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1.
Lancet Haematol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Further improvement of preparative regimens before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an unmet medical need for the growing number of older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of conditioning with treosulfan plus fludarabine compared with reduced-intensity busulfan plus fludarabine in this population. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in 31 transplantation centres in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Poland. Eligible patients were 18-70 years, had acute myeloid leukaemia in first or consecutive complete haematological remission (blast counts <5% in bone marrow) or myelodysplastic syndrome (blast counts <20% in bone marrow), Karnofsky index of 60% or higher, and were indicated for allogeneic HSCT but considered at an increased risk for standard myeloablative preparative regimens based on age (≥50 years), an HSCT-specific comorbidity index of more than 2, or both. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intravenous 10 g/m2 treosulfan daily applied as a 2-h infusion for 3 days (days -4 to -2) or 0·8 mg/kg busulfan applied as a 2-h infusion at 6-h intervals on days -4 and -3. Both groups received 30 mg/m2 intravenous fludarabine daily for 5 days (days -6 to -2). The primary outcome was event-free survival 2 years after HSCT. The non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·3. Efficacy was assessed in all patients who received treatment and completed transplantation, and safety in all patients who received treatment. The study is registered with EudraCT (2008-002356-18) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00822393). FINDINGS: Between June 13, 2013, and May 3, 2016, 476 patients were enrolled (240 in the busulfan group received treatment and transplantation, and in the treosulfan group 221 received treatment and 220 transplanation). At the second preplanned interim analysis (Nov 9, 2016), the primary endpoint was met and trial was stopped. Here we present the final confirmatory analysis (data cutoff May 31, 2017). Median follow-up was 15·4 months (IQR 8·8-23·6) for patients treated with treosulfan and 17·4 months (6·3-23·4) for those treated with busulfan. 2-year event-free survival was 64·0% (95% CI 56·0-70·9) in the treosulfan group and 50·4% (42·8-57·5) in the busulfan group (HR 0·65 [95% CI 0·47-0·90]; p<0·0001 for non-inferiority, p=0·0051 for superiority). The most frequently reported grade 3 or higher adverse events were abnormal blood chemistry results (33 [15%] of 221 patients in the treosulfan group vs 35 [15%] of 240 patients in the busulfan group) and gastrointestinal disorders (24 [11%] patients vs 39 [16%] patients). Serious adverse events were reported for 18 (8%) patients in the treosulfan group and 17 (7%) patients in the busulfan group. Causes of deaths were generally transplantation-related. INTERPRETATION: Treosulfan was non-inferior to busulfan when used in combination with fludarabine as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic HSCT for older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. The improved outcomes in patients treated with the treosulfan-fludarabine regimen suggest its potential to become a standard preparative regimen in this population. FUNDING: medac GmbH.

2.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582549

RESUMO

This follow-up study of the randomized prospective trial included 192 patients with newly diagnosed severe aplastic anemia receiving Antithymoglobulin and Cyclosporine, with and without G-CSF. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of G-CSF on overall survival, event-free survival, probability of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia, clinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, relapse, avascular osteonecrosis and chronic kidney disease. The median follow-up was 11.7 years (10.9-12.5). Overall survival at 15 years was 57±12% for the G-CSF and 63±12% for the non-G-CSF group (P=0.92), event-free survival 24±10% for the G-CSF, and 23±10% for the non-G-CSF group (P=0.36). In total, 9 patients developed myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia, and 10 clonal cytogenetic abnormality only, 7 solid cancer, 18 clinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, 8 osteonecrosis, and 12 chronic kidney disease, without any difference between patients treated with or without G-CSF. Cumulative incidence at 15 years of myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia or isolated cytogenetic abnormality was 8.5±3% for the G-CSF, and 8.2±3% for the non-G-CSF group (P=0.90). Cumulative incidence of any late event including myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia , isolated cytogenetic abnormalities, solid cancer, clinical paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, aseptic osteonecrosis, chronic kidney disease and relapse was 50±12% for the G-CSF, and 49±12% for the non-G-CSF group (P=0.65). Our results demonstrate that it is unlikely that G-CSF impacts on the outcome of severe aplastic anemia; nevertheless, very late events are common and eventually impact on the prognosis of these patients, irrespectively of their age at immunosuppressive therapy (NCT01163942).

3.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484648

RESUMO

Germline DDX41 mutations are involved in familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML). We analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies in an unselected cohort of 1385 patients with MDS or AML. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified 28 different germline DDX41 variants in 43 unrelated patients which we classified as causal (n=21) or unknown significance (n=7) variants. We focused on the 33 patients having causal variants, representing 2.4% of our cohort. Median age was 69 years, most patients were males (79%). Only 9 patients (27%) had a family history of hematological malignancy, while 15 (46%) had personal history of cytopenias years prior to MDS/AML diagnosis. Most patients had normal karyotype (85%) and the most frequent somatic alteration was a second DDX41 mutation (79%). High-risk DDX41 MDS/AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy (n=9) or azacitidine (n=11) had an overall response rate of 100% and 73%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 5.2 years. Our study highlights that germline DDX41 mutations are relatively common in adult MDS/AML, often without known family history, arguing for systematic screening. Salient features of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies include male preponderance, frequent pre-existing cytopenias, additional somatic DDX41 mutation and relatively good outcome.

4.
Blood Adv ; 3(15): 2424-2435, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409584

RESUMO

Endothelial cell (EC) activation has been suspected of triggering a group of rare and dismal complications that can occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Capillary leak syndrome, engraftment syndrome, transplant-associated microangiopathy, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome are the main nosological entities. Post-HSCT endotheliitis can be triggered by chemotherapy, infections, and calcineurin inhibitors, but allogeneic reactivity is claimed to be the common denominator. Endothelial damages are thought to activate several deleterious pathways (proapoptotic, procoagulant, proinflammatory) and can lead to multiorgan failure; however, clinical manifestations of each syndrome overlap, and their relationship with graft-versus-host disease could be minimal. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria does not allow for a clear-cut comparison in the current literature. Therapeutic efforts have been made to intercept the pathogenic mechanisms leading to EC dysfunction, but remission rates and survival remain mostly unsatisfactory. In this article, we have reviewed the incidence, clinical features, and treatment approaches of EC activation syndromes, and we plead for the development of internationally accepted standard definitions.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413313

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No consensus exists on the best second-line treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD (SR-aGVHD). Previously published smaller studies on the use of sirolimus in SR-aGVHD treatment report a response rate of 57 to 86%, with 40% overall survival. The association of tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor is supported by pre-clinical data and has been used as GVHD prophylaxis. We report 42 patients who received tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor as a second- or third-line treatment of SR-aGVHD. Thirty-one patients were treated in second-line, with an overall response rate of 48.5% (complete response: 42%). Eleven patients were treated in third-line, with an overall response rate of 27%. Thirty-eight patients had at least one episode of infection, due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in 61, 42, 12 and two episodes, respectively. For patients treated in second-line, six-month and one-year survival were 61% and 42%, respectively. None of the patients treated in third-line survived. These results were not promising enough to initiate a phase three randomized clinical trial, but tacrolimus and mTOR inhibitor can be discussed among other options for patients with SR-aGVHD.

7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258525

RESUMO

The treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria has been revolutionized by the introduction of the anti-C5 agent eculizumab; however, eculizumab is not the cure for Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and room for improvement remains. Indeed, the hematological benefit during eculizumab treatment for PNH is very heterogeneous among patients, and different response categories can be identified. Complete normalization of hemoglobin (complete and major hematological response), is seen in no more than one third of patients, while the remaining continue to experience some degree of anemia (good and partial hematological responses), in some cases requiring regular red blood cell transfusions (minor hematological response). Different factors contribute to residual anemia during eculizumab treatment: underlying bone marrow dysfunction, residual intravascular hemolysis and the emergence of C3-mediated extravascular hemolysis. These two latter pathogenic mechanisms are the target of novel strategies of anti-complement treatments, which can be split into terminal and proximal complement inhibitors. Many novel terminal complement inhibitors are now in clinical development: they all target C5 (as eculizumab), potentially paralleling the efficacy and safety profile of eculizumab. Possible advantages over eculizumab are long-lasting activity and subcutaneous self-administration. However, novel anti-C5 agents do not improve hematological response to eculizumab, even if some seem associated with a lower risk of breakthrough hemolysis caused by pharmacokinetic reasons (it remains unclear whether more effective inhibition of C5 is possible and clinically beneficial). Indeed, proximal inhibitors are designed to interfere with early phases of complement activation, eventually preventing C3-mediated extravascular hemolysis in addition to intravascular hemolysis. At the moment there are three strategies of proximal complement inhibition: anti-C3 agents, anti-factor D agents and anti-factor B agents. These agents are available either subcutaneously or orally, and have been investigated in monotherapy or in association with eculizumab in PNH patients. Preliminary data clearly demonstrate that proximal complement inhibition is pharmacologically feasible and apparently safe, and may drastically improve the hematological response to complement inhibition in PNH. Indeed, we envision a new scenario of therapeutic complement inhibition, where proximal inhibitors (either anti-C3, anti-FD or anti-FB) may prove effective for the treatment of PNH, either in monotherapy or in combination with anti-C5 agents, eventually leading to drastic improvement of hematological response.

8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1798-1802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129355

RESUMO

Prognosis of patients with graft failure is dismal, and retransplantation is the sole option for long-term survival. To address the interest of haploidentical transplantation as a salvage option in this context, we analyzed data from 24 patients with graft failure or loss retransplanted with a haploidentical donor who received post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis (GVHD). Fludarabine-based reduced-intensity conditioning was used in 23 patients and the Baltimore regimen in 14 patients. The median delay between previous and salvage transplantation for graft failure was 63 days (range, 39 to 98). In addition to PTCy, all patients received cyclosporine, and 22 patients also received mycophenolate mofetil for GVHD prophylaxis. With a median follow-up of 353 days (range, 16 to 2010), 1-year overall survival (OS) was 56% (95% confidence interval, 38% to 81%). Transplant complications accounted for 80% of deaths. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day +30 was 79%. Cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute GVHD at day 100 was 14%, and 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 31%. One-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 13%. Stem cell source did not impact on engraftment, GVHD, relapse, or OS. Salvage haploidentical transplant with PTCy for rescuing graft failure patients leads to an acceptable 1-year OS and might be a valid option in this poor situation.

9.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097628

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for sickle-cell anemia, but the place of myeloablative conditioning remains to be defined. The aim of the present study was to analyze long-term outcomes, including chimerism, sickle-cell anemia-related events and biological data (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, HbS%), and fertility, in a French series of 234 SCA-patients younger than 30 years who received (1988-2012) a matched-sibling-donor stem cell transplantation following standardized myeloablative conditioning (Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin). Since the first report of the series (1988-2004), 151 new consecutive patients with sickle-cell anemia were similarly transplanted. Considering death, non-engraftment or rejection (donor cells<5%) as events, the 5-year event-free survival was 97.9% (95% confidence interval:95.5-100%), confirming at least 95% chance of cure since year 2000. In the overall cohort (n=234, median follow-up of 7.9 years), event-free survival was not associated with age, but chronic-graft-vs-host disease was independently associated with recipien's age>15 (hazard ratio=4.37,P=0.002) and lower (5-15 vs 20 mg/kg) anti-thymocyte globulin dose (hazard ratio=4.55,P=0.001). At one year, 44% of patients had mixed chimerism (5-95% donor cells), but those prepared with anti-thymocyte globulin had no graft rejection. No events related to sickle cell anemia occurred in patients with mixed chimerism, even those with 15-20% donor cells, but hemolytic anemia stigmata were observed with donor cells<50%. Currently, myeloablative transplantation with matched-sibling donor has a higher event-free survival (98%) in patients younger than 30 than that reported for non-myeloablative conditioning (88%). Nevertheless, the risk of chronic graft-vs-host disease in older patients and need for fertility preservation might be indications in patients older than 15 for a non-myeloablative conditioning.

10.
Bull Cancer ; 106(6): 574-583, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060736

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative therapy for numerous malignant and non-malignant haematological diseases. A sustained engraftment of the donor stem cells is essential for transplant success and overall outcome. Graft failure is a rare but severe event after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. While different risk factors such as underlying disease, graft source or HLA matching have been found to be consistently associated with graft failure, other factors such as ABO mismatch graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis or infections, particularly viral reactivations, are more controversial. In this article, we review the different factors associated with graft failure.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Aloenxertos , Incompatibilidade de Grupos Sanguíneos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Incidência , Neutropenia/etiologia , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Quimeras de Transplante
11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1525-1552, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953028

RESUMO

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.

13.
JAMA ; 321(3): 266-276, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667500

RESUMO

Importance: In children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), high transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocities are associated with stroke risk, which is reduced by chronic transfusion. Whether matched sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (MSD-HSCT) can reduce velocities in patients with SCA is unknown. Objective: To determine the association of MSD-HSCT with TCD velocities as a surrogate for the occurrence of ischemic stroke in children with SCA. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nonrandomized controlled intervention study conducted at 9 French centers. Patients with SCA were enrolled between December 2010 and June 2013, with 3-year follow-up ending in January 2017. Children with SCA were eligible if younger than 15 years, required chronic transfusions for persistently elevated TCD velocities, and had at least 1 sibling without SCA from the same 2 parents. Families agreed to HLA antigen typing and transplantation if a matched sibling donor was identified or to standard care in the absence of a matched sibling donor. Exposures: MSD-HSCT (n = 32), compared with standard care (n = 35) (transfusions for ≥1 year with potential switch to hydroxyurea thereafter), using propensity score matching. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the highest time-averaged mean of maximum velocities in 8 cerebral arteries, measured by TCD (TCD velocity) at 1 year. Twenty-five of 29 secondary outcomes were analyzed, including the highest TCD velocity at 3 years and normalization of velocities (<170 cm/s) and ferritin levels at 1 and 3 years. Results: Sixty-seven children with SCA (median age, 7.6 years; 35 girls [52%]) were enrolled (7 with stroke history). In the matched sample, highest TCD velocities at 1 year were significantly lower on average in the transplantation group (129.6 cm/s) vs the standard care group (170.4 cm/s; difference, -40.8 cm/s [95% CI, -62.9 to -18.6]; P < .001). Of the 25 analyzed secondary end points, 4 showed significant differences, including the highest TCD velocity at 3 years (112.4 cm/s in the transplantation group vs 156.7 cm/s in the standard care group; difference, -44.3 [95% CI, -71.9 to -21.1]; P = .001); normalization rate at 1 year (80.0% in the transplantation group vs 48.0% in the standard care group; difference, 32.0% [95% CI, 0.2% to 58.6%]; P = .045); and ferritin levels at 1 year (905 ng/mL in the transplantation group vs 2529 ng/mL in the standard care group; difference, -1624 [95% CI, -2370 to -879]; P < .001) and 3 years (382 ng/mL in the transplantation group vs 2170 ng/mL in the standard care group; difference, -1788 [95% CI, -2570 to -1006]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with SCA requiring chronic transfusion because of persistently elevated TCD velocities, MSD-HSCT was significantly associated with lower TCD velocities at 1 year compared with standard care. Further research is warranted to assess the effects of MSD-HSCT on clinical outcomes and over longer follow-up. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01340404.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Irmãos , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Aloenxertos , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico por imagem , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Criança , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Qualidade de Vida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
14.
Blood ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510079

RESUMO

Ravulizumab, a new complement C5 inhibitor administered every 8 weeks, was noninferior to eculizumab administered every 2 weeks in complement inhibitor-naive patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). This study assessed noninferiority of ravulizumab to eculizumab in clinically stable PNH patients during previous eculizumab therapy. In this phase 3, open-label, multicenter study, 195 PNH patients on labeled-dose (900 mg every 2 weeks) eculizumab for greater than 6 months were randomly assigned 1:1 to switch to ravulizumab (n = 97) or continue eculizumab (n = 98). Primary efficacy endpoint was percentage change in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from baseline to day 183. Key secondary endpoints included proportion of patients with breakthrough hemolysis, change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue score, transfusion avoidance, and stabilized hemoglobin. In 191 patients completing 183 days of treatment, ravulizumab was noninferior to eculizumab (Pinf<.0006 for all endpoints), including percentage change in LDH (difference, 9.21% [95% CI: -0.42 to 18.84], P = 0.058 for superiority), breakthrough hemolysis (difference, 5.1 [95% CI: -8.89 to 18.99]), change in FACIT-Fatigue score (difference, 1.47 [95% CI: -0.21 to 3.15]), transfusion avoidance (difference of 5.5 [95% CI: -4.27 to 15.68]), and stabilized hemoglobin (difference, 1.4 [95% CI: -10.41 to 13.31]). The most frequently reported adverse event was headache (26.8%, ravulizumab; 17.3%, eculizumab). No meningococcal infections or discontinuations due to adverse events occurred. Patients with PNH may be safely and effectively switched from labeled-dose eculizumab administered every 2 weeks to ravulizumab administered every 8 weeks. (Funded by Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03056040).

15.
Br J Haematol ; 183(5): 766-774, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407615

RESUMO

The incidence of acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) peaks in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Although age has been associated with response after immunosuppressive therapy (IST), few data exist about the specific outcome of AYA. We retrospectively compared the outcome of 29 children (aged <15 years), 32 AYA (15-25 years) and 23 adults (>25 years) with AA treated front-line with IST in Saint-Louis Hospital. The cumulative incidence of response was lower in adults compared with AYA (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] = 0·38, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0·96-1·00], P = 0·008), but no difference was observed between children and AYA (SHR = 0·84, 95% CI [0·96-1·00], P = 0·56), with a 6 months cumulative incidence of partial response of 44·8% in children, 62·5% in AYA and 21·7% in adults. The 5-year failure-free survival was 48·4%, without impact of age, with a 5-year relapse rate of 20·7%. With a median follow-up of 5·4 years, the 5-year overall survival was 86·5%, without significant difference between children and AYA overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1·51, 95% CI [0·25-9·02], P = 0·66), while adults displayed poorer survival than AYA (HR 4·98, 95% CI [1·00-24·73], P = 0·049). This study confirms that age is a prognostic factor in AA patients treated with IST. However, AYA patients have a similar outcome to children in terms of response rate and survival.

18.
Haematologica ; 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262561

RESUMO

Aplastic anemia is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease that may affect older patients. Data regarding the treatment of aplastic anemia in this ageing population remains scarce. We conducted a retrospective nationwide multicenter study in France to examine current treatments for aplastic anemia patients over 60 years old. Our aims were to evaluate efficacy and tolerance, and to analyze predictive factors for response and survival. Over the course of a decade, 88 patients (median age 68.5) were identified in 19 centers, with a median follow-up of 2.7 years; 21% had very severe and 36% severe aplastic anemia. We analyzed 184 treatment lines, mostly involving the standard combination of anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A (33%), which was also the most frequent first-line treatment (50%). After first-line therapy, 32% of patients achieved a complete response, and 15% a partial response. Responses were significantly better in first line and in patients with good performance status, as well as in those that had followed an anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A regimen (overall response rate of 70% after first-line treatment). All treatments were well tolerated by patients, including over the age of 70. Three-year survival was 74.7% (median 7.36 years). Age, Charlson comorbidity index and very severe aplastic anemia were independently associated with mortality. Age per se is not a limiting factor to aplastic anemia treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin and cyclosporine-A; this regimen should be used as a first-line treatment in elderly patients if they have a good performance status and low comorbidity index score.

19.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(12): 2523-2531, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071321

RESUMO

Liver blood test anomalies are common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but their cause often remains difficult to identify. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and utility of liver biopsies in patients who underwent allo-HSCT. In a retrospective single-center cohort study, we reviewed all cases of patients who underwent liver biopsy between June 2005 and July 2017. During this period, 54 biopsies were performed in 45 patients, in which 38 patients underwent allo-HSCT for malignant and 7 for nonmalignant hematological disorders. Median time between allo-HSCT and liver biopsy was 213 days. Seven biopsies were percutaneous, and 47 were transjugular. No adverse event related to the biopsy procedure occurred; 94.5% biopsies (51 of 54) led to a histological diagnosis. Cholestatic graft-versus-host disease was histologically demonstrated in 16 biopsies (30%); hepatitis-like graft-versus-host disease in 9 biopsies (17%); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 6 biopsies (9%); regenerative nodular hyperplasia in 4 biopsies (5%); and drug-induced liver injury, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and viral hepatitis each in 3 biopsies (5%). Association between clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological features was poor. Only 34% of physicians' prebiopsy hypotheses were confirmed by pathological findings. Patient management was influenced by liver biopsy results in 65% of cases, allowing us to identify a new diagnosis (n = 13), rule out a differential diagnosis (n = 14), or confirm the main hypothesis (n = 6). In conclusion, liver biopsy is a safe and useful technique to investigate liver blood test anomalies following allo-HSCT.

20.
Semin Hematol ; 55(3): 124-129, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032748

RESUMO

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) arises from a somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A, X-linked gene, responsible for a deficiency in glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. The absence of one of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein complement regulatory proteins (CD59) leads to hemolysis. Clinical manifestations include chronic hemolysis, thromboembolic disease, infectious complications, chronic kidney injury, pulmonary hypertension, and smooth muscle dysfunction. Until 10 years ago, treatment was mainly supportive, with most patients suffering from significant morbidity and shortened survival compared with age-matched controls. The development of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the terminal complement protein C5, has led to dramatic improvements in survival and reduced complications. In this article, we review 10 years of clinical experience with eculizumab in PNH along with specific related situations. Extravascular hemolysis and the use of eculizumab in pregnant patients with PNH are also addressed.

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