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1.
J Neurol ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type R1/2A (LGMDR1/LGMD2A) is a progressive myopathy caused by deficiency of calpain 3, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease of skeletal muscle, and it represents the most frequent type of LGMD worldwide. In the last few years, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a tool for identifying patterns of muscular involvement in genetic disorders and as a biomarker of disease progression in muscle diseases. In this study, 57 molecularly confirmed LGMDR1 patients from a European cohort (age range 7-78 years) underwent muscle MRI and a global evaluation of functional status (Gardner-Medwin and Walton score and ability to raise the arms). RESULTS: We confirmed a specific pattern of fatty substitution involving predominantly the hip adductors and hamstrings in lower limbs. Spine extensors were more severely affected than spine rotators, in agreement with higher incidence of lordosis than scoliosis in LGMDR1. Hierarchical clustering of lower limb MRI scores showed that involvement of anterior thigh muscles discriminates between classes of disease progression. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with CAPN3 mutations: in particular, patients with no or one "null" alleles showed a milder involvement, compared to patients with two null alleles (i.e., predicting absence of calpain-3 protein). Expectedly, fat infiltration scores strongly correlated with functional measures. The "pseudocollagen" sign (central areas of sparing in some muscle) was associated with longer and more severe disease course. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that skeletal muscle MRI represents a useful tool in the diagnostic workup and clinical management of LGMDR1.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476771

RESUMO

Background: Mutations in the LMNA (lamin A/C) gene have been associated with neuromuscular and cardiac manifestations, but the clinical implications of these signs are not well understood. Objective: To learn more about the natural history of LMNA-related disease. Design: Observational study. Setting: 13 clinical centers in Italy from 2000 through 2018. Patients: 164 carriers of an LMNA mutation. Measurements: Detailed cardiologic and neurologic evaluation at study enrollment and for a median of 10 years of follow-up. Results: The median age at enrollment was 38 years, and 51% of participants were female. Neuromuscular manifestations preceded cardiac signs by a median of 11 years, but by the end of follow-up, 90% of the patients had electrical heart disease followed by structural heart disease. Overall, 10 patients (6%) died, 14 (9%) received a heart transplant, and 32 (20%) had malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fifteen patients had gait loss, and 6 had respiratory failure. Atrial fibrillation and second- and third-degree atrioventricular block were observed, respectively, in 56% and 51% of patients with combined cardiac and neuromuscular manifestations and 37% and 33% of those with heart disease only. Limitations: Some of the data were collected retrospectively. Neuromuscular manifestations were more frequent in this analysis than in previous studies. Conclusion: Many patients with an LMNA mutation have neurologic symptoms by their 30s and develop progressive cardiac manifestations during the next decade. A substantial proportion of these patients will have life-threatening neurologic or cardiologic conditions. Primary Funding Source: None.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(9): 834-844, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclusion body myositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and the most common myopathy affecting people older than 50 years. To date, there are no effective drug treatments. We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of bimagrumab-a fully human monoclonal antibody-in individuals with inclusion body myositis. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (RESILIENT) at 38 academic clinical sites in Australia, Europe, Japan, and the USA. Individuals (aged 36-85 years) were eligible for the study if they met modified 2010 Medical Research Council criteria for inclusion body myositis. We randomly assigned participants (1:1:1:1) using a blocked randomisation schedule (block size of four) to either bimagrumab (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 1 mg/kg) or placebo matched in appearance to bimagrumab, administered as intravenous infusions every 4 weeks for at least 48 weeks. All study participants, the funder, investigators, site personnel, and people doing assessments were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome measure was 6-min walking distance (6MWD), which was assessed at week 52 in the primary analysis population and analysed by intention-to-treat principles. We used a multivariate normal repeated measures model to analyse data for 6MWD. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events and by electrocardiography, echocardiography, haematological testing, urinalysis, and blood chemistry. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01925209; this report represents the final analysis. FINDINGS: Between Sept 26, 2013, and Jan 6, 2016, 251 participants were enrolled to the study, of whom 63 were assigned to each bimagrumab group and 62 were allocated to the placebo group. At week 52, 6MWD change from baseline did not differ between any bimagrumab dose and placebo (least squares mean treatment difference for bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 17·6 m, SE 14·3, 99% CI -19·6 to 54·8; p=0·22; for 3 mg/kg group, 18·6 m, 14·2, -18·2 to 55·4; p=0·19; and for 1 mg/kg group, -1·3 m, 14·1, -38·0 to 35·4; p=0·93). 63 (100%) participants in each bimagrumab group and 61 (98%) of 62 in the placebo group had at least one adverse event. Falls were the most frequent adverse event (48 [76%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 55 [87%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 54 [86%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 52 [84%] in the placebo group). The most frequently reported adverse events with bimagrumab were muscle spasms (32 [51%] in the bimagrumab 10 mg/kg group, 43 [68%] in the 3 mg/kg group, 25 [40%] in the 1 mg/kg group, and 13 [21%] in the placebo group) and diarrhoea (33 [52%], 28 [44%], 20 [32%], and 11 [18%], respectively). Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in four (6%) participants in each bimagrumab group compared with one (2%) participant in the placebo group. At least one serious adverse event was reported by 21 (33%) participants in the 10 mg/kg group, 11 (17%) in the 3 mg/kg group, 20 (32%) in the 1 mg/kg group, and 20 (32%) in the placebo group. No significant adverse cardiac effects were recorded on electrocardiography or echocardiography. Two deaths were reported during the study, one attributable to subendocardial myocardial infarction (secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding after an intentional overdose of concomitant sedatives and antidepressants) and one attributable to lung adenocarcinoma. Neither death was considered by the investigator to be related to bimagrumab. INTERPRETATION: Bimagrumab showed a good safety profile, relative to placebo, in individuals with inclusion body myositis but did not improve 6MWD. The strengths of our study are that, to the best of our knowledge, it is the largest randomised controlled trial done in people with inclusion body myositis, and it provides important natural history data over 12 months. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma.

5.
J Neurol Sci ; 404: 47-51, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test efficacy and tolerability of edaravone in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) originating from North-Eastern Italy. METHODS: We compared 3-month and 6-month changes of ALSFRS-R score, FVC value, and MRC score of 31 consecutive patients with ALS who were treated with edaravone to those of 50 historical ALS patients who were not treated with edaravone. RESULTS: No significant difference for any functional measures was found between the two groups at each time point as compared to baseline. In treated patients, we also observed creatinine values to significantly decrease at 3 and 6 months (p = 0.0078 and 0.030, respectively) and ALSAQ5 score to significantly increase (i.e. worse quality of life) at 3 and 6 months (p = 0.0005 and 0.0078, respectively). Yet, we observed an overall safety of the medication over the 6-month period of observation. CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective study suggests no benefit of edaravone on ALS in populations of Caucasian ancestry.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218683, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this international collaborative effort was to report 36-month longitudinal changes using the 6MWT in ambulant patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy amenable to skip exons 44, 45, 51 or 53. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 92 patients included in the study, 24 had deletions amenable to skip exon 44, 27 exon 45, 18 exon 51, and 28 exon 53. Five patients with a single deletion of exon 52 were counted in both subgroups skipping exon 51 and 53. RESULTS: The difference between subgroups amenable to skip different exons was not significant at 12 months but became significant at both 24 (p≤0.05) and 36 months (p≤0.01). DISCUSSION: Mutations amenable to skip exon 53 had lower baseline values and more negative changes than the other subgroups while those amenable to skip exon 44 had better results both at baseline and at follow up. Deletions amenable to skip exon 45 were associated with a more variable pattern of progression. Single exon deletions were more often associated with less drastic changes but this was not always true in individual cases. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that the progression of disease can differ between patients with different deletions, although the changes only become significant from 24 months onwards. This information is relevant because there are current clinical trials specifically targeting patients with these subgroups of mutations.

7.
Elife ; 82019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084710

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) human skeletal muscle fiber cultures are ill-equipped to support the contractile properties of maturing muscle fibers. This limits their application to the study of adult human neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development, a process requiring maturation of muscle fibers in the presence of motor neuron endplates. Here we describe a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture method whereby human muscle progenitors mixed with human pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons self-organize to form functional NMJ connections. Functional connectivity between motor neuron endplates and muscle fibers is confirmed with calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings. Notably, we only observed epsilon acetylcholine receptor subunit protein upregulation and activity in 3D co-cultures. Further, 3D co-culture treatments with myasthenia gravis patient sera shows the ease of studying human disease with the system. Hence, this work offers a simple method to model and evaluate adult human NMJ de novo development or disease in culture.

8.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2273-e2285, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of patients showing a classical phenotype of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) with genetic and epigenetic characteristics of the FSHD1 and FSHD2 loci D4Z4 and SMCHD1. METHODS: This is a national multicenter cohort study. We measured motor strength, motor function, and disease severity by manual muscle testing sumscore, Brooke and Vignos scores, clinical severity score (CSS), and age-corrected CSS, respectively. We correlated these scores with genetic (D4Z4 repeat size and haplotype; SMCHD1 variant status) and epigenetic (D4Z4 methylation) parameters. RESULTS: We included 103 patients: 54 men and 49 women. Among them, we identified 64 patients with FSHD1 and 20 patients with FSHD2. Seven patients had genetic and epigenetic characteristics of FSHD1 and FSHD2, all carrying repeats of 9-10 D4Z4 repeat units (RU) and a pathogenic SMCHD1 variant. In the remaining patients, FSHD was genetically excluded or remained unconfirmed. All clinically affected SMCHD1 mutation carriers had a D4Z4 repeat of 9-16 RU on a disease permissive 4qA haplotype. These patients are significantly more severely affected by all clinical scales when compared to patients with FSHD1 with upper-sized FSHD1 alleles (8-10 RU). CONCLUSION: The overlap between FSHD1 and FSHD2 patients in the 9-10 D4Z4 RU range suggests that FSHD1 and FSHD2 form a disease continuum. The previously established repeat size threshold for FSHD1 (1-10 RU) and FSHD2 (11-20 RU) needs to be reconsidered. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01970735.

9.
Adv Ther ; 36(5): 1177-1189, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may develop IgG antibodies against alglucosidase alpha (anti-rhGAA) in the first 3 months of treatment. The exact role of these antibodies in modulating efficacy of ERT in this group of patients is still not fully understood. To assess whether anti rh-GAA antibodies interfere with ERT efficacy, we studied a large Italian cohort of LOPD patients. METHODS: We analyzed clinical findings and performed serial measurements of IgG anti rh-GAA antibody titers from 64 LOPD patients treated with ERT. The first examination (T0) was completed on average at 17.56 months after starting ERT, while the follow-up (T1) was collected on average at 38.5 months. Differences in T0-T1 delta of the six-minute walking test (6MWT), MRC sum score (MRC), gait, stairs and chair performance (GSGC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were considered and then related to the antibody titers. RESULTS: Almost 22% of the patients never developed antibodies against GAA, while 78.1% had a positive titer (31.2% patients developed a low titer, 43.8% a medium titer and 3.1% a high titer). No statistical significance was found in relating the T0-T1 delta differences and antibody titers, except for MRC sum score values in a subgroup of patients treated < 36 months, in which those with a null antibody titer showed a greater clinical improvement than patients with a positive titer. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that in a large cohort of LOPD patients, anti rh-GAA antibody generation did not significantly affect either clinical outcome or ERT efficacy. However, in the first 36 months of treatment, a possible interference of low-medium antibody titers with the clinical status could be present. Therefore, a careful and regular evaluation of antibody titers, especially in cases with evidence of clinical decline despite ERT, should be performed.

10.
Neurol Sci ; 40(6): 1111-1124, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778878

RESUMO

Myasthenia gravis is a well-treatable disease, in which a prompt diagnosis and an adequate management can achieve satisfactory control of symptoms in the great majority of patients. Improved knowledge of the disease pathogenesis has led to recognition of patient subgroups, according to associated antibodies, age at onset and thymus pathology, and to a more personalized treatment. When myasthenia gravis is suspected on clinical grounds, diagnostic confirmation relies mainly on the detection of specific antibodies. Neurophysiological studies and, to a lesser extent, clinical response to cholinesterase inhibitors support the diagnosis in seronegative patients. In these cases, the differentiation from congenital myasthenia can be challenging. Treatment planning must consider weakness extension and severity, disease subtype, thymus pathology, together with patient characteristics and comorbidities. Since most subjects with myasthenia gravis require long-term immunosuppressive therapy, surveillance of expected and potential adverse events is critical. For patients refractory to conventional immunosuppression, the use of biologic agents is highly promising. These recommendations are addressed to non-experts on neuromuscular transmission disorders. The diagnostic procedures and therapeutic approaches hereafter described are largely accessible in Italy.

11.
Neurology ; 91(17): e1629-e1641, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize patients with calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1)-related myopathy. METHODS: Patients selected according to histopathologic features underwent CASQ1 genetic screening. CASQ1-mutated patients were clinically evaluated and underwent muscle MRI. Vacuole morphology and vacuolated fiber type were characterized. RESULTS: Twenty-two CASQ1-mutated patients (12 families) were identified, 21 sharing the previously described founder mutation (p.Asp244Gly) and 1 with the p.Gly103Asp mutation. Patients usually presented in the sixth decade with exercise intolerance and myalgias and later developed mild to moderate, slowly progressive proximal weakness with quadriceps atrophy and scapular winging. Muscle MRI (n = 11) showed a recurrent fibrofatty substitution pattern. Three patients presented subclinical cardiac abnormalities. Muscle histopathology in patients with p.Asp244Gly showed vacuoles in type II fibers appearing empty in hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) tetrazolium reductase stains but strongly positive for sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins. The muscle histopathology of p.Gly103Asp mutation was different, showing also NADH-positive accumulation consistent with tubular aggregates. CONCLUSIONS: We report the clinical and molecular details of the largest cohort of CASQ1-mutated patients. A possible heart involvement is presented, further expanding the phenotype of the disease. One mutation is common due to a founder effect, but other mutations are possible. Because of a paucity of symptoms, it is likely that CASQ1 mutations may remain undiagnosed if a muscle biopsy is not performed.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924848

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to establish 24 month changes in upper limb function using a revised version of the performance of upper limb test (PUL 2.0) in a large cohort of ambulant and non-ambulant boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and to identify possible trajectories of progression. Of the 187 patients studied, 87 were ambulant (age range: 7-15.8 years), and 90 non-ambulant (age range: 9.08-24.78). The total scores changed significantly over time (p<0.001). Non-ambulant patients had lower total scores at baseline (mean 19.7) when compared to the ambulant ones (mean 38.4). They also had also a bigger decrease in total scores over 24 months compared to the ambulant boys (4.36 vs 2.07 points). Multivariate model analysis showed that the Performance of Upper Limb changes reflected the entry level and ambulation status, that were independently associated to the slope of Performance of Upper Limb changes. This information will be of help both in clinical practice and at the time of designing clinical trials.

13.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(7): 586-591, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880332

RESUMO

Mutations in the GAA gene may cause a late onset Pompe disease presenting with proximal weakness without the characteristic muscle pathology, and therefore a test for GAA activity is the first tier analysis in all undiagnosed patients with hyperCKemia and/or limb-girdle muscular weakness. By using MotorPlex, a targeted gene panel for next generation sequencing, we analyzed GAA and other muscle disease-genes in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients with suspected inherited skeletal muscle disorders (n = 504). In this cohort, 275 patients presented with limb-girdle phenotype and/or an isolated hyperCKemia. Mutational analysis identified GAA mutations in ten patients. Further seven affected relatives were identified by segregation studies. All the patients carried the common GAA mutation c.-32-13T >G and a second, previously reported mutation. In the subcohort of 275 patients with proximal muscle weakness and/or hyperCKemia, we identified late-onset Pompe disease in 10 patients. The clinical overlap between Pompe disease and LGMDs or other skeletal muscle disorders suggests that GAA and the genes causing a metabolic myopathy should be analyzed in all the gene panels used for testing neuromuscular patients. However, enzymatic tests are essential for the interpretation and validation of genetic results.

14.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2018 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752552

RESUMO

The synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) consists of a highly specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) involved in synapse maturation, in the juxtaposition of pre- to post-synaptic areas, and in ensuring proper synaptic transmission. Key components of synaptic ECM, such as collagen IV, perlecan and biglycan, are binding partners of one of the most abundant ECM protein of skeletal muscle, collagen VI (ColVI), previously never linked to NMJ. Here, we demonstrate that ColVI is itself a component of this specialized ECM and that it is required for the structural and functional integrity of NMJs. In vivo, ColVI deficiency causes fragmentation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters, with abnormal expression of NMJ-enriched proteins and re-expression of fetal AChRγ subunit, both in Col6a1 null mice and in patients affected by Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), the most severe form of ColVI-related myopathies. Ex vivo muscle preparations from ColVI null mice revealed altered neuromuscular transmission, with electrophysiological defects and decreased safety factor (i.e., the excess current generated in response to a nerve impulse over that required to reach the action potential threshold). Moreover, in vitro studies in differentiated C2C12 myotubes showed the ability of ColVI to induce AChR clustering and synaptic gene expression. These findings reveal a novel role for ColVI at the NMJ and point to the involvement of NMJ defects in the etiopathology of ColVI-related myopathies.

15.
Trials ; 19(1): 291, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials in rare diseases have many challenges, among which are the need to set up multiple sites in different countries to achieve recruitment targets and the divergent landscape of clinical trial regulations in those countries. Over the past years, there have been initiatives to facilitate the process of international study set-up, but the fruits of these deliberations require time to be operationally in place. FOR-DMD (Finding the Optimum Steroid Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy) is an academic-led clinical trial which aims to find the optimum steroid regimen for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for 5 years (July 2010 to June 2015), anticipating that all sites (40 across the USA, Canada, the UK, Germany and Italy) would be open to recruitment from July 2011. However, study start-up was significantly delayed and recruitment did not start until January 2013. METHOD: The FOR-DMD study is used as an example to identify systematic problems in the set-up of international, multi-centre clinical trials. The full timeline of the FOR-DMD study, from funding approval to site activation, was collated and reviewed. Systematic issues were identified and grouped into (1) study set-up, e.g. drug procurement; (2) country set-up, e.g. competent authority applications; and (3) site set-up, e.g. contracts, to identify the main causes of delay and suggest areas where anticipatory action could overcome these obstacles in future studies. RESULTS: Time from the first contact to site activation across countries ranged from 6 to 24 months. Reasons of delay were universal (sponsor agreement, drug procurement, budgetary constraints), country specific (complexity and diversity of regulatory processes, indemnity requirements) and site specific (contracting and approvals). The main identified obstacles included (1) issues related to drug supply, (2) NIH requirements regarding contracting with non-US sites, (3) differing regulatory requirements in the five participating countries, (4) lack of national harmonisation with contracting and the requirement to negotiate terms and contract individually with each site and (5) diversity of languages needed for study materials. Additionally, as with many academic-led studies, the FOR-DMD study did not have access to the infrastructure and expertise that a contracted research organisation could provide, organisations often employed in pharmaceutical-sponsored studies. This delay impacted recruitment, challenged the clinical relevance of the study outcomes and potentially delayed the delivery of the best treatment to patients. CONCLUSION: Based on the FOR-DMD experience, and as an interim solution, we have devised a checklist of steps to not only anticipate and minimise delays in academic international trial initiation but also identify obstacles that will require a concerted effort on the part of many stakeholders to mitigate.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(13): 2367-2382, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701772

RESUMO

Core myopathies are a group of childhood muscle disorders caused by mutations of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These mutations have previously been associated with elevated inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) levels in skeletal muscle myotubes derived from patients. However, the functional relevance and the relationship of IP3R mediated Ca2+ signalling with the pathophysiology of the disease is unclear. It has also been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the development of central and diffuse multi-mini-cores, devoid of mitochondrial activity, which is a key pathological consequence of RyR1 mutations. Here we used muscle biopsies of central core and multi-minicore disease patients with RyR1 mutations, as well as cellular and in vivo mouse models of the disease to characterize global cellular and mitochondrial Ca2+ signalling, mitochondrial function and gene expression associated with the disease. We show that RyR1 mutations that lead to the depletion of the channel are associated with increased IP3-mediated nuclear and mitochondrial Ca2+ signals and increased mitochondrial activity. Moreover, western blot and microarray analysis indicated enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis at the transcriptional and protein levels and was reflected in increased mitochondrial DNA content. The phenotype was recapitulated by RYR1 silencing in mouse cellular myotube models. Altogether, these data indicate that remodelling of skeletal muscle Ca2+ signalling following loss of functional RyR1 mediates bioenergetic adaptation.

17.
Nucleus ; 9(1): 292-304, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693488

RESUMO

Among rare diseases caused by mutations in LMNA gene, Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy type 2 and Limb-Girdle muscular Dystrophy 1B are characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, joint contractures, cardiomyopathy with conduction system disorders. Circulating biomarkers for these pathologies have not been identified. Here, we analyzed the secretome of a cohort of patients affected by these muscular laminopathies in the attempt to identify a common signature. Multiplex cytokine assay showed that transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF ß2) and interleukin 17 serum levels are consistently elevated in the vast majority of examined patients, while interleukin 6 and basic fibroblast growth factor are altered in subgroups of patients. Levels of TGF ß2 are also increased in fibroblast and myoblast cultures established from patient biopsies as well as in serum from mice bearing the H222P Lmna mutation causing Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy in humans. Both patient serum and fibroblast conditioned media activated a TGF ß2-dependent fibrogenic program in normal human myoblasts and tenocytes and inhibited myoblast differentiation. Consistent with these results, a TGF ß2 neutralizing antibody avoided fibrogenic marker activation and myogenesis impairment. Cell intrinsic TGF ß2-dependent mechanisms were also determined in laminopathic cells, where TGF ß2 activated AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. These data show that TGF ß2 contributes to the pathogenesis of Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy type 2 and Limb-Girdle muscular Dystrophy 1B and can be considered a potential biomarker of those diseases. Further, the evidence of TGF ß2 pathogenetic effects in tenocytes provides the first mechanistic insight into occurrence of joint contractures in muscular laminopathies.

18.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(5): 557-565, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435569

RESUMO

Importance: Mutations in the titin gene (TTN) cause a wide spectrum of genetic diseases. The interpretation of the numerous rare variants identified in TTN is a difficult challenge given its large size. Objective: To identify genetic variants in titin in a cohort of patients with muscle disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 9 patients with titinopathy and 4 other patients with possibly disease-causing variants in TTN were identified. Titin mutations were detected through targeted resequencing performed on DNA from 504 patients with muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, or other skeletal muscle disorders. Patients were enrolled from 10 clinical centers in April 2012 to December 2013. All of them had not received a diagnosis after undergoing an extensive investigation, including Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. The data analysis was performed between September 2013 and January 2017. Sequencing data were analyzed using an internal custom bioinformatics pipeline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The identification of novel mutations in the TTN gene and novel patients with titinopathy. We performed an evaluation of putative causative variants in the TTN gene, combining genetic, clinical, and imaging data with messenger RNA and/or protein studies. Results: Of the 9 novel patients with titinopathy, 5 (55.5%) were men and the mean (SD) age at onset was 25 (15.8) years (range, 0-46 years). Of the 4 other patients (3 men and 1 woman) with possibly disease-causing TTN variants, 2 (50%) had a congenital myopathy and 2 (50%) had a slowly progressive distal myopathy with onset in the second decade. Most of the identified mutations were previously unreported. However, all the variants, even the already described mutations, require careful clinical and molecular evaluation of probands and relatives. Heterozygous truncating variants or unique missense changes are not sufficient to make a diagnosis of titinopathy. Conclusions and Relevance: The interpretation of TTN variants often requires further analyses, including a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype (deep phenotyping) as well as messenger RNA and protein studies. We propose a specific workflow for the clinical interpretation of genetic findings in titin.

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