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Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 138-158, 2020 Jul - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265373


It is unquestioned that reaching the hypnotic state is helped along by relational factors and that, conversely, relational experiences can be deepened through hypnosis. It is also true that deepening the experience of being in a relationship with another person is neither comfortable nor indicated for every patient or therapist. Most humans feel ambivalent about closeness. People vary in their desire for and their skill in sustaining mature intimacy. When we move along the continuum from rudimentary notions about relational factors in psychotherapy, such as rapport, to complex concepts, such as enactments, we move along a corresponding continuum of increasing need for specialized training, supervised experience, and personal therapy. The field of psychotherapy has been plagued from its inception by not knowing what to do with the tensions that emerge when two people listen to and look at each other. Avoiding relational factors may be a very human response to a very daunting matter.

Am J Clin Hypn ; 60(3): 239-261, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297786


Over 50 years of empirical data demonstrate unequivocally that psychotherapy can cause harm as well as good. Two therapist factors increasing harm risk are inadequate assessment of patients' vulnerabilities and certain attitudes/affects. Adding hypnosis as a technique within psychotherapy heightens risk for harm because: (a) trance can unexpectedly expose patient vulnerabilities (through loosening reality orientation, lessening structure, generating unfamiliar sensations and perceptions, and intensifying access to interior information such as emotions and imagery); and (b) trance can unexpectedly increase porousness to therapist's attitudes/affects (through heightening mental receptivity to the internal states of others). A century of clinical data from psychoanalysis offers guidance for protecting against such risks. Concepts of structure, interiority, and countertransference are explicated and translated into practical clinical suggestions for harm prevention.

Contratransferência (Psicologia) , Hipnose/métodos , Doença Iatrogênica/prevenção & controle , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Humanos