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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 170: 10-16, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients with cancer who recover from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience COVID-19 sequelae in the early post-infection phase, which negatively affect their continuity of care and oncological outcome. The long-term prevalence and clinical impact of the post-COVID-19 syndrome in patients with cancer are largely unknown. METHODS: In this study, we describe the time course of COVID-19 sequelae in patients with non-advanced cancers enrolled in the OnCovid registry. RESULTS: Overall, 186 patients were included, with a median observation period of 9.9 months (95%CI:8,8-11.3) post-COVID-19 resolution. After a median interval of 2.3 months post-COVID-19 (interquartile range: 1.4-3.7), 31 patients (16.6%) reported ≥1 sequelae, including respiratory complications (14, 7.6%), fatigue (13, 7.1%), neuro-cognitive sequelae (7, 3.8%). The vast majority of the patients were not vaccinated prior to COVID-19. COVID-19-related sequelae persisted in 9.8% and 8% of patients 6 and 12 months after COVID-19 resolution. Persistence of sequelae at first oncological follow-up was associated with history of complicated COVID-19 (45.2% vs 24.8%, p = 0.0223), irrespective of oncological features at COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study confirms for the first time that, in a largely unvaccinated population, post-COVID-19 syndrome can affect a significant proportion of patients with non-advanced cancer who recovered from the acute illness. COVID-19 sequelae may persist up to 12 months in some patients, highlighting the need for dedicated prevention and supportive strategies.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565769

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine if dietary modifications using a nutritional regimen could prevent or reduce the incidence of cancer therapy-induced diarrhea in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and to evaluate the relationship of Vitamin D blood levels with diarrhea severity. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled. A Mediterranean diet, containing some special limitations aiming to reduce the risk of diarrhea, was administered before and during the entire chemotherapy program. Enrolled patients numbering 60/137 (44%) had diarrhea during chemotherapy. Adherence to the diet was high in 36 (26.3%) patients, medium in 94 (68.6%), and low in 7 (5.1%). Mean adherence to the diet was significantly lower in patients who experienced diarrhea with maximum grade 2-3 compared to those who had no diarrhea or grade 1 diarrhea (score = 5.4 ± 1.9 vs. 7.1 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). Patients with higher adherence to the diet had a lower risk of grade 2-3 diarrhea (odds ratio: 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.7, p < 0.001)). In addition, patients who completed a higher number of chemotherapy cycles had an increased risk of grade 2-3 diarrhea (odds ratio: 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0-1.5, p = 0.02)). Of note, a lower level of Vitamin D correlated with an increased risk of G2-G3 diarrhea (p = 0.03). A diet based on vegetables with a controlled fiber content, Mediterranean Modified Healthy Diet (MMHD), is useful to control the incidence of cancer therapy-induced diarrhea.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 15% of patients with cancer experience symptomatic sequelae, which impair post COVID-19 outcomes. In this study we investigated whether a pro-inflammatory status is associated with the development of COVID-19 sequelae. METHODS: OnCovid recruited 2795 consecutive patients, diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 27/02/2020-14/02/2021. This analysis focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent a clinical re-assessment after the exclusion of patients with haematological malignancies. We evaluated the association of inflammatory markers collected at COVID-19 diagnosis with sequelae, considering the impact of prior systemic anticancer therapy (SACT). RESULTS: Out of 1339 patients eligible, 203 experienced at least one sequela (15.2%). Median baseline C-reactive protein (CRP, 77.5 mg/L vs 22.2 mg/L, p<.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 310 UI/L vs 274 UI/L, p=.028) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, 6.0 vs 4.3, p=.001) were statistically significantly higher among patients who experienced sequelae, while no association were reported for platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the OnCovid Inflammatory Score (OIS), which includes albumin and lymphocytes. The widest Area under the ROC curve was reported for baseline CRP (AUC 0.66,95%CI:0.63-0.69), followed by the NLR (AUC0.58,95%CI:0.55-0.61) and LDH (AUC=0.57,95%CI:0.52-0.61). Using a fixed categorical multivariable analysis high CRP (OR 2.56,95%CI:1.67-3.91) and NLR (OR 1.45,95%CI:1.01-2.10) were confirmed to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of sequelae. Exposure to chemotherapy was associated with a decreased risk of sequelae (OR 0.57,95%CI:0.36-0.91), while no associations with immune checkpoint inhibitors, endocrine therapy, and other types of SACT were found. CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between inflammatory status, recent chemotherapy and sequelae warrants further investigations, our findings suggest that a deranged pro-inflammatory reaction at COVID-19 diagnosis may predict for sequelae development.

4.
Nutrition ; 98: 111637, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381562

RESUMO

Although there is substantial evidence on the impact of nutritional-status deterioration on quality of life, treatment tolerance, morbidity, and mortality in people with cancer, clinical nutrition intervention trials in oncology are still limited. The rationale for deepening this topic is also justified by the availability of innovative treatment options, such as immunotherapy, which take into consideration potential modulation of the immune system by several factors. In this article, we aimed to focus on the unexplored issue of immunonutrition and its potential modulatory activity on treatment response in people receiving immunotherapy. With this perspective, we propose a clinical-trial model to explore the potential impact of immunonutrition on nutritional, functional, immunologic, safety, and efficacy parameters in people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer undergoing first-line immunotherapy-based anticancer treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Apoio Nutricional , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Immunotherapy ; 14(6): 389-393, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152721

RESUMO

Tweetable abstract Herpes zoster (HZ) is a vaccine-preventable disease, but the role of the vaccine in cancer patients during immunotherapy (ICIs) is still unknown. The clinical and economic consequences of HZ and the increased use of ICIs require a greater awareness by the oncologist.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster , Neoplasias , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/uso terapêutico , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
Cancer Med ; 11(2): 308-316, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength has been pointed out as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, but the prognostic significance of muscle function next to reduced skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in patients with cancer has been scantily investigated. METHODS: Data on muscle strength by handgrip (HG) dynamometry and total-body SMM estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of Italian and German patients with cancer observed prospectively until death or censoring were analysed (N = 1076). Patients were stratified in four risk categories based on low HG (<10th percentiles of age and gender-specific normative values) and low total-body SMM according to SMM index cutoffs (<10.75 and <6.75 kg/m2 in men and women, respectively). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 58 months [25th-75th percentile, 37-60], 566 patients had died. Patients presenting low HG in combination or not with low SMM were characterised by shorter median survival (12.7 vs. 27.2 months, respectively; p < 0.001) compared to those with low SMM/normal HG and normal SMM/normal HG (>60 months for both). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index and percentage of weight loss, disease's stage, performance status and type of cancer, compared to reference category (normal HG and SMM; N = 210) the hazard ratios were: low SMM/normal HG (N = 342), 0.83 [95% confidence interval, CI, 0.67-1.02] (p = 0.073); normal SMM/low HG (N = 158), 1.19 [95% CI, 1.07-1.32] (p = 0.002); low SMM/low HG (N = 366), 1.39 [95% CI, 1.27-1.53] (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle weakness was found to be a more powerful predictor of survival than BIA-estimated SMM and should be considered as an additional key feature of sarcopenia in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Alemanha , Força da Mão , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco/métodos
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(1): 114-122, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817562

RESUMO

Importance: Whether the severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with cancer have improved in terms of disease management and capacity is yet to be defined. Objective: To test whether severity and mortality from COVID-19 among patients with cancer have improved during the course of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: OnCovid is a European registry that collects data on consecutive patients with solid or hematologic cancer and COVID-19. This multicenter case series study included real-world data from 35 institutions across 6 countries (UK, Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, and Germany). This update included patients diagnosed between February 27, 2020, and February, 14, 2021. Inclusion criteria were confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of solid or hematologic cancer. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were differentiated at 14 days and 3 months as the 2 landmark end points. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared by stratifying patients across 5 phases (February to March 2020, April to June 2020, July to September 2020, October to December 2020, and January to February 2021) and across 2 major outbreaks (February to June 2020 and July 2020 to February 2021). Results: At data cutoff, 2795 consecutive patients were included, with 2634 patients eligible for analysis (median [IQR] age, 68 [18-77] years ; 52.8% men). Eligible patients demonstrated significant time-dependent improvement in 14-day case-fatality rate (CFR) with estimates of 29.8% (95% CI, 0.26-0.33) for February to March 2020; 20.3% (95% CI, 0.17-0.23) for April to June 2020; 12.5% (95% CI, 0.06-22.90) for July to September 2020; 17.2% (95% CI, 0.15-0.21) for October to December 2020; and 14.5% (95% CI, 0.09-0.21) for January to February 2021 (all P < .001) across the predefined phases. Compared with the second major outbreak, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak were more likely to be 65 years or older (974 of 1626 [60.3%] vs 564 of 1008 [56.1%]; P = .03), have at least 2 comorbidities (793 of 1626 [48.8%] vs 427 of 1008 [42.4%]; P = .001), and have advanced tumors (708 of 1626 [46.4%] vs 536 of 1008 [56.1%]; P < .001). Complications of COVID-19 were more likely to be seen (738 of 1626 [45.4%] vs 342 of 1008 [33.9%]; P < .001) and require hospitalization (969 of 1626 [59.8%] vs 418 of 1008 [42.1%]; P < .001) and anti-COVID-19 therapy (1004 of 1626 [61.7%] vs 501 of 1008 [49.7%]; P < .001) during the first major outbreak. The 14-day CFRs for the first and second major outbreaks were 25.6% (95% CI, 0.23-0.28) vs 16.2% (95% CI, 0.13-0.19; P < .001), respectively. After adjusting for country, sex, age, comorbidities, tumor stage and status, anti-COVID-19 and anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 complications, patients diagnosed in the first outbreak had an increased risk of death at 14 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.47-2.32) and 3 months (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51) compared with those diagnosed in the second outbreak. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this registry-based study suggest that mortality in patients with cancer diagnosed with COVID-19 has improved in Europe; this improvement may be associated with earlier diagnosis, improved management, and dynamic changes in community transmission over time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1669-1680, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medium-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 in patients with cancer is not yet known. In this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and their impact on the survival of patients with cancer. We also aimed to describe patterns of resumption and modifications of systemic anti-cancer therapy following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: OnCovid is an active European registry study enrolling consecutive patients aged 18 years or older with a history of solid or haematological malignancy and who had a diagnosis of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this retrospective study, patients were enrolled from 35 institutions across Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, and entered into the registry at the point of data lock (March 1, 2021), were eligible for analysis. The present analysis was focused on COVID-19 survivors who underwent clinical reassessment at each participating institution. We documented prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae and described factors associated with their development and their association with post-COVID-19 survival, which was defined as the interval from post-COVID-19 reassessment to the patients' death or last follow-up. We also evaluated resumption of systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients treated within 4 weeks of COVID-19 diagnosis. The OnCovid study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04393974. FINDINGS: 2795 patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 27, 2020, and Feb 14, 2021, were entered into the study by the time of the data lock on March 1, 2021. After the exclusion of ineligible patients, the final study population consisted of 2634 patients. 1557 COVID-19 survivors underwent a formal clinical reassessment after a median of 22·1 months (IQR 8·4-57·8) from cancer diagnosis and 44 days (28-329) from COVID-19 diagnosis. 234 (15·0%) patients reported COVID-19 sequelae, including respiratory symptoms (116 [49·6%]) and residual fatigue (96 [41·0%]). Sequelae were more common in men (vs women; p=0·041), patients aged 65 years or older (vs other age groups; p=0·048), patients with two or more comorbidities (vs one or none; p=0·0006), and patients with a history of smoking (vs no smoking history; p=0·0004). Sequelae were associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 (p<0·0001), complicated COVID-19 (p<0·0001), and COVID-19 therapy (p=0·0002). With a median post-COVID-19 follow-up of 128 days (95% CI 113-148), COVID-19 sequelae were associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1·80 [95% CI 1·18-2·75]) after adjusting for time to post-COVID-19 reassessment, sex, age, comorbidity burden, tumour characteristics, anticancer therapy, and COVID-19 severity. Among 466 patients on systemic anti-cancer therapy, 70 (15·0%) permanently discontinued therapy, and 178 (38·2%) resumed treatment with a dose or regimen adjustment. Permanent treatment discontinuations were independently associated with an increased risk of death (HR 3·53 [95% CI 1·45-8·59]), but dose or regimen adjustments were not (0·84 [0·35-2·02]). INTERPRETATION: Sequelae post-COVID-19 affect up to 15% of patients with cancer and adversely affect survival and oncological outcomes after recovery. Adjustments to systemic anti-cancer therapy can be safely pursued in treatment-eligible patients. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre and the Cancer Treatment and Research Trust.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bélgica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Reino Unido
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1438-1447, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a preclinical rationale for inhibiting angiogenesis in mesothelioma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody ramucirumab combined with gemcitabine in patients with pretreated malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: RAMES was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done at 26 hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2, and histologically proven malignant pleural mesothelioma progressing during or after first-line treatment with pemetrexed plus platinum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks plus either intravenous placebo (gemcitabine plus placebo group) or ramucirumab 10 mg/kg (gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group) on day 1 every 3 weeks, until tumour progression or unacceptable toxicity. Central randomisation was done according to a minimisation algorithm method, associated with a random element using the following stratification factors: ECOG performance status, age, histology, and first-line time-to-progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival, measured from the date of randomisation to the date of death from any cause. Efficacy analyses were assessed in all patients who had been correctly randomised and received their allocated treatment, and safety analyses were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03560973, and with EudraCT, 2016-001132-36. FINDINGS: Between Dec 22, 2016, and July 30, 2018, of 165 patients enrolled 161 were correctly assigned and received either gemcitabine plus placebo (n=81) or gemcitabine plus ramucirumab (n=80). At database lock (March 8, 2020), with a median follow-up of 21·9 months (IQR 17·7-28·5), overall survival was longer in the ramucirumab group (HR 0·71, 70% CI 0·59-0·85; p=0·028). Median overall survival was 13·8 months (70% CI 12·7-14·4) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 7·5 months (6·9-8·9) in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 35 (44%) of 80 patients in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and 24 (30%) of 81 in the gemcitabine plus placebo group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (16 [20%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs ten [12%] for gemcitabine plus placebo) and hypertension (five [6%] vs none). Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) in the gemcitabine plus ramucirumab group and in four (5%) patients in the gemcitabine plus placebo group; the most common was thromboembolism (three [4%] for gemcitabine plus ramucirumab vs two [2%] for gemcitabine plus placebo). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Ramucirumab plus gemcitabine significantly improved overall survival after first-line standard chemotherapy, with a favourable safety profile. This combination could be a new option in this setting. FUNDING: Eli Lilly Italy. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Mesotelioma Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211025872, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional support, including nutritional counseling and oral nutritional supplements (ONSs), has been recommended at the earliest opportunity in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. The limited available evidence on the efficacy of immunonutrition during chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) in H&N cancer patients is positive with regard to some secondary endpoints, but is still scanty, particularly with regard to toxicity and treatment tolerance. We hypothesize that early systematic provision of ONSs with a high-protein-high-calorie mixture containing immunonutrients (Impact) compared to standard high-calorie-high-protein nutritional blends, in addition to nutritional counseling, may be beneficial to patients with H&N cancer during CT-RT. Hence, we designed the present study to evaluate the efficacy, in terms of treatment tolerance, toxicity and response, body weight, body composition, protein-calorie intake, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, muscle strength and immunological profile of the early systematic provision of ONSs enriched in immunonutrients compared to isonitrogenous standard blends, in H&N cancer patients undergoing CT-RT. METHODS: This is a pragmatic, bicentric, randomized (1:1), parallel-group, open label, controlled, pilot clinical trial. DISCUSSION: Many efforts are still to be taken to improve the efficacy of nutritional support in oncology. Immunonutrition represents a promising approach also in H&N cancer patients, but the evidence on its efficacy in improving clinical outcomes during CT-RT is still inconclusive. The present pilot study, which guarantees the early provision of nutritional assessment and support to all the enrolled patients in accordance with the recent guidelines and recommendations, could represent one of the first proofs of the clinical effectiveness of early oral immunonutrition in cancer patients undergoing CT-RT and could stimulate further large randomized trials, potentially resulting in the improvement of supportive care quality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04611113.

13.
Future Oncol ; 17(33): 4619-4634, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431371

RESUMO

Background: There are several case reports suggesting that G-CSFs may, in rare conditions, produce serious side effects, such as vasculitis. Materials & methods: A systematic search was conducted in Medline via PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library to describe this unusual side effect to raise awareness among clinicians for early recognition and treatment. Results: Fifty-seven patients were analyzed. The most prevalent cancer type was breast cancer (47%). Long-acting G-CSF was used in 38 patients (67%). Only 47% of patients were treated with steroids. Conclusion: Although the benefit of G-CSF treatment outweighs the potential damage, oncologists should consider the possibility of triggering a vascular toxicity and try to identify patients at increased risk for this side effect.


Lay abstract Background: Several case reports suggest that a type of drug called granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSFs) may, in rare cases, produce serious side effects, such as vasculitis. Materials & methods: A systematic search was conducted to describe this unusual side effect. Results: Fifty-seven patients were analyzed. The most prevalent cancer type in which this side effect was observed was breast cancer (47%). Only 47% of patients were treated with steroids. The main symptoms, such as fever, chest/epigastric pain and general malaise, are nonspecific and cannot be used to diagnose the side effect; laboratory findings are suggestive of inflammation. Conclusion: Accurate assessment of what causes this adverse event is extremely important. Although the benefit of G-CSF treatment outweighs the potential damage, oncologists should consider the possibility of triggering vascular toxicity and try to identify patients at increased risk.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/tratamento farmacológico , Filgrastim/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Vasculite/induzido quimicamente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Filgrastim/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangue , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Vasculite/epidemiologia , Vasculite/prevenção & controle
14.
Drugs Context ; 102021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457014

RESUMO

The clinical management of BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma had an important turning point after the introduction of the targeted therapy. Despite the efficacy and good tolerability of this treatment, the development of resistance mechanisms causes disease progression. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of treatment beyond progression and locoregional approaches in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma and provide oncologists dealing with this malignancy a useful road map on when and why to choose this strategy. The article is structured in the form of a narrative review reporting the most significant studies on the subject. Most of the available articles are represented by retrospective studies and case reports, leading to limitations in the final interpretations. Nevertheless, a correct analysis of the selected studies allows the drawing of some conclusions. In well-selected cases, treatment beyond progression could play an important role in the treatment sequence of patients with BRAF-mutated advanced melanoma and would seem to produce good disease control rates and positive survival outcomes. A careful evaluation of the radiological examinations and laboratory tests, based on the clinical conditions, allows the identification of which patients can benefit from this strategy. Such patients are those who, at the time of progression, have favourable features such as a lower performance status according to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG-PS), normal lactate dehydrogenase levels and lower disease burden. The clinical benefit is also consolidated by the addition of locoregional approaches. Locoregional approaches can include electrochemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery, and their use provides local disease control and a better quality of life for patients.

15.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111358, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303958

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a frequent comorbidity in people with cancer, associated with poor tolerance of anticancer treatments, prognosis, and quality of life. Despite the abundance of scientific literature supporting this evidence and the availability of international guidelines for managing nutritional care in people with cancer, attitudes about this issue still vary considerably among oncologists, to the point that many patients who are malnourished do not receive adequate nutritional support. In view of this, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology, the Italian Society of Artificial Nutrition and Metabolism, and the Italian Federation of Volunteer-based Cancer Organizations implemented in 2016 a collaborative working group and initiated a structured project called Integrating Nutritional Therapy in Oncology, with the aim of increasing oncologists' awareness of nutritional issues and consequently improving the nutritional care of cancer patients in Italy. In 2019, the Italian Society of Oncological Surgery and the Technical Scientific Association of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics joined the working group. In this article, we present the updated initiatives and the perspectives of this intersociety project.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Neoplasias , Oncologistas , Humanos , Itália , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Apoio Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Microvasc Res ; 138: 104189, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062191

RESUMO

Tumor-associated vessels constitution is the result of angiogenesis, the hallmark of cancer essential for tumor to develop in dimension and to spread throughout the organism. Tumor endothelium is configured as an active functioning organ capable of determine interaction with the immune response and all the other components of the variegate cancer microenvironment, determining reciprocal influence. Angiogenesis is here analyzed in its molecular and cellular mechanisms, multiple mediators and principal players, represented by Endothelial Cells. It is discussed the striking heterogeneity of cancer endothelium, due to morphological and molecular aberrations that it often presents and its multiple origin. Among the cells that participate to the composition of tumor vasculature, Endothelial Progenitor Cells represent an important source for physical sustain and paracrine signaling in the process of angiogenesis. Treatment options are reviewed, with particular focus on novel therapeutic strategies for overcoming tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/patologia , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neovascularização Patológica , Microambiente Tumoral , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Angiogênicas/genética , Proteínas Angiogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
17.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3901-3907, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Reduced muscle mass represents one of the top ranked phenotypic criteria for malnutrition proposed by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition. Although height-indexed fat-free mass (FFMI) thresholds have been proposed as useful surrogate measures of reduced muscle mass, the independent prognostic value of BIA-derived FFMI by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) in patients with cancer still needs to be fully explored. METHODS: Data on body mass index (BMI), 6-month percentage of weight loss (%WL), FFMI by BIA and quality of life (QoL by EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ-C30]) of Italian and German patients observed prospectively until death or censoring were used (N = 1217). Patients were stratified in 5 risk categories according to a robustly validated scoring system based on BMI and %WL. Low FFMI was defined as follows: men, <17 kg/m2; women, <15 kg/m2. RESULTS: Reduced FFMI was found in 234 patients (19.2%). After a median follow-up of 57 months [25th-75th, 31-60], 620 patients (50.9%) had died. The study detected differences in survival between patients presenting with and without reduced FFMI (14.0 months vs. 45.1 months; P < 0.001). The fully-adjusted hazard ratio of mortality for low FFMI was 1.46 [95%CI, 1.18-1.81] (P < 0.001). Low FFMI was also independently associated with reduced QoL: fully-adjusted odds ratio, 1.50 [95%CI, 1.00-2.25] (P = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced FFMI by BIA independently predicted survival and was associated with impaired QoL. Altered body composition should always be considered in all patients with cancer as additional phenotypic criterion of poor prognosis and BIA offers the possibility of multiple, noninvasive bedside assessments.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sarcopenia/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Avaliação Nutricional , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 19(1): 35, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence regarding the economic effects of nutrition support in cancer patients. This study aims at investigating the cost-effectiveness profile of systematic oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) and receiving nutritional counseling. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis based on a RCT was performed to estimate direct medical costs, life years gained (LYG) and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY) for nutritional counseling with or without ONS at 5-month and 6-year follow up time. Value of information analysis was performed to value the expected gain from reducing uncertainty through further data collection. RESULTS: ONS with nutritional counseling produced higher QALY than nutritional counseling alone (0.291 ± 0.087 vs 0.288 ± 0.087), however the difference was not significant (0.0027, P = 0.84). Mean costs were €987.60 vs €996.09, respectively in the treatment and control group (-€8.96, P = 0.98). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was -€3,277/QALY, with 55.4% probabilities of being cost-effective at a cost-effectiveness threshold of €30,000/QALY. The Expected Incremental Benefit was €95.16 and the Population Expected Value of Perfect Information was €8.6 million, implying that additional research is likely to be worthwhile. At a median 6-year follow up, the treatment group had a significantly better survival rate when adjusting for late effect (P = 0.039). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide the first evidence to inform decisions about funding and reimbursement of ONS in combination with nutritional counseling in HNC patients undergoing RT. ONS may improve quality of cancer care at no additional costs, however further research on the cost-effectiveness of nutritional supplementation is recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02055833. Registered 5th February 2014 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02055833.

19.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211019642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the survival advantage, not all metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients achieve a long-term benefit from immunotherapy. Moreover, the identification of prognostic biomarkers is still an unmet clinical need. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study investigated the prognostic role of peripheral-blood inflammatory indices and clinical factors to develop a novel prognostic score in mRCC patients receiving at least second-line nivolumab. The complete blood count before the first cycle of therapy was assessed by calculating neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammation index (SII), and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI). Clinical factors included pre-treatment International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) score, line of therapy, and metastatic sites. RESULTS: From October 2015 to November 2019, 571 mRCC patients received nivolumab as second- and further-line treatment in 69% and 31% of cases. In univariable and multivariable analyses all inflammatory indices, IMDC score, and bone metastases significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). The multivariable model with NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had the highest c-index (0.697) and was chosen for the developing of the score (Schneeweiss scoring system). After internal validation (bootstrap re-sampling), the final index (Meet-URO score) composed by NLR, IMDC score, and bone metastases had a c-index of 0.691. It identified five categories with distinctive OSs: group 1 (median OS - mOS = not reached), group 2 (mOS = 43.9 months), group 3 (mOS = 22.4 months), group 4 (mOS = 10.3 months), and group 5 (mOS = 3.2 months). Moreover, the Meet-URO score allowed for a fine risk-stratification across all three IMDC groups. CONCLUSION: The Meet-URO score allowed for the accurate stratification of pretreated mRCC patients receiving nivolumab and is easily applicable for clinical practice at no additional cost. Future steps include its external validation, the assessment of its predictivity, and its application to first-line combinations.

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