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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 1651-1660, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592552

RESUMO

The rational integration of chemotherapy and hydroxyl radical (·OH)-mediated chemodynamic therapy (CDT) via functional metal-organic frameworks (MOF) carriers has great potential in cancer therapy. In this work, aminotriazole (3-AT) doped polyhedral metal organic frameworks (denoted as MAF) were prepared by template ligand replacement, where CDT was initiated by Cu2+/Cu+ modulated Fenton reaction and enhanced by effectively regulating the catalase activity with 3-AT. However, a rod-like Cu-MOF with 3-AT served as a ligand was obtained by the hydrothermal method without using template. In contrast to Cu-MOF, pH-responsive MAF was chosen as the carrier for targeted drug delivery due to its higher drug load of 17.6% and relatively uniform size, where doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug was loaded in its cavity and hyaluronic acid (HA) was coated on its surface via electrostatic interactions (denoted as HA-MAF@DOX). In vitro experiments demonstrated that HA-MAF@DOX had high transport efficiency of DOX, effective regulation of catalase (CAT) activity and enhanced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. This work is the first use of enzyme inhibitors as ligands to construct functional MOFs via template ligand replacement for effective regulating enzyme activity, mediating intracellular redox homeostasis and enhancing CDT efficacy, which provides a feasible strategy for the construction the functional MOFs in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Amitrol (Herbicida) , Catalase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 196: 113730, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736099

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative brain disorder that affects tens of millions of older adults worldwide and has significant economic and societal impacts. Despite its prevalence and severity, early diagnosis of AD remains a considerable challenge. Here we report an integrated acoustofluidics-based diagnostic system (ADx), which combines triple functions of acoustics, microfluidics, and orthogonal biosensors for clinically accurate, sensitive, and rapid detection of AD biomarkers from human plasma. We design and fabricate a surface acoustic wave-based acoustofluidic separation device to isolate and purify AD biomarkers to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Multimodal biosensors within the integrated ADx are fabricated by in-situ patterning of the ZnO nanorod array and deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto the ZnO nanorods for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and electrochemical immunosensors. We obtain the label-free detections of SERS and electrochemical immunoassay of clinical plasma samples from AD patients and healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. We believe that this efficient integration provides promising solutions for the early diagnosis of AD.

3.
ChemMedChem ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719875

RESUMO

A cancer-mitochondria dual-targeting nanoparticle based on lactose and ferrocenium derivatives conjugated polydopamine (PDA@Lac/Fc/Hyp) was constructed, which exhibited cancer-targeting and mitochondria-targeting ability deriving from lactose and ferrocenium derivatives due to the specific carbohydrate-protein interaction and cationic species properties, respectively. Moreover, PDA@Lac/Fc/Hyp showed great biocompatibility and phototherapeutic efficiency. This work displays a good example of constructing cancer-mitochondria dual-targeting nanoparticle for synergistic phototherapy.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(84): 10983-10997, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604891

RESUMO

Covalently bridged pillararene-based oligomers (CBPOs) are formed by covalent bonding of pillararene monomers, and they play a critical role in expanding the multi-disciplinary application of pillararenes due to their excellent molecular complexing ability, specially designed geometry and multifunctional linking groups. This article provides a comprehensive review of the synthesis and applications of CBPOs. The design and synthetic strategies of a series of CBPOs (dimers, trimers, tetramers and others) are first introduced. Many CBPOs with multi-cavities and unique geometry are very attractive and efficient building blocks for constructing novel smart supramolecular polymers (SPs) with different topological structures through host-guest interactions. We describe the methods of constructing various SPs based on CBPOs in detail. Furthermore, the extensive applications of CBPOs and CBPO-based SPs in recognition and detection of ions and organic small molecules, selective adsorption and separation, artificial light-harvesting systems, catalysis, drug delivery systems, and others are systematically introduced. Finally, the future challenges and perspectives for CBPOs are also highlighted.

5.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(44): 9142-9152, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693960

RESUMO

Multimodal synergistic therapy has gained increasing attention in cancer treatment to overcome the limitations of monotherapy and achieve high anticancer efficacy. In this study, a synergistic phototherapy and hypoxia-activated chemotherapy nanoplatform based on natural melanin nanoparticles (MPs) loaded with the bioreduction prodrug tirapazamine (TPZ) and decorated with hyaluronic acid (HA) was developed. A self-reporting aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active photosensitizer (PS) (BATTMN) was linked to the prepared nanoparticles by boronate ester bonds. The MPs and BATTMN-HA played roles as quenchers for PS and cancer targeting/photodynamic moieties, respectively. As a pH sensitive bond, the borate ester bonds between HA and BATTMN are hydrolysed in the acidic cancer environment, thereby separating BATTMN from the nanoparticles and leading to the induction of fluorescence for imaging-guided synergistic phototherapy/hypoxia-activated chemotherapy under dual irradiation. TPZ can be released upon activation by pH, near-infrared (NIR) and hyaluronidase (Hyal). Particularly, the hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TPZ was amplified by oxygen consumption in the tumor intracellular environment induced by the AIE-active PS in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The nanoparticles developed in our research showed favorable photothermal conversion efficiency (η = 37%), desired cytocompatibility, and excellent synergistic therapeutic efficacy. The proposed nanoplatform not only extends the application scope of melanin materials with AIE-active PSs, but also offers useful insights into developing multistimulus as well as multimodal synergistic tumor treatment.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(62): 7625-7628, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235523

RESUMO

A galactose-targeting supramolecular photosensitizer system DOX@GP5⊃NBSPD was constructed based on a host-guest inclusion complex. The supramolecular system could achieve efficient delivery of DOX/NBS and selective release under GSH stimulation. In vitro studies revealed that this supramolecular DOX/NBS co-delivery system exhibited high ROS production and excellent cancer cell damage capability in a hypoxic environment. This strategy can therefore achieve enhanced hypoxic-tumor therapeutic effectiveness by chemo-photodynamic combination.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Calixarenos/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fotoquimioterapia
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201944

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a safe, non-invasive modality for cancer therapy, in which the low oxygen and high glutathione in the tumor microenvironment reduces therapeutic efficiency. In order to overcome these problems, we prepared a supramolecular photosensitive system of O2-Cu/ZIF-8@ZIF-8@WP6-MB (OCZWM), which was loaded with oxygen to increase the oxygen concentration in the tumor microenvironment, and the Cu2+ in the system reacted with glutathione (GSH) to reduce the GSH concentration to generate Cu+. It is worth noting that the generated Cu+ can produce the Fenton reaction, thus realizing the combination therapy of PDT and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) to achieve the purpose of significantly improving the anti-cancer efficiency.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/química , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química
8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 662573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079529

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up ~8% of the human genome, and for millions of years, they have been subject to strict biological regulation. Many HERVs do not participate in normal physiological activities in the body. However, in some pathological conditions, they can be abnormally activated. For example, HIV infection can cause abnormal activation of HERVs, and under different infection conditions, HERV expression may be different. We observed significant differences in HERV-K transcription levels among HIV-1 subtype-infected individuals. The transcriptional levels in the HERV-K gag region were significantly increased in HIV-1 B subtype-infected patients, while the transcriptional levels in the HERV-K pol region were significantly increased in CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC subtype-infected patients. In vitro, the transcriptional levels of HEVR-K were increased 5-fold and 15-fold in MT2 cells transfected with two different HIV-1 strains (B and CRF01_AE, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in transcriptional levels among regions of HERV-K. When MT2 cells were infected with different subtypes of HIV-1 Tat proteins (B, CRF01_AE), which is constructed by lentiviruses, and the transcription levels of HERV-K were increased 4-fold and 2-fold, respectively. Thus, different subtypes of HIV-1 have different effects on HERV-K transcription levels, which may be caused by many factors, not only Tat protein.

9.
Org Lett ; 23(5): 1709-1713, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617720

RESUMO

A novel kind of photoinitiator based on the macrocyclic molecule pillar[6]arene (P6OC2H5) is reported. Under light irradiation, P6OC2H5 was cleaved to a linear oligomer biradical, which could efficiently initiate free-radical photopolymerization. Owing to the absence of small molecular fragment generation, the macrocyclic photoinitiator exhibited a much lower migration rate and cytotoxicity than commercial photoinitiators. This is the first time that a macrocyclic molecule has been developed as a photoinitiator based on the macrocycle fracture mechanism.

10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 10417-10424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376329

RESUMO

Background: Conventional chemotherapy using small molecular antitumor drugs suffers from several limitations, for instance poor water solubility, high toxicity, and lack of specificity. However, prodrugs constructed by covalent modification of anticancer drugs can overcome these limitations, which are able to release its active form after entering the tumor tissues by specific stimulus response. Methods: A GSH-responsive glyco-nanoprodrug system has been constructed by self-assembled of amphiphilic lactosemodified camptothecin prodrug molecular (Lac-SS-CPT) for targeting drug delivery and combination therapy. Results: Using HL7702 cells as experimental models, the cytotoxic effects of Lac-SS-CPT were investigated to 10-30 µmol/L for 48 hours. Notably, the cell viability of Lac-SS-CPT to HL7702 cells was higher compared with free CPT which indicated that Lac-SS-CPT can reduce side-effects. Simultaneously, we have evaluated the anticancer efficiency of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX)-loaded Lac-SS-CPT glyco-nanoprodrug system (Lac-SS-CPT@DOX), where Lac-SS-CPT@DOX and free DOX incubated with HpeG2 cells and HL7702 cells for 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. It turned out that Lac-SS-CPT@DOX encapsulated anticancer drug (DOX) could decrease DOX side-effect on HL7702 cells and increase DOX anticancer efficiency. More importantly, the CPT and DOX were released from Lac-SS-CPT@DOX in HepG2 cells where a higher GSH concentration exists. Moreover, combination therapy efficiency was evaluated, where free DOX and Lac-SS-CPT@DOX incubated with DOX-resistance HepG2 cells (HepG2-ADR cells), respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that the Lac-SS-CPT@DOX could enhance the cytotoxicity of DOX for HepG2-ADR cells and provided a new idea for designing an advanced nano-prodrug system toward combination therapy.


Assuntos
Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lactose/química , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Camptotecina/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química
11.
Small ; 16(48): e2005179, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174375

RESUMO

Acoustofluidics, the fusion of acoustics and microfluidic techniques, has recently seen increased research attention across multiple disciplines due in part to its capabilities in contactless, biocompatible, and precise manipulation of micro-/nano-objects. Herein, a bimodal signal amplification platform which relies on acoustofluidics-induced enrichment of nanoparticles is introduced. The dual-function biosensor can perform sensitive immunofluorescent or surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection. The platform functions by using surface acoustic waves to concentrate nanoparticles at either the center or perimeter of a glass capillary; the concentration location is adjusted simply by varying the input frequency. The immunofluorescence assay is achieved by concentrating fluorescent analytes and functionalized nanoparticles at the center of the microchannel, thereby improving the visibility of the fluorescent output. By modifying the inner wall of the glass capillary with plasmonic Ag nanoparticle-deposited ZnO nanorod arrays and focusing analytes toward the perimeter of the microchannel, SERS sensing using the same device setup is achieved. Nanosized exosomes are used as a proof-of-concept to validate the performance of the acoustofluidic bimodal biosensor. With its sample-enrichment functionality, bimodal sensing, short processing time, and minute sample consumption, the acoustofluidic chip holds great potential for the development of lab-on-a-chip based analysis systems in many real-world applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Prata , Análise Espectral Raman
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(73): 10642-10645, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766652

RESUMO

Supramolecular glyco-nanovesicles (SeSe-(P5)2⊃Man-NH3+) based on the host-guest complex of a diselenium-bridged pillar[5]arene dimer and a mannose derivative have been successfully developed for the first time, which possessed tumor microenvironment-responsiveness and specific targetability due to their diselenium bonds and mannose units, respectively.


Assuntos
Calixarenos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Manosídeos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5873-5899, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848395

RESUMO

Supramolecular vesicles are the most popular smart nano-drug delivery systems (SDDs) because of their unique cavities, which have high loading carrying capacity and controlled-release action in response to specific stimuli. These vesicles are constructed from amphiphilic molecules via host-guest complexation, typically with targeted stimuli-responsive units, which are particularly important in biotechnology and biomedicine applications. Amphiphilic pillar[n]arenes, which are novel and functional macrocyclic host molecules, have been widely used to construct supramolecular vesicles because of their intrinsic rigid and symmetrical structure, electron-rich cavities and excellent properties. In this review, we first explain the synthesis of three types of amphiphilic pillar[n]arenes: neutral, anionic and cationic pillar[n]arenes. Second, we examine supramolecular vesicles composed of amphiphilic pillar[n]arenes recently used for the construction of SDDs. In addition, we describe the prospects for multifunctional amphiphilic pillar[n]arenes, particularly their potential in novel applications.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Animais , Cátions/química , Humanos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/síntese química
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(70): 10113-10126, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666966

RESUMO

Supramolecular nanostructures (SNSs) have received significant attention in recent years since they endow specific and unique properties to materials. Pillararenes, as a novel group of macrocyclic molecules, present particular features such as ease of modification, more electron-rich cavity as well as captivating host-guest chemistry, thus bestowing them with the abilities to fabricate intriguing SNSs. This feature article highlights the construction methods of pillararene-based supramolecular nanostructures (PSNSs), where most of which are in aqueous media, and the factors that influence the morphological transformation of PSNSs. Moreover, the structure-function relationship of divergent PSNSs is clarified. Finally, the future challenges and perspectives for PSNSs are pointed out and discussed. We hope this review will benefit the researchers interested in engineering PSNSs with on demand morphologies and desired functions.


Assuntos
Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
15.
Int J Pharm ; 587: 119669, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702454

RESUMO

Organ-on-a-chip as a new technology distinguishes it from animal and cell models at least in three aspects: (1) it responds to drugs' efficacy or toxicity more really by mimicking the human body's fluid microenvironment; (2) it can be used for high throughput screening a large number of compounds; (3) it has physiological accuracy. It is well known that ginsenosides compound K (CK) as a carbohydrate drug has numerous biological activities and physiological functions. However, pharmacokinetic studies of carbohydrate-based CK haven't been performed on organ chips. Here, we established and evaluated the function of single-organ chips and multi-organ chips based on intestinal, vascular, liver, and kidney chips. Each single-organ-on-a-chip performed itself well. Based on organ-on-chips, absorption, metabolism and toxicity of CK were successfully investigated. The pharmacokinetic results of CK provided by chip were consistent with previous reports, demonstrating the reliability of the organ-on-a-chip platform and its potential for use in pharmacokinetic studies of carbohydrate-drugs. As far as we know, this study would be the first report on the pharmacological investigation of carbohydrate drugs on organ-on-a-chip, which provides a theoretical basis for carbohydrate-based drug discovery.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/toxicidade , Humanos , Rim , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(62): 8861-8864, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638757

RESUMO

A supramolecular nanoprodrug based on the host-guest complexation of water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) and a boronate ester linked curcumin (Cur) was constructed, which had dual-responsiveness towards pH and GSH, allowing the drug to be selectively released in hepatoma cells. In vitro studies revealed that the Dox-loaded WP5G-Cur nanoprodrug achieved co-delivery of Dox/Cur. The anti-cancer efficiency could be enhanced through synergistic chemotherapies of Dox/Cur.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos/química , Calixarenos/química , Curcumina/química , Ésteres/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Água/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Solubilidade
17.
ACS Nano ; 14(5): 6150-6163, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352741

RESUMO

The integration of acoustics and microfluidics (termed acoustofluidics) presents a frontier in the engineering of functional micro-/nanomaterials. Acoustofluidic techniques enable active and precise spatiotemporal control of matter, providing great potential for the design of advanced nanosystems with tunable material properties. In this work, we introduce an acoustofluidic approach for engineering multifunctional three-dimensional nanostructure arrays and demonstrate their potential in enrichment and biosensing applications. In particular, our acoustofluidic device integrates an acoustic transducer with a sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic reactor that enables uniform patterning of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoarrays with customizable lengths, densities, diameters, and other properties. The resulting ZnO nanoarray-coated glass capillaries can rapidly and efficiently capture and enrich biomolecules with sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several hundred nanometers. In order to enable the detection of these biomolecules, silver (Ag) nanoparticles are deposited onto the ZnO nanoarrays, and the integrated ZnO-Ag capillary device functions as a label-free plasmonic biosensing system for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based detection of exosomes, DNA oligonucleotides, and E. coli bacteria. The optical sensing enhancement of ZnO-Ag capillary is further validated through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These findings not only provide insights into the engineering of functional micro/nanomaterials using acoustofluidics but also shed light onto the development of portable microanalytical devices for point-of-care applications.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Óxido de Zinco , Escherichia coli , Prata , Análise Espectral Raman
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(44): 5865-5876, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432243

RESUMO

Owing to its spatiotemporal selectivity and noninvasive nature, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising approach for the treatment of cancer. However, the non-targeting capability and the accompanying side effects of PDT as well as the low solubility/stability of photosensitizers (PSs) seriously limit its further development. In recent years, host-guest interaction based supramolecular chemistry has attracted more and more attention benefiting from its distinctive properties to introduce macrocyclic hosts including cyclodextrins (CDs), calix[n]arenes (CAs), cucurbit[n]urils (CBs), pillar[n]arenes (PAs), crown ethers, etc. into supramolecular systems, without multiple synthesis steps and complicated purification processes. In particular, supramolecular PDT systems constructed based on macrocylic hosts and PSs through host-guest interactions provide ideal platforms to overcome the limitations of PDT effectively. In this review, recent achievements made in supramolecular PDT systems based on host-guest interactions are comprehensively overviewed, which are categorized into four sections according to the types of macrocyclic hosts. Furthermore, supramolecular PDT combined with other treatments for synergistic therapy is well elucidated. In addition, challenges and perspectives of new supramolecular PDT systems and their potential clinical application are also discussed at the end of the review.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Humanos , Luz , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 619-626, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965315

RESUMO

Human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2) is a recently recognized pegivirus of the family Flaviviridae. To investigate the epidemic features of HPgV-2 circulating in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population, we tested for antibodies and viral RNA of HPgV-2 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with retrospective plasma samples collected from 771 HIV infections with multiple risk behaviors in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province. A total of 195 subjects (25.29%) were seroreactive to HPgV-2, and 41 (5.32%) were RNA positive. Although the positive rate of HPgV-2 antibodies in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals (27.69%) was significantly higher than that of HIV monoinfections (20.82%) (p = 0.036), this is the first report of HPgV-2 viremia in HIV-infected individuals without HCV infection and the presence of two HPgV-2 lineages in China. Our data indicate that HPgV-2 can also be transmitted sexually, which might be facilitated when combined with HCV infection, injecting drug use, and risky sexual behavior, which appear to have a synergistic effect on HPgV-2 infection. Phylogenetic analysis of 26 near-full-length genome sequences showed that the HPgV-2 strains in China are divided into two clusters.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae/complicações , Infecções por Flaviviridae/epidemiologia , Flaviviridae/classificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Viremia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(48): 7656-7675, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746931

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive supramolecular nano-systems (SRNS) have been a trending interdisciplinary research area due to flexibly being able to switch functions through exposure to appropriate stimuli, which makes the systems very attractive in multiple fields where precise control is key. Pillar[n]arenes, as a new generation of macrocyclic host molecules, possess captivating properties including versatile chemical modifiability, rigid electron-rich structure and tuneable size of the cavity, and have become extremely valuable molecules/building blocks in constructing SRNS via non-covalent interactions. Significantly, numerous SRNS based on pillar[n]arenes have been fabricated in the past few years and found extensive applications in hydrogels, sensors, bioimaging, diagnosis, and, importantly, controlled drug release. In this review, we highlight the advances of SRNS based on pillar[n]arenes, which are categorised in terms of response factors including pH, redox, enzymes, temperature, light and ions. The related applications of pillar[n]arenes are then summarized into the following areas: fluorescent chemosensors, drug delivery, molecular switches, and other functional materials. In addition, the future potential for construction of SRNS based on pillar[n]arenes and their applications are discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Polímeros Responsivos a Estímulos/química , Calixarenos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Hidrogéis/química
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