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1.
Exp Cell Res ; 389(2): 111897, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035951

RESUMO

Mucins are major macromolecular components of lung mucus that are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus. MUC5AC is a major mucin glycoprotein that is hypersecreted in asthmatic individuals. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthmatics. Our previous studies indicate that VEGF upregulates MUC5AC expression by interacting with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). It has been shown that dexamethasone (Dex) downregulates MUC5AC expression; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect of Dex on MUC5AC expression induced by VEGF and study the underlying mechanisms. We tested the effects of Dex on VEGFR2 and RhoA activation, caveolin-1 expression, and the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2 in primary bronchial epithelial cells. Dex downregulated MUC5AC mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and suppressed the activation of VEGFR2 and RhoA induced by VEGF. Additionally, Dex upregulated caveolin-1 protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, phospho-VEGFR2 expression was decreased through overexpression of caveolin-1 and increased after caveolin-1 knockdown. Dex treatment attenuated the VEGF-decreased association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. Collectively, our findings suggest that Dex downregulates VEGF-induced MUC5AC expression by inactivating VEGFR2 and RhoA. Furthermore, decreased MUC5AC expression by Dex was related to the increased association of caveolin-1 with VEGFR2. Further studies characterizing these mechanisms are required to facilitate the development of improved treatment strategies for asthma.

2.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 282, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway mucus hypersecretion is an important pathophysiological feature in asthma. Mucins are glycoproteins that are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus, and MUC5AC is a major mucin glycoprotein that is overproduced in asthma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthmatics. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect of VEGF on MUC5AC expression and study the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In order to elucidate the precise mechanism underlying the effect of VEGF on MUC5AC expression, we tested the effects of VEGF on RhoA activation and the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2 in Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells. RESULTS: VEGF up-regulated MUC5AC mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and activated RhoA. Additionally, VEGF-induced MUC5AC expression and RhoA activation were enhanced by disrupting caveolae with cholesterol depletion and reversed by cholesterol repletion, and inhibited by a selective VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor SU1498. Furthermore, phospho-VEGFR2 expression was decreased via overexpression of caveolin-1. VEGF treatment reduced the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings suggest that VEGF up-regulates MUC5AC expression and RhoA activation by interaction with VEGFR2, and this phenomenon was related with the association of caveolin-1 and VEGFR2. Further studies on these mechanisms are needed to facilitate the development of treatments for asthma.

3.
Growth Factors ; 35(1): 39-47, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635361

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Licochalcone A is the predominant characteristic chalcone in licorice root. We found that licochalcone A inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed via inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, licochalcone A treatment inhibited VEGF-induced activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and ERK and blocked the downregulation of caveolin-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings suggested that licochalcone A inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppressing VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and downregulating caveolin-1. Further studies of these mechanisms are needed to facilitate the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway, such as asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Chalconas/farmacologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/citologia , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 7, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthma. Recent evidence indicates that a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) may influence asthma pathogenesis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)33 has been identified as playing a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. ADAM33, which is expressed in ASM cells, is suggested to play a role in the function of these cells. Recent studies show that 1,25-(OH)2D3 exerts direct inhibitory effects on passively sensitized human ASM cells in vitro, including inhibition of ADAM33 expression and cell proliferation; however, the mechanism has not been fully understood. METHODS: In order to elucidate the precise mechanism underlying the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on VEGF-induced ADAM33 expression and ASM cell proliferation, we tested the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on cell cycle progression and evaluated the levels of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-Akt in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RESULTS: We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited VEGF-induced ADAM33 expression and ASM cell proliferation, as well as cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ADAM33 expression and ASM cell proliferation was suppressed via inhibition of ERK1/2 activity, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment inhibited VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 as well as that of ERK and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppressing VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and downregulating ADAM33. Further studies of these mechanisms are needed to facilitate the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Exp Cell Res ; 347(2): 378-84, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587274

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-ß-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Roxitromicina/farmacologia , Roxitromicina/uso terapêutico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Cell Cycle ; 15(20): 2819-26, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579513

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-33 has been identified as playing a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. ADAM-33 is expressed in ASM cells and is suggested to play a role in the function of these cells. However, the regulation of ADAM-33 is not fully understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodeling in asthmatics. Although VEGF was initially thought of as an endothelial-specific growth factor, recent reports have found that VEGF can promote proliferation of other cell types, including ASM cells. To investigate the precise mechanism of VEGF's effect on ASM cell proliferation, we tested the expression of ADAM-33, phospho-extracellularsignal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-Akt in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. We found that VEGF up-regulates ADAM-33 mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt. We also found that VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation is inhibited by both ADAM-33 knockdown and a selective VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor (SU1498). Furthermore, VEGF-induced ADAM-33 expression and ASM cell proliferation were suppressed by inhibiting ERK1/2 activity, but not by inhibiting Akt activity. Collectively, our findings suggest that VEGF enhances ADAM-33 expression and ASM cell proliferation by activating the VEGFR2/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations might help develop therapeutic strategies for airway diseases associated with smooth muscle hyperplasia such as asthma.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/genética , Asma/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Butadienos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Cinamatos/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transfecção , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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