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1.
Am J Med Sci ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy is indispensable in treating patients with hemorrhagic shock. However, fluid overload correlates with kidney injury in patients with hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that hemodilution after fluid treatment contributes to the kidney injury. METHODS: An animal model was established to mimic different severity of hemodilution, through resuscitating hemorrhagic shock with mixture of blood and lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in different ratios. A total of 20 rats were divided into the following four groups, the Sham group, Mild group, Moderate group, and Severe group. In the Sham group, rats were anesthetized and catheterized only. In the other three groups, shock was induced by extracting 40% of the estimated circulating blood. One hour later, rats were resuscitated with a mixture of blood and LR with ratio 1:0 in the Mild group, 0.5:0.5 in the Moderate group, and 0:1 in the Severe group. The histology of the kidneys was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The mitochondria membrane potential ψ and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production of the kidneys were measured. The serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urine nitrogen (BUN) were measured. RESULTS: Renal tubular lumina dilation and mild interstitial edema occurred in the Mild group with HE staining. Proximal convoluted tubule damage, including tubular casts, narrow renal tubular lumina, and interstitial edema occurred in the Moderate group and Severe group. Mitochondrial JC-1 and ATP production decreased as hemodilution progressed. SCr and BUN increased in the Moderate group and Severe group. CONCLUSIONS: The hemodilution post hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation led to kidney injury.

2.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3831-3841, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977958

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects and the potential underlying mechanisms of a novel Pleurotus eryngii ß-type glycosidic polysaccharide (WPEP) on colitis. To achieve this, sixty CD-1 (ICR) mice were divided into six groups including healthy and colitic mice treated with or without WPEP at two different doses (n = 10). The results showed that WPEP displayed a significant inhibitory effect on colitis as indicated by the lowered disease activity index in the treated colitic mice compared to the untreated colitic mice (2.78 ± 0.50 to 1.80 ± 0.17). A decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and pro-inflammatory protein expressions and an increase in the colon length (9.31 ± 0.59 cm to 10.89 ± 1.20 cm) along with histological improvements were also observed in the treated colitic mice compared to the untreated colitic mice in the present study. Flow cytometry and western blotting analysis revealed that these anti-colitis effects were associated with decreased accumulation of CD45+ immune cells, CD45 + F4/80+ macrophages and CD45 + Gr1+ neutrophils. Moreover, the 16s rRNA sequencing analysis of the gut microbiota revealed that WPEP partially reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis in the colitic mice including the decreased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila (35.80 ± 9.10% to 18.24 ± 6.23%) and Clostridium cocleatum (2.34 ± 1.78% to 0.011 ± 0.003%) and the increased abundance of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum (3.48 ± 2.72% to 9.65 ± 3.74%), Lactobacillus reuteri (0.007 ± 0.002% to 0.21 ± 0.12%), Lactobacillus salivarius (1.23 ± 0.87% to 2.22 ± 1.53%) and Ruminococcus bromii (0.009 ± 0.001% to 3.83 ± 1.98%). In summary, our results demonstrated that WPEP could be utilized as a functional food component in colitis management as well as a potential prebiotic agent to improve inflammation-related disorders.


Assuntos
Colite/dietoterapia , Colo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Pleurotus/química , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteínas/metabolismo
3.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792430

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms have been an important part of the human diet for thousands of years, and over 100 varieties have been cultivated for their potential human health benefits. In recent years, edible mushroom polysaccharides (EMPs) have been studied for their activities against obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer. Particularly, accumulating evidence on the exact causality between these health risks and specific gut microbiota species has been revealed and characterized, and most of the beneficial health effects of EMPs have been associated with its reversal impacts on gut microbiota dysbiosis. This demonstrates the key role of EMPs in decreasing health risks through gut microbiota modulation effects. This review article compiles and summarizes the latest studies that focus on the health benefits and underlying functional mechanisms of gut microbiota regulation via EMPs. We conclude that EMPs can be considered a dietary source for the improvement and prevention of several health risks, and this review provides the theoretical basis and technical guidance for the development of novel functional foods with the utilization of edible mushrooms.

4.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(5): 642-663, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889885

RESUMO

Nowadays, PM2.5 concentrations greatly influence indoor air quality in subways and threaten passenger and staff health because PM2.5 not only contains heavy metal elements, but can also carry toxic and harmful substances due to its small size and large specific surface area. Exploring the physicochemical and distribution characteristics of PM2.5 in subways is necessary to limit its concentration and remove it. At present, there are numerous studies on PM2.5 in subways around the world, yet, there is no comprehensive and well-organized review available on this topic. This paper reviews the nearly twenty years of research and over 130 published studies on PM2.5 in subway stations, including aspects such as concentration levels and their influencing factors, physicochemical properties, sources, impacts on health, and mitigation measures. Although many determinants of station PM2.5 concentration have been reported in current studies, e.g., the season, outdoor environment, and station depth, their relative influence is uncertain. The sources of subway PM2.5 include those from the exterior (e.g., road traffic and fuel oil) and the interior (e.g., steel wheels and rails and metallic brake pads), but the proportion of these sources is also unknown. Control strategies of PM mainly include adequate ventilation and filtration, but these measures are often inefficient in removing PM2.5. The impacts of PM2.5 from subways on human health are still poorly understood. Further research should focus on long-term data collection, influencing factors, the mechanism of health impacts, and PM2.5 standards or regulations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ferrovias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(4): 304-4, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical value and safety of unilateral pedicle screw fixation combined with contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation and interbody fusion by muscle-splitting approach treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. METHODS: The clinical data of 51 patients with recurrent lumbar disc herniation treated from June 2012 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 32 males and 19 females, aged 34 to 64 years with an average of (51.11± 7.28) years. Lesions invoved L4,5 in 38 cases and L5S1 in 13 cases. All patients had a history of lower back pain and radiation pain of lower limbs(3 bilateral and 48 unilateral)and underwent unilateral pedicle screw combined with contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation and interbody fusion, among which 24 patients were treated through median incision approach (median incision group);other 27 patients were treated through muscle-splitting approach with channel-assisted exposure(muscle-splitting approach group). Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage and incision length of the two groups were recorded. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to score the pain of lumbar incision at 72 h after operation, and JOA low back pain scoring system was used to evaluate the lumbar function preoperatively and at final follow-up. Imaging data were analyzed, including the changes in the height of intervertebral space of diseased segment before operation, 3 to 5 days after operation, and at final follow-up;Cobb angle changes in the coronal and sagittal planes of lumbar spine preoperatively and at final follow-up;multifidus area and multifidus fatty tissue deposition grade before and 12 months after operation; postoperative pedicle screw and laminar process screw position and intervertebral fusion condition. The complications of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in operation time between two groups (P>0.05). Muscle-splitting approach group was better than median incision group in light of incision length, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage volume (P<0.05). VAS score of lumbar incision pain at 72 h after operation was 1.61±0.54 in median incision group and 0.76±0.28 in muscle-splitting approach group(P<0.05). All patients were followed up for 12 to 84 (43.50±15.84) months. At final follow-up, the JOA scores of the two groups were significantly improved compared with those before operation(P<0.05). The rate of pedicle screw malposition was 6.25%(3/48) in medianincision group and 9.26%(5/54) in muscle-splitting approach group, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups (P>0.05). Rate of translaminar facet screw malposition in median incision group (12.50%) was significant less than the muscle-splitting approach group (18.52%)(P< 0.05). The height of the intervertebral space of the two groups was significantly restored 3 to 5 days after operation (P<0.05), and there was also a significant loss of height at final follow-up (P<0.05). At final follow-up, the balance of lumbar coronal plane and sagittal plane in two groups were improved very well (P<0.05). The comparison of the area and grade of the multifidus muscle in two groups 12 months after operation showed that obvious damage to the multifidus muscle were present in the median incision, while the multifidus muscle was less damaged by muscle-splitting approach (P<0.05). The fusion rate was 91.7%(22/24) in the median incision group and 92.6%(25/27) in muscle-splitting approach group(P>0.05). In median incision group, there were 1 case of intraoperative pedicle entry point fracture, 1 case of intraoperative dural tear and 1 case of postoperative nerve root injury;in muscle-splitting approach group, there were 1 case of intraoperative pedicle entry point fracture, 2 cases of intraoperative dural tear, 1 case of postoperative nerve root injury, 2 cases of incision epidermal necrosis and 1 case of poor incision healing. Nerve root injuries in the two groups were caused by incorrect positions of pedicle screws, the screws were immediately adjusted upon discovery. The nerve root symptoms were completely recovered 3 and 6 months after surgery. No incision infection was occurred in two groups. During the follow-up, no pedicle screw and laminar facet screw were loosened, displaced, broken, or intervertebral fusion cage moved forward and backward. The complication rate of 25.93% in muscle-splitting approach group was higher than 12.50% in the median incision group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Muscle-splitting approach is feasible for thetreatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation with pedicle screw fixation combined with contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation and interbody fusion. Compared with the median incision approach, the muscle-splitting approach has the advantages of small incision, less trauma, less bleeding, rapid recovery. Also it can protect multifidus and do not increase the incidence of serious complications. Thus, it can be used as a choice for fixation and fusion of recurrent lumbar disc herniation.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Parafusos Pediculares , Fusão Vertebral , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Cell Biochem ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852174

RESUMO

LASS2 is a novel tumor-suppressor gene and has been characterized as a ceramide synthase, which synthesizes very-long acyl chain ceramides. However, LASS2 function and pathway-related activity in prostate carcinogenesis are still largely unexplored. Here, we firstly report that LASS2 promotes ß-catenin degradation through physical interaction with STK38, SCYL2, and ATP6V0C via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, phosphorylation of LASS2 is essential for ß-catenin degradation, and serine residue 248 of LASS2 is illustrated to be a key phosphorylation site. Furthermore, we find that dephosphorylation of LASS2 at serine residue 248 significantly enhances prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis in vivo, indicating that phosphorylated LASS2 inhibits prostate carcinogenesis through negative regulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Thus, our findings implicate LASS2 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target of prostate cancer.

7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 151: 112126, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722601

RESUMO

Soy protein isolate (SPI) is a nutritional commercial product, while the poor solubility and gelling restricts its applications for functional foods. To surmount the challenge presented by this poor solubility, the gelling polysaccharide shows potential in ameliorating SPI. In this study, SPI/Flammulina velutipes polysaccharide (FVP) hydrogels were prepared under four mixing ratios (32:1, 20:1,15:1 and 10:1, w/w) at both pH6.5 and pH3.5, respectively. The stability of hydrogels and its immunostimulatory impact on RAW264.7 cells were assessed. Initial results revealed that water holding capacity increased when increasing the mixing ratios, likely to be the results of enhanced electrostatic interaction between SPI and FVP. The addition of FVP contributed to the improved swelling ratio and lowered the degradation ratio. Such structure feature was shown to be favorable for hydrogels to culture cells. More importantly, SPI/FVP hydrogels demonstrated no cytotoxic effect on cell metabolic activity. The culture of SPI/FVP hydrogels enhanced the immunostimulatory capacity in RAW264.7 cells by increasing phagocytosis and inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The performances of the hydrogels made at pH3.5 were superior to those prepared at pH6.5. Our results suggested SPI/FVP hydrogels may provide application potential for the development of functional foods.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 17(2): e1009320, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596195

RESUMO

Mammalian tooth crown formation has long served as a model for investigating how patterning and morphogenesis are orchestrated during development. However, the mechanism underlying root patterning and morphogenesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we find that Lhx6 labels a subpopulation of root progenitor cells in the apical dental mesenchyme, which is closely associated with furcation development. Loss of Lhx6 leads to furcation and root number defects, indicating that Lhx6 is a key root patterning regulator. Among the multiple cellular events regulated by Lhx6 is the odontoblast fate commitment of progenitor cells, which it controls in a cell-autonomous manner. Specifically, Lhx6 loss leads to elevated expression of the Wnt antagonist Sfrp2 and down-regulation of Wnt signaling in the furcation region, while overactivation of Wnt signaling in Lhx6+ progenitor cells partially restore the furcation defects in Lhx6-/- mice. Collectively, our findings have important implications for understanding organ morphogenesis and future strategies for tooth root regeneration.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607299

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the gut microbiota/gut hormone axis contributes to the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Melatonin plays a beneficial role in gut motility and immunity. However, altered expression of local mucosal melatonin in IBS and its relationship with the gut microbiota remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to detect the colonic melatonin levels and microbiota profiles in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and explore their relationship in germ-free (GF) rats and BON-1 cells. Thirty-two IBS-D patients and twenty-eight healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Fecal specimens from IBS-D patients and HCs were separately transplanted into GF rats by gavage. The levels of colon mucosal melatonin were assessed by immunohistochemical methods, and fecal microbiota communities were analyzed using 16S rDNA sequencing. The effect of butyrate on melatonin synthesis in BON-1 cells was evaluated by ELISA. Melatonin levels were significantly increased and negatively correlated with visceral hypersensitivity in IBS-D patients. GF rats inoculated with fecal microbiota from IBS-D patients had high colonic melatonin levels. Butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa species, such as Roseburia species and Lachnospira species, were positively related to colonic mucosal melatonin expression. Butyrate significantly increased melatonin secretion in BON-1 cells. Increased melatonin expression may be an adaptive protective mechanism in the development of IBS-D. Moreover, some Clostridium cluster XIVa species could increase melatonin expression via butyrate production. Modulation of the gut hormone/gut microbiota axis offers a promising target of interest for IBS in the future.

10.
Child Abuse Negl ; 112: 104921, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous research has established that child maltreatment (CM) and peer relationships (i.e., deviant peer affiliation, being ignored by peers) are strong predictors of adolescent internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) behavior problems, no study has examined the above effects concurrently. Nor have researchers investigated the potential peer relationship differences in the effects of CM types on adolescent behavior problems. Thus, this study aims to examine the independent and combined effects of different types of CM and peer relationships on behavior problems. METHODS: The Generalized Estimating Equations approach was conducted using the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Child-Protective-Services reports and youth self-reports were used for each type of CM. Deviant peer affiliation (DP) has been assessed using a modified version of the Youth-Risk-Behavior-and-Monitoring-the-Future Survey, while being ignored by peers was assessed using a single question. Adolescent INT and EXT were measured using the Youth-Self-Report. RESULTS: Emotional abuse was associated with both INT and EXT, whereas physical abuse was associated with EXT. Higher DP and higher incidence of being ignored by peers were both associated with higher levels of INT and EXT. Emotionally abused youth with higher levels of DP had less INT, compared to emotionally abused youth with lower levels of DP. CONCLUSION: The Findings indicate the need for interventions that 1) take into account the different effects of CM types, specifically for emotionally abused youth; 2) help youth to build positive relationships with peers; and 3) work to reduce the possibility of affiliation with deviant peers.

12.
Elife ; 102021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482080

RESUMO

Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells give rise to bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments of the vertebrate craniofacial musculoskeletal complex, as well as regulate mesoderm-derived craniofacial muscle development through cell-cell interactions. Using the mouse soft palate as a model, we performed an unbiased single-cell RNA-seq analysis to investigate the heterogeneity and lineage commitment of CNC derivatives during craniofacial muscle development. We show that Runx2, a known osteogenic regulator, is expressed in the CNC-derived perimysial and progenitor populations. Loss of Runx2 in CNC-derivatives results in reduced expression of perimysial markers (Aldh1a2 and Hic1) as well as soft palate muscle defects in Osr2-Cre;Runx2fl/fl mice. We further reveal that Runx2 maintains perimysial marker expression through suppressing Twist1, and that myogenesis is restored in Osr2-Cre;Runx2fl/fl;Twist1fl/+ mice. Collectively, our findings highlight the roles of Runx2, Twist1, and their interaction in regulating the fate of CNC-derived cells as they guide craniofacial muscle development through cell-cell interactions.

13.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(7): 5012-5021, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400289

RESUMO

Uromodulin (Umod) is the most abundant constituent of urine in humans and exclusively found in the kidney tubular epithelium. However, the specific role of Umod in renal tubulointerstitial injury is yet to be understood. The present study was conducted with aim of investigating the potential therapeutic mechanism of Umod in the regulation of renal tubulointerstitial injury. Protein expression of Umod in renal tubular epithelial cells was measured with the conduction of Western blot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay were performed to detect the complement activation products and the activation products of surface deposition. The expression of C1q, C2, C4, B factor, C3, C5, H factor, CD46, CD55, C3aR, and C5aR were determined with the use of reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Subsequently, the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rat model was established. Renal tubulointerstitial injury was assessed with the application of hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining in rats. UUO rats and normal rats were injected with si-NC or si-Umod and complement inhibitor. UUO rats were observed to have serious impairment of kidney tubule, renal tubular dilation, and epithelial atrophy, with downregulated Umod and activated complement pathway. Silencing of Umod resulted in the activation of complement system while promoting interstitial fibrosis in renal tubules. Moreover, addition of complement inhibitor significantly alleviated the renal tubule injury and fibrosis. Collectively, our study suggests that silencing of Umod mediates the complement pathway, exacerbating renal tubulointerstitial injury in rats, which provides insight into the development of novel therapeutic agents for renal tubulointerstitial injury.

14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 147: 111901, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279676

RESUMO

Functional components including ß-glucan, dietary fiber, resistant starch and polyphenols extracted from various coarse cereals have been reported to prevent high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity via modulating gut microbiota. In this study, millet, maize, oat, soybean, and purple potato were ultrafine comminuted, mixed, and then extruded for the preparation of puffed mixture coarse cereals. HFD was used to investigate the effects of mixture coarse cereals on obesity and gut microbiota in mice. The results showed that dietary intake of mixture coarse cereals could decrease body weight gain and fat accumulation, improve the blood glucose tolerance and serum lipids levels, reduce the systemic inflammation, and down-regulate the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes. In addition, the levels of SCFAs and the composition of gut microbiota were investigated. The results indicated that mixture coarse cereals could promote the release of SCFAs, enhance the diversity of gut microbiota, and increase the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which might contribute to the anti-obesity activity. Present work suggested that the mixture coarse cereals could be developed as a nutraceutical for the prevention of HFD-induced obesity.

15.
Stem Cells ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159702

RESUMO

Mouse dental papilla cells (mDPCs) derive from cranial neural crest cells and maintain mesenchymal stem cell characteristics. The differentiation of neural crest cells into odontoblasts is orchestrated by transcription factors regulating the expression of genes whose enhancers are initially inaccessible. However, the identity of the transcription factors driving the emergence of odontoblast lineages remains elusive. In this study, we identified SALL1, a transcription factor that was particularly expressed in preodontoblasts, polarizing odontoblasts, and secretory odontoblasts in vivo. Knockdown of Sall1 in mDPCs inhibited their odontoblastic differentiation. In order to identify the regulatory network of Sall1, RNA sequencing and an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing were performed to analyze the genome-wide direct regulatory targets of SALL1. We found that inhibition of Sall1 expression could decrease the accessibility of some chromatin regions associated with odontoblast lineages at embryonic day 16.5, whereas these regions remained unaffected at postnatal day 0.5, suggesting that SALL1 regulates the fate of mDPCs by remodeling open chromatin regions at the early bell stage. Specifically, we found that SALL1 could directly increase the accessibility of cis-regulatory elements near Tgf-ß2 and within the Runx2 locus. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and proximal ligation assays showed that SALL1 could establish functional interactions with RUNX2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SALL1 positively regulates the commitment of odontoblast lineages by interacting with RUNX2 and directly activating Tgf-ß2 at an early stage.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1299-1300, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052375
17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(9): 1063-1064, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936255
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2822-2831, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794226

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory effects of two newly identified Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (WPEP, NPEP) were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in this study. Characterization analysis revealed that molecular weights of WPEP and NPEP were 167 and 274 kDa, and were mainly composed of glucose with ß-type glycosidic linkages. WPEP and NPEP could significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by regulating the production of NO, Protaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). This was through the blocking of the activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulation of protein kinases 1/2, and stress-activated protein kinase/jun aminoterminal kinase. Moreover, WPEP and NPEP inhibited NF-κB signaling by reducing nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of p65. Overall, our results, for the first time identified two P. eryngii polysaccharides and demonstrated the related anti-inflammatory effects, which indicated the favorable potential of P. eryngii polysaccharide as specific functional foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study prepared and characterized newly identified Pleurotus eryngii water-soluble polysaccharide fractions and elucidated the nutritional benefits, mainly the immune response related to anti-inflammatory activities by utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, results of this study suggested that the P. eryngii polysaccharide fractions could be considered as potential candidates for exploration in the development of new immunomodulatory agent or functional supplementary foods.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pleurotus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
19.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 2053-2061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636658

RESUMO

Purpose: Although immune dysfunction has been investigated in adult septic patients, early immune status remains unclear. In this study, our primary aim was to assess early immune status in adult patients with sepsis stratified by age and its relevance to hospital mortality. Patients and Methods: A post hoc analysis of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted; 273 patients whose immune status was evaluated within 48 hours after onset of sepsis were enrolled. Early immune status was evaluated by the percentage of monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) in total monocytes within 48 hours after onset of sepsis and it was classified as immunoparalysis (mHLA-DR ≤30%) or non-immunoparalysis (>30%). Three logistic regression models were conducted to explore the associations between early immunoparalysis and hospital mortality. We also developed two sensitivity analyses to find out whether the definition of early immune status (24 hours vs 48 hours after onset of sepsis) and immunotherapy affect the primary outcome. Results: Of the 181 elderly (≥60yrs) and 92 non-elderly (<60yrs) septic patients, 71 (39.2%) and 25 (27.2%) died in hospital, respectively. The percentage of early immunoparalysis in the elderly was twice of that in the non-elderly patients (32% vs 16%, p=0.006). For the elderly, hospital mortality was higher in the immunoparalysis ones than the non-immunoparalysis ones (53.4% vs 32.5%, p=0.009). But there was no significant difference in hospital mortality between immunoparalysis non-elderly patients and non-immunoparalysis non-elderly ones (33.5% vs 26.0%, p=0.541). By means of logistic regression models, we found that early immunoparalysis was independently associated with increased hospital mortality in elderly, but not in non-elderly patients. Sensitivity analysis further confirmed the definition of early immune status and immunotherapy did not affect the outcomes. Conclusion: The elderly were more susceptible to early immunoparalysis after onset of sepsis. Early immunoparalysis was independently associated with poor prognosis in elderly, but not in non-elderly patients.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(31): 35532-35541, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660235

RESUMO

Carbon-coated silicon micro- and nanostructures have been widely used as composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries combining the benefits of high theoretical capacity of Si and better conductivity of carbon. To optimize structures that allow the Si volume expansion without losing the electrical connection, a detailed carbon protection mechanism is desired. We fabricate a network of interconnected sandwich branches with a silicon thin film encapsulated between a porous 3-dimensional graphene foam and graphene drapes (so-called a graphene ensemble). This prototype binder-free anode, of great mechanical strength and composed of only silicon and few-layer graphene, provides distinct signals under operando Raman spectroscopy. During electrochemical cycles, the graphene G peak shows variation of peak position and intensity, while the 2D peak experiences a negligible shift from limited deformation. Silicon displays excellent structural reversibility under the sandwich protection, validating the functions of graphenic carbon coating. This specific graphene ensemble can also serve as an experimental scaffold for mechanical and chemical analysis of many active materials.

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