a clade with the species M. neosulcus in the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, and two species of Lelenchus in the large subunit (LSU) rDNA tree.


Assuntos
Rabditídios , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Filogenia , Tylenchoidea
13.
Zootaxa ; 4413(2): 260-270, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690108

RESUMO

Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 µm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end. It is compared with other species of Discotylenchus having four lines in the lateral field. The Iranian population of Labrys chinensis is characterized by its long and slender (a = 45.2-57.2) body, smooth rounded cephalic region and an offset disc-like apical labial plate, short longitudinal lateral amphidial slits, lateral field with two incisures, moderately developed stylet with the conus less than half the total length and posteriorly directed knobs, median bulb fusiform with distinct but weak valve, gradually joining the isthmus, vulva at 57.2-59.1% with small flaps, elongate conoid tail, uniformly and slightly narrowing toward end with broadly rounded terminus and rare males. The minor morphological differences of the recovered population with the type population are discussed.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Raízes de Plantas , Tylenchoidea
14.
Zootaxa ; 4353(3): 591-600, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245507

RESUMO

Parasitorhabditis obtusa is reported from Iran for the first time. The studied population is characterised with its morphological and molecular data. Morphological characters of the recovered population is in agreement with the currently available data of the species. In molecular phylogenetic studies using partial sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 fragment, the species formed a clade with two other isolates of the species with maximal Bayesian posterior probability (1.00) and maximum likelihood bootstrap values (100). The species was in association with bark samples of dead coniferous trees having galleries of bark beetles. It was also recovered from inside of the body of the Mediterranean pine beetle, Orthotomicus erosus, representing a new insect host for this nematode species.


Assuntos
Rabditídios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia
15.
J Nematol ; 49(3): 286-294, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062151

RESUMO

Anguillonema amolensis n. sp. is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by its 575 to 820 µm long and wide body (body width at vulva = 30 to 59 µm), irregularly ventrally curved after fixation, five to six lines in lateral fields, 6.0 to 7.5 µm long stylet with small rounded knobs, pharynx lacking a median bulb, pharyngo-intestinal junction anterior to nerve ring and excretory pore, females with monodelphic-prodelphic reproductive system, 15 to 19 µm long conical tail with broad rounded tip, and males absent. The new species is compared with two known species of the genus, Anguillonema poligraphi and A. crenati. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species using partial sequences of small subunit (SSU) rDNA revealed that it forms a clade with an unidentified nematode species and two species of the genus Howardula. In phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA (D2-D3 segment), the new species formed a monophyletic group with species belonging to two genera Howardula and Parasitylenchus.

16.
J Nematol ; 49(2): 223-230, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706321

RESUMO

Cryptaphelenchus varicaudatus n. sp. is described and illustrated. It was isolated from bark samples of dead or dying pine (Pinus spp.) trees with bark beetle frass and galleries, in Tehran province. The new species has 275- to 367-µm-long females (a medium-sized species) with distinctly annulated cuticle having three bands in lateral fields, lip region continuous with body contour, delicate knobbed stylet, monodelphic-prodelphic reproductive system with distinct spermatheca, short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), transverse vulval slit with raised posterior lip and body narrowing behind it, sclerotized vagina, simple intestine ending in a blind sac, having no rectum but vestigial anus in some specimens, and distal body end tip (tail tip) with variation in morphology (shape), from sharply or slightly pointed to bluntly rounded. Males of the new species are common, but less frequent than females, characterized by shorter body (235-278 µm long) compared to females, their posterior body end more ventrally bent, arcuate separate spicules with well-developed wide condyles, distinct rostrum having sharp, attenuated tip. The precloacal single supplement (P1) and the distally located pair of caudal papillae close to tail tip were only observed. The new species is morphologically compared with the species of the genus having short PUS and similar body end morphology. In molecular phylogenetic analyses using 1520- and 698-nt-long sequences of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA D2/D3 fragments, the new species formed a clade with two currently available GenBank-derived, unspecified isolates/sequences in SSU and three other isolates/sequences in LSU trees, respectively.

17.
J Nematol ; 49(1): 21-26, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512374

RESUMO

Enchodorus yeatsi n. sp., a new species of the rare genus Enchodorus is described and illustrated based on its morphological and molecular characters. It was recovered from southern Iran. Females of the new species are characterized by having 1,511.3- to 1,792.5-µm long slender body, angular lip region having prominent papillae, 12- to 13-µm long odontostyle, double guiding ring, simple rod-like odontophore, didelphic-amphidelphic reproductive system, and 102- to 160-µm long elongate-conoid tail with rounded tip. Males of the new species are abundant and functional, characterized by 1,484- to 1,576-µm long body, 40- to 43-µm long spicules, 5 to 6 ventromedian supplements, and ventrally bent elongate conical tail. Compared to the type species, Enchodorus dolichurus, the new species has differences in its tail morphology and V value. These morphological differences and the separation of two species was further supported with basic differences in sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) fragments. Compared to Enchodorus neodolichurus, it has basic differences in tail characters and spicule lengths. Molecular phylogenetic studies using partial sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 fragment of the new species and available sequences of Nordiidae members and several other dorylaim species/genera, revealed E. yeatsi n. sp. and E. dolichurus forming a clade with 0.81 Bayesian posterior probability (BPP). This clade forms a sister clade to the clade of Heterodorus sp. and Rhyssocolpus vinciguerrae, again with 0.81 BPP. In ITS1 tree, reconstructed using few available sequences, the new species and E. dolichurus formed a clade with 0.98 BPP.

18.
J Nematol ; 49(4): 404-417, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353930

RESUMO

Xiphinema japonicum n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from the rhizosphere of Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) imported from Japan is described. The new species belongs to Xiphinema non-americanum group 7 and is characterized by medium body length (3.0-3.7 mm), total stylet length 190-201 µm, vulva located anteriorly (V = 30.5%-35.3%), two equally developed female genital branches without uterine differentiation (no Z or pseudo-Z organ and/or spines in the uteri), short tail, convex-conoid with subdigitate peg in terminus, and absence of males. The species has four juvenile developmental stages (J1 was not found). The polytomous identification codes of the new species are (codes in parentheses are exceptions) A4-B4-C4-D5(4)-E2(3)-F3(4)-G2(3)-H2-I3-J4-K?-L1. Morphologically, the new species is mainly characterized by combination of the codes C4 and E2(3), making the species unique and different from other species in the genus. It is most similar to the North American species Xiphinema bakeri, herein considered as its cryptic species by the nature of high morphological similarity, but with significant differences in DNA sequences in nearly full length 18S, ITS1, 28S D2/D3, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences. The second morphologically close species is Xiphinema setariae from which the new species could be separated based on morphological and molecular characters. Morphological comparisons with phylogenetically related species are also discussed.

19.
J Nematol ; 48(3): 214-221, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765995

RESUMO

Discopersicus iranicus n. gen., n. comb., previously described from Iran as a new species under the genus Discotylenchus, is illustrated using light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and further studied using molecular characters. SEM studies revealed the newly proposed genus has oblique amphidial apertures on the lateral sides of the lip region. SEM images are also provided for two species of Discotylenchus, namely D. discretus and D. brevicaudatus, as the first SEM study of the genus. These results confirmed longitudinal amphidial aperture type on lateral sides of the lip region in genus Discotylenchus, as noted by Siddiqi while erecting the genus with D. discretus as the type species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using partial small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences revealed the affinity of the genus Discopersicus n. gen. with members of the subfamily Boleodorinae, as supported by morphological characters (mainly, the oblique amphidial opening).

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