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2.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the prevalence of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and white-coat uncontrolled hypertension (WUCH) throughout the age spectrum among individuals with office isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) who were untreated or treated with antihypertensive medications, respectively. METHODS: We cross-sectionally evaluated 8809 untreated (42% males, 52.1 ±â€Š16.2 years) and 9136 treated (39% males, 59.7 ±â€Š14.5 years) individuals from two independent Brazilian populations who underwent home blood pressure monitoring. Participants were also categorized as younger (<40 years), intermediate (≥40 and <60 years) and older (≥60 years) age. RESULTS: Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed that the frequency of WCH and WUCH was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in ISH and IDH than SDH at all age groups. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, BMI and studied population showed that, compared with SDH, ISH had in average 4.1, 3.1 and 1.6-fold greater risk of WCH and 3.3, 3.6 and 2.0-fold greater risk of WUCH at younger, intermediate and older ages, whereas IDH had in average 2.3, 2.6 and 2.0-fold greater risk of WCH and 3.8, 3.2 and 3.8-fold greater risk of WUCH at younger, intermediate and older ages, respectively. CONCLUSION: ISH and IDH were associated with higher prevalence of WCH and WUCH than SDH across all age spectrum. In addition, treated and untreated ISH individuals with age less than 60 years and treated IDH individuals of all ages had the highest risk of having WCH phenotypes.

3.
J Sleep Res ; : e12954, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868987

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition among patients with hypertension and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can decrease blood pressure (BP). However, CPAP is not well tolerated by a significant proportion of patients. The authors investigated the effects of acupuncture on OSA severity and BP control in patients with hypertension. Hypertensive patients with mild to moderate OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, 5-30 events/hr) were randomly assigned to receive acupuncture or sham-acupuncture treatment. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 10 acupuncture sessions using polysomnography, 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring and a quality of life questionnaire. Forty-four patients (34% men; mean age, 57.0 ± 5.4 years; body mass index, 29.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2 ; apnea-hypopnea index, 16.3 ± 6.7 events/hr) completed the study. There were no differences in pre-post-intervention apnea-hypopnea index, daytime or nocturnal BP, or quality of life between the acupuncture and sham-acupuncture groups (p > .05). Acupuncture therapy in hypertensive patients with OSA did not reduce OSA severity, daytime or nocturnal BP, or quality of life.

4.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1816-1823, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263210

RESUMO

The values used to define the presence of white-coat or masked blood pressure (BP) effects are arbitrary. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of several cutoff points based on the difference between office and home BP (ΔBP) values to detect white-coat uncontrolled (WUCH) and masked uncontrolled (MUCH) hypertension, which are phenotypes with adverse prognoses, in a large cohort of treated hypertensive patients. This multicenter cross-sectional study included 6,049 treated hypertensive patients (40% males, mean age 59.1 ± 14.4 years) who underwent office and home BP monitoring. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC), and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of several ΔBP cutoffs to detect WUCH and MUCH. The 15/9 mmHg cutoff, which reflects a 1.0 standard deviation of the ΔBP, showed the best AUC (0.783, 95% CI = 0.772-0.794) for the detection of WUCH, particularly in individuals with office grade 1 hypertension (AUC = 0.811, 95% CI = 0.793-0.829). The -1/-1 mmHg cutoff, which considers all individuals who had lower systolic or diastolic BP levels in the office than at home, had the highest AUC (0.822, 95% CI = 0.808-0.836) for the detection of MUCH. Both cutoff values also had the best performances for identifying all patients with higher and lower office-than-home BP grades. In conclusion, the 15/9 and -1/-1 mmHg cutoffs showed the best performance for the detection of treated hypertensive patients with WUCH and MUCH, respectively, and therefore might be markers of significant white-coat and masked effects and could be useful for identifying preferential targets for more routine home BP measures.

7.
Front Physiol ; 9: 961, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083107

RESUMO

Meta-analyses have shown that supervised isometric handgrip training reduces blood pressure in hypertensives. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects in medicated hypertensive patients, as well as the effects from home-based exercise training, is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of supervised and home-based isometric handgrip training on cardiovascular parameters in medicated hypertensives. In this randomized controlled trial, 72 hypertensive individuals (38-79 years old, 70% female) were randomly assigned to three groups: home-based, supervised isometric handgrip training or control groups. Home-based and supervised isometric handgrip training was completed thrice weekly (4 × 2 min at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, with 1-min rest between bouts, alternating the hands). Before and after 12 weeks brachial, central and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), arterial stiffness, heart rate variability, vascular function, oxidative stress and inflammation markers were obtained. No significant (p > 0.05) effect was observed for ambulatory BP, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability, vascular function and oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in all three groups. Brachial BP decreased in the supervised group (Systolic: 132 ± 4 vs. 120 ± 3 mmHg; Diastolic: 71 ± 2 vs. 66 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were observed in the home-based (Systolic: 130 ± 4 vs. 126 ± 3 mmHg; diastolic: 73 ± 3 vs. 71 ± 3 mmHg) and control groups (p > 0.05). Supervised handgrip exercise also reduced central BP systolic (120 ± 5 vs. 109 ± 5 mmHg), diastolic (73 ± 2 vs. 67 ± 2 mmHg); and mean BP (93 ± 3 vs. 84 ± 3 mmHg), whereas no significant effects were found in the home-based (Systolic: 119 ± 4 vs. 115 ± 3 mmHg; Diastolic: 74 ± 3 vs. 71 ± 3 mmHg) and control groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, supervised, but not home-based, isometric training lowered brachial and central BP in hypertensives.

8.
J Hum Hypertens ; 32(7): 518-523, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789691

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the main secondary form associated with resistant hypertension (RH), but it is largely underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated in clinical practice. The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a useful tool among general population, but seems to not perform well among patients with RH. Recently, NoSAS score was validated in a large population, however, has not been tested in the cardiovascular scenario. Thus, we aimed to compare BQ versus the NoSAS score as screening tools for OSA in RH. In the present study, patients with confirmed diagnosis of RH were invited to perform polysomnography. OSA was diagnosed by an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥15 events/h. BQ and NoSAS were applied in a blinded way. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) of the two sleep questionnaires to detect OSA in RH. The frequency of OSA was 64%. The BQ presented a better sensitivity (91 vs. 72%) and higher values of NPV (67 vs. 54%) than NoSAS score. In contrast, the NoSAS score had higher specificity for excluding OSA (58 vs. 33%) and higher PPV (75 vs. 70%). Compared to the BQ, NoSAS score had a better AUC (0.55 vs. 0.64) but these values are in the fail to poor accuracy range. In conclusion, both BQ and NoSAS score had low accuracy for detecting OSA in RH. Considering the high frequency of OSA, objective sleep study may be considered in these patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Lipid Res ; 59(6): 1027-1033, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628442

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore lipoprotein metabolism in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We studied 15 men with severe OSA [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥30 events/hour] and 12 age-, BMI-, and waist circumference-matched volunteers without OSA (AHI <5 events/hour). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was determined by a blind examiner. After 12 h fasting, a triglyceride-rich chylomicron-like emulsion, labeled with [14C]cholesteryl oleate and [3H]triolein, was injected intravenously followed by blood sample collection at preestablished times. Fractional clearance rate (FCR) of the radiolabeled lipids was estimated by compartmental analysis of radioisotope decay curves. Compared with controls, patients with OSA showed a significant delay in both cholesteryl ester FCR (0.0126 ± 0.0187 vs. 0.0015 ± 0.0025 min-1; P = 0.0313) and triglycerides FCR (0.0334 ± 0.0390 vs. 0.0051 ± 0.0074 min-1; P = 0.0001). CIMT was higher in the OSA group: 620 ± 17 vs. 725 ± 29 µm; P = 0.004. Cholesteryl ester FCRs were inversely related to total sleep time <90% (r = -0.463; P = 0.029) and CIMT (r = -0.601; P = 0.022). The triglyceride FCR was inversely correlated with AHI (r = -0.537; P = 0.04). In a subgroup of patients treated with CPAP for 3 months (n = 7), triglyceride FCR increased 5-fold (P = 0.025), but the cholesteryl ester FCR was unchanged. In conclusion, severe OSA decreased lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and delayed removal of remnants. CPAP treatment may be effective to restore the lipolysis rates.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lipólise , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 16(1): 2-5, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and may contribute to metabolic deregulation, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in these patients. In clinical practice, however, OSA is frequently underdiagnosed. We sought to investigate the clinical predictors of OSA in patients with MetS. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients newly diagnosed with MetS (Adult Treatment Panel-III). All participants underwent clinical evaluation, standard polysomnography, and laboratory measurements. We performed a logistic regression model, including the following variables: gender, age >50 years, neck and waist circumferences, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2, high risk for OSA by Berlin questionnaire, presence of excessive daytime somnolence (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), abnormal serum glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RESULTS: We studied 197 patients (60% men; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 32.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2). OSA (defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour) was diagnosed in 117 patients [59%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 52-66]. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR): 3.28; 95% CI: 1.68-6.41; P < 0.01], abnormal glucose levels (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.50-6.03; P < 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.13-5.04; P = 0.02), and high risk for OSA by Berlin questionnaire (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 2.06-9.11; P < 0.001) were independently associated with OSA. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical and metabolic characteristics may help to improve the underdiagnosis of OSA in patients with MetS.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Respiração , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Sono , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
11.
Chest ; 152(6): 1230-1238, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) is a life-threatening condition. OSA may be a modifiable risk factor for ACPE recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of OSA on the incidence of cardiovascular events following ACPE recovery. METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed ACPE from 3 centers underwent a sleep study following clinical stabilization. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h. The mean follow-up was 1 year, and the primary outcome was ACPE recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis; 61% of the patients had OSA. A higher rate of ACPE recurrence (25 vs 6 episodes; P = .01) and a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (15 vs 0 episodes; P = .0004) were observed in patients with OSA than in those without OSA. All 17 deaths occurred in the OSA group (P = .0001). In a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, OSA was independently associated with ACPE recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3 [95% CI, 1.2-8.8]; P = .01), incidence of myocardial infarction (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-9.5]; P = .02), cardiovascular death (HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 1.4-48.4]; P = .004), and total death (HR, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.2-64.0]; P = .005). When the analysis was limited only to patients with OSA, levels of AHI and hypoxemic burden and rates of sleep-onset ACPE were significantly higher in those who presented with ACPE recurrence or who died than in those who did not experience these events. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is independently associated with higher rates of ACPE recurrence and both fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Polissonografia , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
Sleep Breath ; 21(1): 77-83, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27384043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with coronary disease among men. However, this association is not clear for women. In this study, we evaluate the association between OSA and presence of subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by tomographic coronary calcium score in middle-aged women. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive women aged between 45 and 65 years in perimenopause or postmenopause period (with menstrual irregularity-amenorrhea > 60 days), without manifest cardiovascular disease (heart failure, coronary disease, and stroke), from two gynecologic clinics. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, computed tomographic examination for coronary artery calcium (CAC > 100 Agatston units), and portable sleep study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between OSA and CAC, controlling for traditional risk factors including Framingham Risk Score (FRS), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes. RESULTS: We studied 214 women (age 56 years (52-61); BMI 28 kg/m2 (25-31), 25 % diabetes, 62 % hypertension). OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 events/h) was diagnosed in 82 women (38.3 %). CAC was more prevalent in patients with moderate/severe OSA (AHI ≥15 events/h) than in patients without or with mild OSA, 19 % vs 4.5 and 1.6 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Moderate to severe OSA was associated with CAC in unadjusted (odds ratio = 6.25, 95 % CI 1.66-23.52; p < 0.01) and adjusted (odds ratio = 8.19, 95 % CI 1.66-40.32; p = 0.01) logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Moderate to severe OSA is independently associated with the presence of CAC in middle-aged women. These results reinforce the concept that women are also susceptible to the cardiovascular consequences of OSA.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Selênico , Fatores Sexuais , Estatística como Assunto , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
13.
Chest ; 152(6): 1230-1238, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) is a life-threatening condition. OSA may be a modifiable risk factor for ACPE recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of OSA on the incidence of cardiovascular events following ACPE recovery. METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed ACPE from 3 centers underwent a sleep study following clinical stabilization. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h. The mean follow-up was 1 year, and the primary outcome was ACPE recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis; 61% of the patients had OSA. A higher rate of ACPE recurrence (25 vs 6 episodes; P = .01) and a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (15 vs 0 episodes; P = .0004) were observed in patients with OSA than in those without OSA. All 17 deaths occurred in the OSA group (P = .0001). In a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, OSA was independently associated with ACPE recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3 [95% CI, 1.2-8.8]; P = .01), incidence of myocardial infarction (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-9.5]; P = .02), cardiovascular death (HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 1.4-48.4]; P = .004), and total death (HR, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.2-64.0]; P = .005). When the analysis was limited only to patients with OSA, levels of AHI and hypoxemic burden and rates of sleep-onset ACPE were significantly higher in those who presented with ACPE recurrence or who died than in those who did not experience these events...(AU)


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono
14.
Motriz (Online) ; 23(4): e101719, 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-895025

RESUMO

Meta-analytical studies have indicated that isometric handgrip training promotes significant reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive patients with similar or greater decreases in blood pressure than observed after aerobic and dynamic resistance training. However, several gaps in the literature still need to be addressed. Thus, we designed the ISOPRESS network group, which consists of a task force of different research groups aimed at analyzing the effects of isometric handgrip training on different contexts, parameters, and populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the rationale and design behind the ISOPRESS, presenting the methods employed. The ISOPRESS questions involve whether isometric handgrip training is effective in hypertensives in different settings (ISOPRESS 1 - unsupervised training and ISOPRESS 2 - public health system), whether it works in patients with other cardiovascular diseases (ISOPRESS 3 - obstructive sleep apnea and ISOPRESS 4 - peripheral artery disease) and what are the mechanisms underlying the effects of isometric handgrip training in hypertensives (ISOPRESS 5 - neural mechanism). The study will yield information on the effectiveness of isometric handgrip training in different settings and patients with other cardiovascular diseases. Finally, it will help to understand the mechanisms involved in reducing blood pressure in hypertensives.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão
15.
Atherosclerosis ; 254: 59-66, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent airway obstruction and systemic hypoxia during sleep, which can contribute to an increase in reactive oxygen species, vascular remodeling, vasoconstriction and ultimately cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a clinical therapy that maintains airway patency and mitigates several symptoms of OSA. However, it is currently unknown whether CPAP therapy also reduces the overall inflammatory potential in the circulation; to address this in an unbiased manner, we applied a novel endothelial biosensor approach, the serum cumulative inflammatory potential (SCIP) assay. METHODS: We studied healthy controls (n = 7), OSA subjects receiving no treatment, (OSA controls) (n = 7) and OSA subjects receiving CPAP for 3 months (n = 8). Serum was obtained from OSA subjects before and after CPAP or no treatment. A battery of quantitative and functional assays was performed to assess the serum inflammatory potential, in terms of endothelial responses. For the SCIP assay, human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were incubated with 5% serum in media from individual subjects for 4 h. qPCR was performed to assess endothelial inflammatory transcript (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-8, P-selectin, CCL5, and CXCL12) responses to serum. Additionally, transendothelial resistance was measured in serum-incubated hCAECs following leukocyte challenge. RESULTS: hCAECs exhibited significant increases in VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-8 and P-selectin mRNA when incubated with serum from OSA patients compared to serum from healthy control subjects. Furthermore, compared to no treatment, serum from CPAP-treated individuals was less potent at inducing inflammatory gene expression in the SCIP assay. Similarly, in a leukocyte adhesion assay, naïve cells treated with serum from patients who received CPAP exhibited improved endothelial barrier function than cells treated with OSA control serum. CONCLUSIONS: OSA results in greater serum inflammatory potential, thereby driving endothelial activation and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Inflamação/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Adulto , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adesão Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selectina-P/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Chest ; 150(5): 1050-1058, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common genetic disease that may cause left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, heart failure, and sudden death. Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of OSA among patients with HCM. Because the hemodynamics in patients with LVOT obstruction are unstable and depend on the loading conditions of the heart, we evaluated the acute effects of CPAP on hemodynamics and cardiac performance in patients with HCM. METHODS: We studied 26 stable patients with HCM divided into nonobstructive HCM (n = 12) and obstructive HCM (n = 14) groups (LVOT gradient pressure lower or higher than 30 mm Hg, respectively). Patients in the supine position while awake were continuously monitored with beat-to-beat BP measurements and electrocardiography. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed at rest (baseline) and after 20 min of nasal CPAP at 1.5 cm H2O and 10 cm H2O, which was applied in a random order interposed by 10 min without CPAP. RESULTS: BP, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, and LVOT gradient did not change during the study period in either group. CPAP at 10 cm H2O decreased right atrial size and right ventricular relaxation in all patients. It also decreased left atrial volume significantly and decreased right ventricular outflow acceleration time, suggesting an increase in pulmonary artery pressure in patients with obstructive HCM. CONCLUSIONS: The acute application of CPAP is apparently safe in patients with HCM, because CPAP does not lead to hemodynamic compromise. Long-term studies in patients with HCM and sleep apnea and nocturnal CPAP are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01631006; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente
17.
Chest ; 149(1): 92-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26087329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OSA has a familial aggregation pattern indicating that it can be partially caused by a genetic component. However, the heritability of OSA has been estimated based on the study of families of obese probands of urban populations with established OSA diagnosis. The objective of this genetic-epidemiologic study is to study families ascertained from a general rural population to determine an unbiased estimate of OSA heritability. METHODS: We studied a sample of families living in Baependi, a small rural southeastern Brazilian city. Participants were assessed for anthropometric measurements, physical examination, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, blood samples for glucose and cholesterol determination, and overnight home portable monitoring. RESULTS: We studied 587 participants (399 women) from 91 families, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 4 (2-8) participants per family. The median age of the population was 44 years (IQR, 29-55 years) and median BMI was 25.0 kg/m(2) (IQR, 22.1-28.6 kg/m(2)). OSA, defined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5/h, was diagnosed in 18.6% of the sample. Two polygenic models, model I (no covariate effects) and model II (with covariate effects), were fitted to the data in all analyses. Heritability estimates for AHI were 0.23 and 0.25 for model I and II, respectively. Covariates (age, sex, and BMI) showed no significant effects on the heritability estimate for AHI. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of AHI in a rural population with low levels of obesity is intermediate (25%).


Assuntos
Padrões de Herança , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
18.
Sleep ; 38(10): 1583-91, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085300

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that the hypoxia of OSA increases hepatic production of lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and that LOX may serve as a biomarker of hepatic fibrosis. DESIGN: Thirty-five patients with severe obesity underwent liver biopsy, polysomnography, and serum LOX testing. A separate group with severe OSA had serum LOX measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP or no therapy, as did age-matched controls. LOX expression and secretion were measured in mouse hepatocytes following exposure to hypoxia. SETTING: The Johns Hopkins Bayview Sleep Disorders Center, and the Hypertension Unit of the Heart Institute at the University of São Paulo Medical School. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: In the bariatric cohort, the apnea-hypopnea index was higher in patients with hepatic fibrosis than in those without fibrosis (42.7 ± 30.2 events/h, versus 16.2 ± 15.5 events/h; P = 0.002), as was serum LOX (84.64 ± 29.71 ng/mL, versus 45.46 ± 17.16 ng/mL; P < 0.001). In the sleep clinic sample, patients with severe OSA had higher baseline LOX than healthy controls (70.75 ng/mL versus 52.36 ng/mL, P = 0.046), and serum LOX decreased in patients with OSA on CPAP (mean decrease 20.49 ng/mL) but not in untreated patients (mean decrease 0.19 ng/mL). Hypoxic mouse hepatocytes demonstrated 5.9-fold increased LOX transcription (P = 0.046), and enhanced LOX protein secretion. CONCLUSIONS: The hypoxic stress of obstructive sleep apnea may increase circulating lysyl oxidase (LOX) levels. LOX may serve as a biomarker of liver fibrosis in patients with severe obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/enzimologia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/enzimologia , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/enzimologia , Animais , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Colágeno/metabolismo , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Feminino , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipóxia/enzimologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Polissonografia , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia
19.
Chest ; 147(5): 1352-1360, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25612013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of OSA on new cardiovascular events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is poorly explored. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred for CABG underwent clinical evaluation and standard polysomnography in the preoperative period. CABG surgery data, including percentage of off-pump and on-pump CABG, number of grafts, and intraoperative complications, were collected. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) (combined events of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, repeated revascularization, and cerebrovascular events). Secondary end points included individual MACCEs, typical angina, and arrhythmias. Patients were evaluated at 30 days (short-term) and up to 6.1 years (long term) after CABG. RESULTS: We studied 67 patients (50 men; mean age, 58 ± 8 years; mean BMI, 28.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2). OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h) was present in 56% of the population. The patients were followed for a mean of 4.5 years (range, 3.2-6.1 years). No differences were observed in the short-term follow-up. In contrast, MACCE (35% vs 16%, P = .02), new revascularization (19% vs 0%, P = .01), episodes of typical angina (30% vs 7%, P = .02), and atrial fibrillation (22% vs 0%, P = .0068) were more common in patients with than without OSA in the long-term follow-up. OSA was an independent factor associated with the occurrence of MACCE, repeated revascularization, typical angina, and atrial fibrillation in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is independently associated with a higher rate of long-term cardiovascular events after CABG and may have prognostic and economic significance in CABG surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 16(8): 459, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24913922

RESUMO

Two main sleep disturbances, namely obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep deprivation, have gained growing interest in the field of hypertension research. This fact is supported not only by evidence that both disturbances are quite common in modern societies but also that OSA and sleep deprivation are associated with several pathways that may contribute to a predisposition to hypertension or even exacerbate blood pressure levels in hypertensive patients. In the present review, we will discuss current evidence supporting a potential role of these sleep disturbances in the resistant hypertension scenario.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia
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