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1.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 190(1): 89-101, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427806

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) design aims to overcome problems faced in conventional RCTs. We evaluated the TwiCs design when estimating the effect of exercise on quality of life (QoL) and fatigue in inactive breast cancer survivors. METHODS: UMBRELLA Fit was conducted within the prospective UMBRELLA breast cancer cohort. Patients provided consent for future randomization at cohort entry. We randomized inactive patients 12-18 months after cohort enrollment. The intervention group (n = 130) was offered a 12-week supervised exercise intervention. The control group (n = 130) was not informed and received usual care. Six-month exercise effects on QoL and fatigue as measured in the cohort were analyzed with intention-to-treat (ITT), instrumental variable (IV), and propensity scores (PS) analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent (n = 68) of inactive patients accepted the intervention. Physical activity increased in patients in the intervention group, but not in the control group. We found no benefit of exercise for dimensions of QoL (ITT difference global QoL: 0.8, 95% CI = - 2.2; 3.8) and fatigue, except for a small beneficial effect on physical fatigue (ITT difference: - 1.1, 95% CI = - 1.8; - 0.3; IV: - 1.9, 95% CI = - 3.3; - 0.5, PS: - 1.2, 95% CI = - 2.3; - 0.2). CONCLUSION: TwiCs gave insight into exercise intervention acceptance: about half of inactive breast cancer survivors accepted the offer and increased physical activity levels. The offer resulted in no improvement on QoL, and a small beneficial effect on physical fatigue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR5482/NL.52062.041.15), date of registration: December 07, 2015.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609766

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence from prospective cohort studies on risk factors of Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited as case ascertainment is challenging due to a lack of registries and the disease course of PD. The objective of this study was to create a case ascertainment method for PD within two prospective Dutch cohorts based on multiple sources of PD information. This method was validated using clinical records from the general practitioners (GPs). Face validity of the case ascertainment was tested for three etiological factors (smoking, sex and family history of PD). In total 54825 participants were included from the cohorts AMIGO and EPIC-NL. Sources of PD information included self-reported PD, self-reported PD medication, a 9 item screening questionnaire (Tanner), electronical medical records, hospital discharge data and mortality records. Based on these sources we developed a likelihood score with 4 categories (no PD, unlikely PD, possible PD, likely PD). For the different sources of PD information and for the likelihood score we present the agreement with GP-validated cases. Risk of PD for established factors was studied by logistic regression as exact diagnose dates were not always available. Based on the algorithm, we assigned 346 participants to the likely PD category. GP validation confirmed 67% of these participants in EPIC-NL, but only 12% in AMIGO. PD was confirmed in only 3% of the participants with a possible PD classification. PD case ascertainment by mortality records (91%), EMR ICPC (82%) and self-reported information (62-69%) had the highest confirmation rates. The Tanner PD screening questionnaire had a lower agreement (18%). Risk estimates for smoking, family history and sex using all likely PD cases were comparable to the literature for EPIC-NL, but not for smoking in AMIGO. Using multiple sources of PD evidence in cohorts remains important but challenging as performance of sources varied in validity.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231663, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having a physically active lifestyle after cancer diagnosis is beneficial for health, and this needs to be continued into survivorship to optimize long-term benefits. We found that patients, who participated in an 18-week exercise intervention, reported significant higher physical activity (PA) levels 4 years after participation in a randomized controlled trial of supervised exercise delivered during chemotherapy (PACT study). This study aimed to identify social-ecological correlates of PA levels in breast and colon cancer survivors 4 years after participation in the PACT study. METHODS: Self-reported PA levels and potential correlates (e.g. physical fitness, fatigue, exercise history, and built environment) were assessed in 127 breast and colon cancer survivors shortly after diagnosis (baseline), post-intervention and 4 years later. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify social-ecological correlates of PA 4 years post-baseline. RESULTS: The final model revealed that lower baseline physical fatigue (ß = -0.25, 95% CI -0.26; -0.24) and higher baseline total PA (0.06, 95% CI, 0.03; 0.10) were correlated with higher total PA levels 4 years post-baseline. Higher baseline leisure and sport PA (0.02, 95% CI 0.01; 0.03), more recreational facilities within a buffer of 1 km (4.05, 95% CI = 1.28; 6.83), lower physical fatigue at 4-year follow-up (-8.07, 95% CI -14.00; -2.13), and having a positive change in physical fatigue during the intervention period (0.04, 95% CI 0.001; 0.07) were correlates of sport and leisure PA levels 4 years post-baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that baseline and 4-year post-baseline physical fatigue, and past exercise behaviour, were significant correlates of PA 4 years after participation in an exercise trial. Additionally, this study suggests that the built environment should be taken into account when promoting PA. Understanding of socio-ecological correlates of PA can provide insights into how future exercise interventions should be designed to promote long-term exercise behaviour. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43801571, Dutch Trial Register NTR2138. Trial registered on 9 December 2009, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2138.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 11(4): 919-928, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) loss is common in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and associated with poor clinical outcomes, including increased treatment-related toxicities and reduced survival. Muscle loss may contribute to reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including fatigue. Our aim was to study associations between changes in SMM and concomitant changes in patient-reported HRQoL. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of mCRC patients in the CAIRO3 randomized clinical trial who were-after initial treatment-randomized between maintenance treatment with capecitabine plus bevacizumab (CAP-B) and observation until first disease progression (PD1). Included patients had computed tomography images for SMM quantification, together with HRQoL assessments available at randomization and PD1. Changes in SMM (categorized as >2% loss, stable, and >2% gain) and HRQoL were computed between randomization and PD1. Changes in HRQoL score >10 points were considered clinically relevant. Associations between SMM and HRQoL changes were studied by multiple linear regression models. We also investigated whether associations differed by treatment arm for global health and the 13 other HRQoL subscales. RESULTS: Of 221 patients included (mean age 63.5 ± 8.4 years), 24% lost, 27% remained stable, and 49% gained SMM. At randomization, mean global health status was 73.5 ± 15.9 in the CAP-B arm and 75.1 ± 17.5 in the observation arm (P = 0.48). A stable or gain in SMM was significantly associated with a clinically relevant improvement in global health status (9.9 and 14.7 points, respectively), compared with patients who lost SMM. From the subscales that did not show significant differences between the two treatment arms, we found significant and clinically relevant associations for stable or gain in SMM with improved role functioning (12.0 and 17.9, respectively) and with less fatigue (-10.0 and -15.0, respectively) and pain (-16.3 for SMM gain). From the subscales that did show significantly different associations with SMM between the two treatment arms, we only found significant results in the observation arm. Here, associations were found for stable or gain in SMM with clinically relevant improved physical (12.4 for SMM gain), cognitive (10.7 and 9.7, respectively), and social functioning (15.5 and 15.6, respectively) as well as reduced appetite loss (-28.5 and -30.7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In mCRC, SMM preservation during CAP-B and observation treatment is associated with significant and clinically relevant improvements in global health status and multiple functional and symptom scales. Studies are warranted to investigate whether interventions targeting SMM lead to improved HRQoL, fewer symptoms, and better functioning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
5.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(2): 303-314, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fatigue is a common and potentially disabling symptom in patients with cancer. It can often be effectively reduced by exercise. Yet, effects of exercise interventions might differ across subgroups. We conducted a meta-analysis using individual patient data of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to investigate moderators of exercise intervention effects on cancer-related fatigue. METHODS: We used individual patient data from 31 exercise RCT worldwide, representing 4366 patients, of whom 3846 had complete fatigue data. We performed a one-step individual patient data meta-analysis, using linear mixed-effect models to analyze the effects of exercise interventions on fatigue (z score) and to identify demographic, clinical, intervention- and exercise-related moderators. Models were adjusted for baseline fatigue and included a random intercept on study level to account for clustering of patients within studies. We identified potential moderators by testing their interaction with group allocation, using a likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Exercise interventions had statistically significant beneficial effects on fatigue (ß = -0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.22 to -0.12). There was no evidence of moderation by demographic or clinical characteristics. Supervised exercise interventions had significantly larger effects on fatigue than unsupervised exercise interventions (ßdifference = -0.18; 95% CI -0.28 to -0.08). Supervised interventions with a duration ≤12 wk showed larger effects on fatigue (ß = -0.29; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.20) than supervised interventions with a longer duration. CONCLUSIONS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we found statistically significant beneficial effects of exercise interventions on fatigue, irrespective of demographic and clinical characteristics. These findings support a role for exercise, preferably supervised exercise interventions, in clinical practice. Reasons for differential effects in duration require further exploration.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Neoplasias/complicações , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Cancer Med ; 9(3): 1033-1043, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low skeletal muscle index (SMI) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients is associated with poor outcomes. The prognostic impact of SMI changes during consecutive palliative systemic treatments is unknown. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the phase 3 CAIRO3 study. The CAIRO3 study randomized 557 patients between maintenance capecitabine + bevacizumab (CAP-B) or observation, after six cycles capecitabine + oxaliplatin + bevacizumab (CAPOX-B). Upon first disease progression (PD1), CAPOX-B was reintroduced until second progression (PD2). SMI was assessed by computed tomography (CT) (total 1355 scans). SMI and body mass index (BMI) changes were analyzed for three time-periods; p1: during initial CAPOX-B, p2: randomization to PD1, and p3: PD1 to PD2. The association between absolute and change in SMI and BMI (both per 1 standard deviation) during p1-p3, with PD1, PD2, and survival was studied by Cox regression models. RESULTS: This analysis included 450 of the 557 patients randomized in the CAIRO3 study. Mean SMI decreased during p1: mean -0.6 SMI units [95% CI -1.07;-0.26] and p3: -2.2 units [-2.7;-1.8], whereas during p2, SMI increased + 1.2 units [0.8-1.6]. BMI changes did not reflect changes in SMI. SMI loss during p2 and p3 was significantly associated with shorter survival (HR 1.19 [1.09-1.35]; 1.54 [1.31-1.79], respectively). Sarcopenia at PD1 was significantly associated with early PD2 (HR 1.40 [1.10-1.70]). BMI loss independent of SMI loss was only associated with shorter overall survival during p3 (HR 1.35 [1.14-1.63]). CONCLUSIONS: In mCRC patients, SMI loss during palliative systemic treatment was related with early disease progression and reduced survival. BMI did not reflect changes in SMI and could not identify patients at risk of poor outcome during early treatment lines.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(22): 2091-2102, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extremely dense breast tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer and limits the detection of cancer with mammography. Data are needed on the use of supplemental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to improve early detection and reduce interval breast cancers in such patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in the Netherlands, we assigned 40,373 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years with extremely dense breast tissue and normal results on screening mammography to a group that was invited to undergo supplemental MRI or to a group that received mammography screening only. The groups were assigned in a 1:4 ratio, with 8061 in the MRI-invitation group and 32,312 in the mammography-only group. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the incidence of interval cancers during a 2-year screening period. RESULTS: The interval-cancer rate was 2.5 per 1000 screenings in the MRI-invitation group and 5.0 per 1000 screenings in the mammography-only group, for a difference of 2.5 per 1000 screenings (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.7; P<0.001). Of the women who were invited to undergo MRI, 59% accepted the invitation. Of the 20 interval cancers that were diagnosed in the MRI-invitation group, 4 were diagnosed in the women who actually underwent MRI (0.8 per 1000 screenings) and 16 in those who did not accept the invitation (4.9 per 1000 screenings). The MRI cancer-detection rate among the women who actually underwent MRI screening was 16.5 per 1000 screenings (95% CI, 13.3 to 20.5). The positive predictive value was 17.4% (95% CI, 14.2 to 21.2) for recall for additional testing and 26.3% (95% CI, 21.7 to 31.6) for biopsy. The false positive rate was 79.8 per 1000 screenings. Among the women who underwent MRI, 0.1% had either an adverse event or a serious adverse event during or immediately after the screening. CONCLUSIONS: The use of supplemental MRI screening in women with extremely dense breast tissue and normal results on mammography resulted in the diagnosis of significantly fewer interval cancers than mammography alone during a 2-year screening period. (Funded by the University Medical Center Utrecht and others; DENSE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01315015.).


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mamografia , Idoso , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1395-1403, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the evolution of BMI and skeletal muscle index (SMI) measurements during advanced cancer and their relationships with disease progression (PD) is relevant to improve the timing of interventions that may improve cachexia-associated outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated BMI and SMI trajectories and their associations with PD in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients during consecutive palliative systemic regimens. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of the primary CAIRO3 trial, we included 533 mCRC patients with BMI measurements repeated every 3 wk and 95 randomly selected patients with SMI measurements repeated every 9 wk. We studied 2 periods: p1, during first-line maintenance capecitabine + bevacizumab or observation until the first progression of disease (PD1); and p2, during capecitabine + oxaliplatin + bevacizumab or another reintroduction treatment from PD1 until the second progression of disease (PD2). BMI and SMI trajectories were modeled separately throughout both periods, and joint longitudinal-survival modeling was used to investigate the relationships between slopes in BMI and SMI with PD at 9 and 3 wk pre-PD. A multivariate longitudinal joint model was used to investigate the association between the BMI trajectory and PD at time of PD, independent of SMI. RESULTS: During p1, the slopes in BMI and SMI were associated with early PD1 [HRs for 9-wk BMI: 1.54 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.76); 9-wk SMI: 1.38 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.89), NS; 3-wk BMI: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.48, 1.99); 3-wk SMI: 2.65 (95% CI: 1.97, 3.32)]. During p2, only the slope in SMI was related to PD2 [9-wk BMI: 1.09 (95%: CI: 0.73, 1.45), NS; 9-wk SMI: 1.64 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.04); 3-wk BMI: 1.17 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.57); 3-wk SMI: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.53)]. In models mutually adjusting for BMI and SMI, SMI was associated with PD in p1 [p1 ( n = 95), HR BMI: 1.32 (95% CI: 0.74, 2.39), NS; p1, HR SMI: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.14); p2 ( n = 50), BMI: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.75), NS; p2, HR SMI: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.05), NS]. CONCLUSIONS: In mCRC patients during palliative systemic treatment, SMI losses, irrespective of BMI losses, may be a marker for the early initiation of cachexia interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Cuidados Paliativos
9.
Ann Fam Med ; 17(5): 419-427, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An optimal diagnostic process in primary care is pivotal for reducing cancer-related disease burden. This study aims to explore reasons for long times to referral for Dutch colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in primary care. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of anonymized free-text primary care records from the Julius General Practitioners' Network database, linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Patients with a confirmed CRC diagnosis from 2007 through 2011 that symptomatically presented in primary care were included. Median time and interquartile ranges from presentation in primary care to referral were calculated for multiple patient and presentation characteristics. Associations of these characteristics with long time to referral (75th percentile was ≥59 days) were examined with log-binomial regression analyses. Routes to referral of patients with the longest times to referral were explored using thematic free-text analyses (90th percentile at ≥219 days). RESULTS: Among the 309 people with CRC, patients who were female, did not have a registered family history, had a history of malignancy, lacked alarm symptoms at presentation, or had hemorrhoids at physical examination were at risk for longer time to referral in univariable analyses (longer median durations and/or univariable association with the 75th percentile). Only presentation without alarm symptoms showed a statistically significant association with long duration (75th percentile) in multivariable analysis (relative risk = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6). Thematic exploration of the diagnostic routes to referral of patients with the longest durations (90th percentile) showed 2 dominating themes: "alternative working diagnosis" and "suboptimal diagnostic strategies," and included the sub-themes "omitting to reconsider an initial diagnosis" and "lacking follow-up." CONCLUSIONS: Long time to referral for CRC in primary care is mainly related to low cancer suspicion. There is potential for reducing the longest times to referral for patients with CRC in primary care, with earlier reconsideration of the initial hypothesis and implementation of strict follow-up consultations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(2): pkz014, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360897

RESUMO

Background: Increasing evidence indicates that loss of muscle mass is associated with adverse outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer. Here, we investigate which demographic, lifestyle- (smoking), tumor-, and treatment-related factors are associated with muscle loss in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line palliative systemic treatment. Methods: Data from 300 patients with computed tomography scans both at start and after six initial cycles of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin and bevacizumab was used (CAIRO3). From computed tomography, muscle mass normalized for stature (skeletal muscle index [SMI]) was calculated. A priori-selected variables were tested using multivariable linear regression models (P values ≤.05). Two models were developed: Model 1 contained variables measured at start and Model 2 contained variables assessed after initial therapy. Results: In Model 1, loss of SMI was statistically significantly associated with a higher initial SMI (-0.32%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.45% to -0.19% per unit increase in initial SMI), smoking status (-2.74%, 95% CI = -5.29% to -0.19% for smokers), and interval of metastases (-3.02%, 95% CI = -5.50% to -0.53%) for metachronous vs synchronous metastases), and primary tumor resection was statistically significantly associated with a gain in SMI (2.17%, 95% CI = 0.13% to 4.21% for resection vs no resection). In Model 2, loss of SMI was statistically significantly associated with response to capecitabine plus oxaliplatin and bevacizumab (-2.48%, 95% CI = -4.33% to -0.62% for stable disease vs partial/complete response). Conclusions: Our results highlight, given the association of sarcopenia and survival, that patients with higher SMI should not be ignored. In addition, smoking is a potentially modifiable factor associated with muscle loss. The association between smoking and muscle loss might relate to worse clinical outcomes in smokers with metastatic colorectal cancer.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028117, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227537

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After treatment with chemotherapy, many patients with breast cancer experience cognitive problems. While limited interventions are available to improve cognitive functioning, physical exercise showed positive effects in healthy older adults and people with mild cognitive impairment. The Physical Activity and Memory study aims to investigate the effect of physical exercise on cognitive functioning and brain measures in chemotherapy-exposed patients with breast cancer with cognitive problems. METHODS AND ANALYTICS: One hundred and eighty patients with breast cancer with cognitive problems 2-4 years after diagnosis are randomised (1:1) into an exercise intervention or a control group. The 6-month exercise intervention consists of twice a week 1-hour aerobic and strength exercises supervised by a physiotherapist and twice a week 1-hour Nordic or power walking. The control group is asked to maintain their habitual activity pattern during 6 months. The primary outcome (verbal learning) is measured at baseline and 6 months. Further measurements include online neuropsychological tests, self-reported cognitive complaints, a 3-tesla brain MRI, patient-reported outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, depression, anxiety, work performance), blood sampling and physical fitness. The MRI scans and blood sampling will be used to gain insight into underlying mechanisms. At 18 months online neuropsychological tests, self-reported cognitive complaints and patient-reported outcomes will be repeated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study results may impact usual care if physical exercise improves cognitive functioning for breast cancer survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR6104.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 113: 137-146, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) design is an alternative for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and might overcome disadvantages such as difficult recruitment, dropout after randomization to control, and contamination. We investigated the applicability of the TwiCs design in an exercise oncology study regarding the recruitment process, representativeness of the study sample, contamination, participation, and dropout. METHODS: The Utrecht cohort for Multiple BREast cancer intervention studies and Long-term evaLuAtion (UMBRELLA) Fit TwiCs evaluates an exercise intervention in inactive breast cancer patients. Eligible patients participating in the prospective UMBRELLA were identified and randomized. Patients randomized to the intervention (n = 130) were offered the intervention, whereas controls (n = 130) were not informed. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent (n = 68) accepted the intervention. Because this rate was lower than expected, a larger sample size was required than initially estimated (n = 166). However, recruitment of 260 patients was still completed by one researcher within 30 months. Unselective eligibility screening and randomization before invitation improved representativeness. Disadvantage of the design might be inclusion of ineligible patients when cohort information is limited. Furthermore, the design faced higher noncompliance in the intervention group, but prevention of contamination. CONCLUSION: The TwiCs design improved logistics in recruitment and prevented contamination, but noncompliance due to refusal of the intervention was higher compared with conventional pragmatic exercise oncology RCTs, which may dilute the estimated intervention effect.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215517, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maintaining high adherence rates (session attendance and compliance) in exercise programs during breast cancer treatment can be challenging. We aimed to identify adherence rates and predictors to an exercise program during adjuvant breast cancer treatment. METHODS: Ninety-two patients with localized breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to an 18-week supervised moderate-to-high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise program, including two 1-hour sessions/week. Additionally, participants were asked to be physically active for at least 30 minutes/day on at least three other days. We report median percentages for attendance, compliance with the prescribed duration and intensity of aerobic and muscle strength exercises, and the exercise advice given. Predictors included in univariate and multivariable linear regression models were demographical, tumor- and treatment-related factors, constructs of the theory of planned behavior, psychological and physical factors. RESULTS: Patients attended 83% (interquartile range: 69-91%) of the supervised sessions. Compliance with the duration of aerobic exercise, high-intensity aerobic exercise (cycling at the ventilatory threshold), muscle strength exercises and the exercise advice were 88%(64-97%), 50%(22-82%), 84%(65-94%) and 61%(33%-79%), respectively. Education, radiotherapy, BMI and physical fatigue were important predictors of adherence to supervised exercise. Beliefs about planned behaviors were important predictors, especially for compliance with the exercise advice. CONCLUSIONS: Attendance to and compliance with an 18-week aerobic and strength exercise program were high. The lowest compliance was found for high-intensity supervised aerobic exercise. The identified predictors should be considered when designing or adapting exercise programs for patients with localized breast cancer to increase adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43801571 Dutch Trial Register NTR2138.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 174, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the effect of equivalent weight loss with or without exercise on (intra-) abdominal fat in postmenopausal women in the SHAPE-2 study. METHODS: The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed randomised controlled trial conducted in 2012-2013 in the Netherlands. Postmenopausal overweight women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), exercise plus diet (n = 98) or control group (n = 48). Both intervention groups aimed for equivalent weight loss (6-7%) following a calorie-restricted diet (diet group) or a partly supervised intensive exercise programme (4 h per week) combined with a small caloric restriction (exercise plus diet group). Outcomes after 16 weeks are amount and distribution of abdominal fat, measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the use of the three-point IDEAL Dixon method. RESULTS: The diet and exercise plus diet group lost 6.1 and 6.9% body weight, respectively. Compared to controls, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat reduced significantly with both diet (- 12.5% and - 12.0%) and exercise plus diet (- 16.0% and - 14.6%). Direct comparison between both interventions revealed that the reduction in subcutaneous fat was statistically significantly larger in the group that combined exercise with diet: an additional 10.6 cm2 (95%CI -18.7; - 2.4) was lost compared to the diet-only group. Intra-abdominal fat loss was not significantly larger in the exercise plus diet group (- 3.8 cm2, 95%CI -9.0; 1.3). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that weight loss of 6-7% with diet or with exercise plus diet reduced both subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. Only subcutaneous fat statistically significantly reduced to a larger extent when exercise is combined with a small caloric restriction. TRIAL REGISTER: NCT01511276 (clinicaltrials.gov), prospectively registered.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal , Restrição Calórica , Exercício Físico , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Pós-Menopausa , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Obesidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
Gastric Cancer ; 22(4): 663-674, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence has been associated with reduced risks of esophageal and gastric cancer (subtypes) in a limited number of studies. We prospectively investigated associations between MD adherence and risks of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) in a Dutch cohort. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using data from the 120852 participants of the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), who were aged between 55 and 69 years at enrollment. Various MD scores, with and without alcohol, were calculated to estimate MD adherence. Using 20.3 years of follow-up, 133 ESCC, 200 EAC, 191 GCA, and 586 GNCA cases could be included in multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the investigated scores, the alternate Mediterranean diet score without alcohol (aMEDr) performed best. aMEDr was inversely associated with risks of GCA and GNCA in men and women. However, statistical significance was only reached in men [ptrend: 0.019 (GCA), 0.016 (GNCA)]. Furthermore, higher aMEDr values were significantly associated with a reduced ESCC risk in men [HRper two-point increment (95% CI) = 0.57 (0.41-0.80), ptrend = 0.013], but not in women (pheterogeneity = 0.008). There was no evidence of an association between aMEDr and EAC risk. Educational level was a significant effect modifier for the association between aMEDr and GNCA risk (pheterogeneity = 0.0073). CONCLUSIONS: Higher MD adherence was associated with reduced risks of ESCC, GCA, and GNCA in the NLCS. However, the decreased ESCC risk might be limited to men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Adenocarcinoma/dietoterapia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/dietoterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Cancer ; 145(9): 2349-2359, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694528

RESUMO

Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 6/sangue
17.
Gut ; 68(4): 672-683, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and validate published colorectal cancer risk prediction models that do not require invasive testing in two large population-based prospective cohorts. DESIGN: Models were identified through an update of a published systematic review and validated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the UK Biobank. The performance of the models to predict the occurrence of colorectal cancer within 5 or 10 years after study enrolment was assessed by discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (plots of observed vs predicted probability). RESULTS: The systematic review and its update identified 16 models from 8 publications (8 colorectal, 5 colon and 3 rectal). The number of participants included in each model validation ranged from 41 587 to 396 515, and the number of cases ranged from 115 to 1781. Eligible and ineligible participants across the models were largely comparable. Calibration of the models, where assessable, was very good and further improved by recalibration. The C-statistics of the models were largely similar between validation cohorts with the highest values achieved being 0.70 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.72) in the UK Biobank and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) in EPIC. CONCLUSION: Several of these non-invasive models exhibited good calibration and discrimination within both external validation populations and are therefore potentially suitable candidates for the facilitation of risk stratification in population-based colorectal screening programmes. Future work should both evaluate this potential, through modelling and impact studies, and ascertain if further enhancement in their performance can be obtained.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(1): 22-30, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534999

RESUMO

Background: Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. Objective: To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth. Design: Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies. Setting: The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Participants: Women younger than 55 years. Measurements: During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns. Limitations: Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited. Conclusion: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women. Primary Funding Source: The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Parto , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio/análise , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(8): 3303-3312, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study. METHODS: The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases (including 601 papillary and 109 follicular TC) were identified. Coffee consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk (HRcalibrated 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04) or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption (per 100 mL/day) was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC (HRcalibrated 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.02) and papillary tumor (HRcalibrated 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.03), whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk (HRcalibrated 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99), but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Café , Avaliação Nutricional , Chá , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Cancer Res ; 79(1): 274-285, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425058

RESUMO

Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; P trend < 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (P heterogeneity = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
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