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1.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1389-1400, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812057

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to compare the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of confirmed COVID-19 and unconfirmed patients. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study. Results: Overall, 620 patients (338 confirmed COVID-19 and 282 unconfirmed) were included. Confirmed COVID-19 patients had higher percentages of close contact with a confirmed or probable case. In univariate analysis, the presence of myalgia and dyspnea, decreased leukocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts were best predictors for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity. Multivariate analyses revealed that only platelet count was an independent predictor for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positivity. Conclusion: Routine complete blood count may be helpful for distinguishing COVID-19 from other respiratory illnesses at an early stage, while PCR testing is unique for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

2.
Biomark Med ; 15(11): 807-820, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284639

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to determine the prognostic values of the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and laboratory parameters during the first week of COVID-19. Materials & methods: All adult patients who were hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19 between 11 March and 11 May 2020 were retrospectively included. Results: Overall, 611 patients were included. Our results showed that NEWS2, procalcitonin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and albumin at D0, D3, D5 and D7 were the best predictors for clinical deterioration defined as a composite of ICU admission during hospitalization or in-hospital death. Procalcitonin had the highest odds ratio for clinical deterioration on all days. Conclusion: This study provides a list of several laboratory parameters correlated with NEWS2 and potential predictors for clinical deterioration in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Pró-Calcitonina/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Razão de Chances
3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 458-464, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642427

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. This retrospective, single-center study included patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia (laboratory and radiologically confirmed) between March 9 and April 8, 2020. The composite endpoint was ICU admission or in-hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with the composite endpoint. A total of 336 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. The median age was 54 years (interquartile range: 21), and 187 (55.7%) were men. Fifty-one (15.2%) patients were admitted to the ICU. In-hospital mortality occurred in 33 patients (9.8%). In the univariate analysis, 17 parameters were associated with the composite endpoint, and procalcitonin had the highest odds ratio (odds ratio [OR] = 36.568, confidence interval [CI] = 5.145-259.915). Our results revealed that body temperature (OR = 1.489, CI = 1.023-2.167, P = 0.037), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) (OR = 0.835, CI = 0.773-0.901, P < 0.001), and consolidation (> 25%) on chest computed tomography (OR = 3.170, CI = 1.218-8.252, P = 0.018) at admission were independent predictors. As a result, increased body temperature, decreased SpO2, a high level of procalcitonin, and degree of consolidation on chest computed tomography may predict a poor prognosis and have utility in the management of patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 788, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) represents a diagnostic and management challenge to clinicians. The "Thwaites' system" and "Lancet consensus scoring system" are utilized to differentiate TBM from bacterial meningitis but their utility in subacute and chronic meningitis where TBM is an important consideration is unknown. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study of adults with subacute and chronic meningitis, defined by symptoms greater than 5 days and less than 30 days for subacute meningitis (SAM) and greater than 30 days for chronic meningitis (CM). The "Thwaites' system" and "Lancet consensus scoring system" scores and the diagnostic accuracy by sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC) were calculated. The "Thwaites' system" and "Lancet consensus scoring system" suggest a high probability of TBM with scores ≤4, and with scores of ≥12, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 395 patients were identified; 313 (79.2%) had subacute and 82 (20.8%) with chronic meningitis. Patients with chronic meningitis were more likely caused by tuberculosis and had higher rates of HIV infection (P < 0.001). A total of 162 patients with TBM and 233 patients with non-TBM had unknown (140, 60.1%), fungal (41, 17.6%), viral (29, 12.4%), miscellaneous (16, 6.7%), and bacterial (7, 3.0%) etiologies. TMB patients were older and presented with lower Glasgow coma scores, lower CSF glucose and higher CSF protein (P < 0.001). Both criteria were able to distinguish TBM from bacterial meningitis; only the Lancet score was able to differentiate TBM from fungal, viral, and unknown etiologies even though significant overlap occurred between the etiologies (P < .001). Both criteria showed poor diagnostic accuracy to distinguish TBM from non-TBM etiologies (AUC-ROC was <. 5), but Lancet consensus scoring system was fair in diagnosing TBM (AUC-ROC was .738), sensitivity of 50%, and specificity of 89.3%. CONCLUSION: Both criteria can be helpful in distinguishing TBM from bacterial meningitis, but only the Lancet consensus scoring system can help differentiate TBM from meningitis caused by fungal, viral and unknown etiologies even though significant overlap occurs and the overall diagnostic accuracy of both criteria were either poor or fair.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , HIV/genética , Meningite Fúngica/diagnóstico , Meningite Viral/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Doença Crônica , Criptococose/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Fúngica/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite Fúngica/microbiologia , Meningite Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Meningite Viral/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(3): 493-500, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758440

RESUMO

Data are relatively scarce on gastro-intestinal tuberculosis (GITB). Most studies are old and from single centers, or did not include immunosuppressed patients. Thus, we aimed to determine the clinical, radiological, and laboratory profiles of GITB. We included adults with proven GITB treated between 2000 and 2018. Patients were enrolled from 21 referral centers in 8 countries (Belgium, Egypt, France, Italy, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, UK, and Turkey). One hundred four patients were included. Terminal ileum (n = 46, 44.2%), small intestines except terminal ileum (n = 36, 34.6%), colon (n = 29, 27.8%), stomach (n = 6, 5.7%), and perianal (one patient) were the sites of GITB. One-third of all patients were immunosuppressed. Sixteen patients had diabetes, 8 had chronic renal failure, 5 were HIV positive, 4 had liver cirrhosis, and 3 had malignancies. Intestinal biopsy samples were cultured in 75 cases (78.1%) and TB was isolated in 65 patients (86.6%). PCR were performed to 37 (35.6%) biopsy samples and of these, 35 (94.6%) were positive. Ascites samples were cultured in 19 patients and M. tuberculosis was isolated in 11 (57.9%). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to 40 patients (38.5%) and colonoscopy in 74 (71.1%). Surgical interventions were frequently the source of diagnostic samples (25 laparoscopy/20 laparotomy, n = 45, 43.3%). Patients were treated with standard and second-line anti-TB medications. Ultimately, 4 (3.8%) patients died and 2 (1.9%) cases relapsed. There was a high incidence of underlying immunosuppression in GITB patients. A high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary to initiate appropriate and timely diagnostic procedures; many patients are first diagnosed at surgery.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Comorbidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Imagem Multimodal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/terapia
7.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 52(3): 308-315, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156517

RESUMO

Zika virus is a Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae, and transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. Zika virus infection is asymptomatic in 80% of cases and has a mild course when symptoms occur. These symptoms include headache, myalgia, mild fever, maculopapular rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications such as Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly development in neonates. It has recently become a global public health problem as a result of increasing cases. As it is known that the vector of this disease is present in our country; entry of Zika virus infection in our country has a great importance. In this report the clinical and laboratory findings of two cases of Zika virus infection imported to Turkey by a couple returning from Cuba in October 2017 were presented. Newly married couple, both 29 years old, without a known chronic disease history, went on honeymoon to Cuba between 17-29 September and they visited Havana and Varadero. They reported that they were bitten repeatedly by the mosquitoes and did not use insect repellents during this time. Four days after returning to Turkey, they had headaches, back pain and myalgia followed by rash and joint pain. They reported having their symptoms started in the same day in a few hours difference. The symptoms for both patients disappeared in 10 days. Serum samples from the patients were sent to the Public Health General Directorate National Arboviruses and Viral Zoonoses Laboratory to be tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses. Nucleic acid testing yielded negative results. The Arbovirus Indirect Immunofluorescence test were positive both for IgM and IgG for Zika virus. No cross reactivity with Dengue virus was detected. Chikungunya antibodies were found as negative. At two months of the diagnosis, urine and semen samples of the male patient were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The result was negative for urine but positive for semen sample. This report is important to present the first cases of Zika virus infection published in Turkey. Zika virus infection should be suspected in patients with fever, headache, rash, myalgia and joint pain returning from an endemic areas. All travelers, especially pregnant women, have to take precautions for mosquitos during the trip.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cuba , Culicidae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , Viagem , Turquia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 70: 10-14, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical outcomes of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) were male, median age was 62 (19-90). Severe infection was diagnosed in 85 (11%) patients. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 291(36.8%) patients. 536 microorganisms were isolated, the most common microorganisms were S. aureus (20%), P. aeruginosa (19%) and E. coli (12%). Methicillin resistance (MR) rate among Staphylococcus aureus isolates was 31%. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected in 21% of P. aeruginosa isolates. ESBL (+) Gram negative bacteria (GNB) was detected in 38% of E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. Sixty three patients (8%) were re-hospitalized. Of the 791 patiens, 127 (16%) had major amputation, and 24 (3%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors for fatality were; dialysis (OR: 8.3, CI: 1.82-38.15, p=0.006), isolation of Klebsiella spp. (OR:7.7, CI: 1.24-47.96, p=0.028), and chronic heart failure (OR: 3, CI: 1.01-9.04, p=0.05). MR Staphylococcus was detected in 21% of the rehospitalized patients, as the most common microorganism (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Among rehospitalized patients, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus infections was detected as the most common agent, and Klebsiella spp. infections were found to be significantly associated with fatality.


Assuntos
Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/fisiologia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/fisiopatologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(5): e5875, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151863

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features, and outcome of the patients with miliary tuberculosis (TB).We retrospectively evaluated 263 patients (142 male, 121 female, mean age: 44 years, range: 16-89 years) with miliary TB. Criteria for the diagnosis of miliary TB were at least one of the followings in the presence of clinical presentation suggestive of miliary TB such as prolonged fever, night sweats, anorexia, weight loss: radiologic criterion and pathological criterion and/or microbiological criterion; pathological criterion and/or microbiological criterion.The miliary pattern was seen in 88% of the patients. Predisposing factors were found in 41% of the patients. Most frequent clinical features and laboratory findings were fever (100%), fatigue (91%), anorexia (85%), weight loss (66%), hepatomegaly (20%), splenomegaly (19%), choroid tubercules (8%), anemia (86%), pancytopenia (12%), and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (89%). Tuberculin skin test was positive in 29% of cases. Fifty percent of the patients met the criteria for fever of unknown origin. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in 41% of patients (81/195), and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were positive in 51% (148/292) of tested specimens (predominantly sputum, CSF, and bronchial lavage). Blood cultures were positive in 20% (19/97). Granulomas in tissue samples of liver, lung, and bone marrow were present in 100% (21/21), 95% (18/19), and 82% (23/28), respectively. A total of 223 patients (85%) were given a quadruple anti-TB treatment. Forty-four (17%) patients died within 1 year after diagnosis established. Age, serum albumin, presence of military pattern, presence of mental changes, and hemoglobin concentration were found as independent predictors of mortality. Fever resolved within first 21 days in the majority (90%) of the cases.Miliary infiltrates on chest X-ray should raise the possibility of miliary TB especially in countries where TB is endemic. Although biopsy of the lungs and liver may have higher yield rate of organ involvement histopathologicaly, less invasive procedures including a bone marrow biopsy and blood cultures should be preferred owing to low complication rates.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Miliar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Miliar/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Miliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(6): 654-661, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828249

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The main reason for nasal tampon placement after septoplasty is to prevent postoperative hemorrhage, while the secondary purpose is internal stabilization after operations involving the cartilaginous-bony skeleton of the nose. Silicone intranasal splints are as successful as other materials in controlling postoperative hemorrhages of septal origin. The possibility of leaving the splints intranasally for extended periods helps stabilize the septum in the midline. However, there is nothing in the literature about how long these splints can be retained inside the nasal cavity without increasing the risk of infection, postoperative complications, and patient discomfort. Objective: The current study aimed to evaluate the association between the duration of intranasal splinting and bacterial colonization, postoperative complications, and patient discomfort. Methods: Patients who had undergone septoplasty were divided into three groups according to the day of removal of the silicone splints. The splints were removed on the fifth, seventh, and tenth postoperative days. The removed splints were microbiologically cultured. Early and late complications were assessed, including local and systemic infections, tissue necrosis, granuloma formation, mucosal crusting, synechia, and septal perforation. Postoperative patient discomfort was evaluated by scoring the levels of pain and nasal obstruction. Results: No significant difference was found in the rate of bacterial colonization among the different groups. Decreased mucosal crusting and synechia were detected with longer usage intervals of intranasal silicone splints. Postoperative pain and nasal obstruction were also diminished by the third postoperative day. Conclusions: Silicone splints were well tolerated by the patients and any negative effects on postoperative patient comfort were limited. In fact, prolonged splint usage intervals reduced late complications. Long-term silicone nasal splint usage is a reliable, effective, and comfortable method in patients with excessive mucosal damage and in whom long-term stabilization of the bony and cartilaginous septum is essential.


Resumo Introdução: A principal razão para a colocação de tampões nasais em septoplastias é a prevenção de hemorragia pós-operatória, enquanto o objetivo secundário é a estabilização interna após cirurgias que envolvam o esqueleto cartilaginoso do nariz. Os splints intranasais de silicone são tão eficazes como outros materiais para o controle de hemorragias do septo no pós-operatório. A possibilidade de manter os splints intranasais por longos períodos ajuda a estabilizar o septo na linha média. No entanto, não há nada na literatura sobre quanto tempo esses splints podem ser mantidos na cavidade nasal sem aumentar o risco de infecção, complicações no pós-operatório e causar desconforto ao paciente. Objetivos: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre o tempo de tamponamento com splints intranasais e colonização bacteriana, complicações no pós-operatório e desconforto do paciente. Método: Os pacientes submetidos a septoplastia foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o dia da remoção dos splints de silicone. Os splints foram removidos no 5°, 7° e 10° dias de pós-operatório, e a seguir, cultivados microbiologicamente. Complicações precoces e tardias foram avaliadas, incluindo infecções locais e sistêmicas, necrose do tecido, formação de granulomas, crostas na mucosa, sinéquias e perfuração do septo. O desconforto do paciente no pós-operatório foi avaliado com o uso de pontuação dos níveis de dor e de obstrução nasal. Resultados: Nenhuma diferença significante foi encontrada na taxa de colonização bacteriana entre os diferentes grupos. Diminuições da formação de crostas na mucosa e de sinéquias foram detectadas com tempos mais longos de uso de splints de silicone. A dor e a obstrução nasal também diminuíram no terceiro dia de pós-operatório. Conclusões: O uso de splints de silicone foi bem tolerado pelos pacientes, e seus efeitos negativos sobre o conforto do paciente no pós-operatório foram limitados. De fato, o tempo prolongado de uso teve um efeito redutor sobre as complicações tardias. O uso prolongado de splint nasal de silicone é um método confiável, eficaz e pouco desconfortável em pacientes com lesão excessiva da mucosa e naqueles cuja estabilização óssea e cartilaginosa do septo a longo prazo é essencial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Rinoplastia/métodos , Contenções/microbiologia , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória , Rinoplastia/efeitos adversos , Contenções/efeitos adversos , Contenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Tampões Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Tampões Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estudos Prospectivos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
11.
Neurol India ; 64(5): 896-905, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625226

RESUMO

AIMS: There is no report on the factors affecting the resolution of symptoms related to meningitis during treatment of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Thus, we examined the factors associated with early therapeutic responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter study included 507 patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM. However, 94 patients eligible for the analysis were included in this study from 24 centers. Six out of 94 patients died and the statistical analysis was performed with 88 survivors. Early and late responder groups were compared in the statistical analysis. P < 0.05 were considered to show a significant difference. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, the presence of vasculitis (P = 0.029, OR = 10.491 [95% CI, 1.27-86.83]) was found to be significantly associated with a delayed fever response whereas hydrocephalus was associated with altered mental status for >9 days duration (P = 0.005, OR = 5.740 [95% CI, 1.68-19.57]). According to linear regression analysis, fever was significantly persisting (>7 days) in the presence of vasculitis (17.5 vs. 7, P< 0.001) and hydrocephalus (11 vs. 7, P = 0.029). Hydrocephalus was significantly associated with persisting headache (21 vs. 12, P = 0.025), delayed recovery of consciousness (19.5 vs. 7, P = 0.001), and a delay in complete recovery (21 vs. 14, P = 0.007) in the linear regression analysis. Following institution of treatment, the complaints seemed to disappear in up to 2 weeks among TBM survivors. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of hydrocephalus or vasculitis, one week of anti-tuberculosis treatment seems to be adequate for the resolution of TBM symptoms. Hydrocephalus and vasculitis delay the resolution of TBM symptoms in response to antimycobacterial treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Hidrocefalia/complicações , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite/complicações , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Meníngea/complicações
12.
Infection ; 44(5): 623-31, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27138335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging abnormalities in central nervous system (CNS) brucellosis are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of imaging abnormalities in neurobrucellosis and to identify factors associated with leptomeningeal and basal enhancement, which frequently results in unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: Istanbul-3 study evaluated 263 adult patients with CNS brucellosis from 26 referral centers and reviewed their 242 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 226 computerized tomography (CT) scans of the brain. RESULTS: A normal CT or MRI scan was seen in 143 of 263 patients (54.3 %). Abnormal imaging findings were grouped into the following four categories: (a) inflammatory findings: leptomeningeal involvements (44), basal meningeal enhancements (30), cranial nerve involvements (14), spinal nerve roots enhancement (8), brain abscesses (7), granulomas (6), and arachnoiditis (4). (b) White-matter involvement: white-matter involvement (32) with or without demyelinating lesions (7). (c) Vascular involvement: vascular involvement (42) mostly with chronic cerebral ischemic changes (37). (d) Hydrocephalus/cerebral edema: hydrocephalus (20) and brain edema (40). On multivariate logistic regression analysis duration of symptoms since the onset (OR 1.007; 95 % CI 1-28, p = 0.01), polyneuropathy and radiculopathy (OR 5.4; 95 % CI 1.002-1.013, p = 0.044), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum glucose rate (OR 0.001; 95 % CI 000-0.067, p = 0.001), and CSF protein (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 2.3-2.7, p = 0.0001) were associated with diffuse inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 45 % of neurobrucellosis patients had abnormal neuroimaging findings. The duration of symptoms, polyneuropathy and radiculopathy, high CSF protein level, and low CSF/serum glucose rate were associated with inflammatory findings on imaging analyses.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/patologia , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico por imagem , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Prevalência , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 82(6): 654-661, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The main reason for nasal tampon placement after septoplasty is to prevent postoperative hemorrhage, while the secondary purpose is internal stabilization after operations involving the cartilaginous-bony skeleton of the nose. Silicone intranasal splints are as successful as other materials in controlling postoperative hemorrhages of septal origin. The possibility of leaving the splints intranasally for extended periods helps stabilize the septum in the midline. However, there is nothing in the literature about how long these splints can be retained inside the nasal cavity without increasing the risk of infection, postoperative complications, and patient discomfort. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the association between the duration of intranasal splinting and bacterial colonization, postoperative complications, and patient discomfort. METHODS: Patients who had undergone septoplasty were divided into three groups according to the day of removal of the silicone splints. The splints were removed on the fifth, seventh, and tenth postoperative days. The removed splints were microbiologically cultured. Early and late complications were assessed, including local and systemic infections, tissue necrosis, granuloma formation, mucosal crusting, synechia, and septal perforation. Postoperative patient discomfort was evaluated by scoring the levels of pain and nasal obstruction. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in the rate of bacterial colonization among the different groups. Decreased mucosal crusting and synechia were detected with longer usage intervals of intranasal silicone splints. Postoperative pain and nasal obstruction were also diminished by the third postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: Silicone splints were well tolerated by the patients and any negative effects on postoperative patient comfort were limited. In fact, prolonged splint usage intervals reduced late complications. Long-term silicone nasal splint usage is a reliable, effective, and comfortable method in patients with excessive mucosal damage and in whom long-term stabilization of the bony and cartilaginous septum is essential.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Rinoplastia/métodos , Contenções/microbiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinoplastia/efeitos adversos , Contenções/efeitos adversos , Contenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Tampões Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Tampões Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Spine J ; 15(12): 2509-17, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: No direct comparison between brucellar spondylodiscitis (BSD) and tuberculous spondylodiscitis (TSD) exists in the literature. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare directly the clinical features, laboratory and radiological aspects, treatment, and outcome data of patients diagnosed as BSD and TSD. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, multinational, and multicenter study was used. PATIENT SAMPLE: A total of 641 (TSD, 314 and BSD, 327) spondylodiscitis patients from 35 different centers in four countries (Turkey, Egypt, Albania, and Greece) were included. OUTCOME MEASURES: The pre- and peri- or post-treatment spinal deformity and neurologic deficit parameters, and mortality were carried out. METHODS: Brucellar spondylodiscitis and TSD groups were compared for demographics, clinical, laboratory, radiological, surgical interventions, treatment, and outcome data. The Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. Significance was analyzed as two sided and inferred at 0.05 levels. RESULTS: The median baseline laboratory parameters including white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were higher in TSD than BSD (p<.0001). Prevertebral, paravertebral, epidural, and psoas abscess formations along with loss of vertebral corpus height and calcification were significantly more frequent in TSD compared with BSD (p<.01). Surgical interventions and percutaneous sampling or abscess drainage were applied more frequently in TSD (p<.0001). Spinal complications including gibbus deformity, kyphosis, and scoliosis, and the number of spinal neurologic deficits, including loss of sensation, motor weakness, and paralysis were significantly higher in the TSD group (p<.05). Mortality rate was 2.22% (7 patients) in TSD, and it was 0.61% (2 patients) in the BSD group (p=.1). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that TSD is a more suppurative disease with abscess formation requiring surgical intervention and characterized with spinal complications. We propose that using a constellation of constitutional symptoms (fever, back pain, and weight loss), pulmonary involvement, high inflammatory markers, and radiological findings will help to differentiate between TSD and BSD at an early stage before microbiological results are available.


Assuntos
Brucelose/complicações , Discite/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Discite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 59(6): 3084-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25779579

RESUMO

Data in the literature regarding the factors that predict unfavorable outcomes in adult herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME) cases are scarce. We conducted a multicenter study in order to provide insights into the predictors of HME outcomes, with special emphasis on the use and timing of antiviral treatment. Samples from 501 patients with molecular confirmation from cerebrospinal fluid were included from 35 referral centers in 10 countries. Four hundred thirty-eight patients were found to be eligible for the analysis. Overall, 232 (52.9%) patients experienced unfavorable outcomes, 44 died, and 188 survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 13(2): 185-91, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25801665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included in the differential diagnosis of TBM when these two systems suggest the presence of TBM. METHOD: BME and TBM patients from 35 tertiary hospitals were included in this study. Overall 294 adult patients with BME and 190 patients with TBM were enrolled. All patients involved in the study had microbiological confirmation for either TBM or BME. Finally, the Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems were assessed in both groups. RESULTS: The Thwaites scoring system more frequently predicted BME cases (n = 292, 99.3%) compared to the TBM group (n = 182, 95.8%) (P = 0.017). According to the Lancet scoring system, the mean scores for BME and TBM were 9.43 ± 1.71 and 11.45 ± 3.01, respectively (P < 0.001). In addition, TBM cases were classified into "probable" category more significantly compared to BME cases, and BME cases were categorized into the "possible" category more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: When the Thwaites or Lancet scoring systems indicate TBM, brucellar etiology should also be taken into consideration particularly in endemic countries.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Meníngea/epidemiologia , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Neurol ; 262(4): 890-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25634680

RESUMO

Predicting unfavorable outcome is of paramount importance in clinical decision making. Accordingly, we designed this multinational study, which provided the largest case series of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). 43 centers from 14 countries (Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Syria, Turkey) submitted data of microbiologically confirmed TBM patients hospitalized between 2000 and 2012. Unfavorable outcome was defined as survival with significant sequela or death. In developing our index, binary logistic regression models were constructed via 200 replicates of database by bootstrap resampling methodology. The final model was built according to the selection frequencies of variables. The severity scale included variables with arbitrary scores proportional to predictive powers of terms in the final model. The final model was internally validated by bootstrap resampling. A total of 507 patients' data were submitted among which 165 had unfavorable outcome. Eighty-six patients died while 119 had different neurological sequelae in 79 (16%) patients. The full model included 13 variables. Age, nausea, vomiting, altered consciousness, hydrocephalus, vasculitis, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus and neurological deficit remained in the final model. Scores 1-3 were assigned to the variables in the severity scale, which included scores of 1-6. The distribution of mortality for the scores 1-6 was 3.4, 8.2, 20.6, 31, 30 and 40.1%, respectively. Altered consciousness, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, neurological deficits, hydrocephalus, and vasculitis predicted the unfavorable outcome in the scoring and the cumulative score provided a linear estimation of prognosis.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/terapia , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Meníngea/mortalidade
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 19: 13-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24211227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to delineate mortality indicators in pneumococcal meningitis with special emphasis on therapeutic implications. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study involved a 15-year period (1998-2012). Culture-positive cases (n=306) were included solely from 38 centers. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients received ceftriaxone plus vancomycin empirically. The rest were given a third-generation cephalosporin alone. Overall, 246 (79.1%) isolates were found to be penicillin-susceptible, 38 (12.2%) strains were penicillin-resistant, and 22 (7.1%) were oxacillin-resistant (without further minimum inhibitory concentration testing for penicillin). Being a critical case (odds ratio (OR) 7.089, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.230-15.557) and age over 50 years (OR 3.908, 95% CI 1.820-8.390) were independent predictors of mortality, while infection with a penicillin-susceptible isolate (OR 0.441, 95% CI 0.195-0.996) was found to be protective. Empirical vancomycin use did not provide significant benefit (OR 2.159, 95% CI 0.949-4.912). CONCLUSIONS: Ceftriaxone alone is not adequate in the management of pneumococcal meningitis due to penicillin-resistant pneumococci, which is a major concern worldwide. Although vancomycin showed a trend towards improving the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis, significant correlation in statistical terms could not be established in this study. Thus, further studies are needed for the optimization of pneumococcal meningitis treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Meningite Pneumocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência às Penicilinas , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Pneumocócica/mortalidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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