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1.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046118

RESUMO

WNT5a is a mainly "non-canonical" WNT ligand whose dysregulation is observed in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Germline deletion of Wnt5a disrupts embryonic lung development. However, the temporal-specific function of WNT5a remains unknown. In this study, we generated a conditional loss-of-function mouse model (Wnt5aCAG) and examined the specific role of Wnt5a during the saccular and alveolar phases of lung development. The lack of Wnt5a in the saccular phase blocked distal airway expansion and attenuated differentiation of endothelial and alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) cells and myofibroblasts. Postnatal Wnt5a inactivation disrupted alveologenesis, producing a phenotype resembling human bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Mutant lungs showed hypoalveolization, but endothelial and epithelial differentiation was unaffected. The major impact of Wnt5a inactivation on alveologenesis was on myofibroblast differentiation and migration, with reduced expression of key regulatory genes. These findings were validated in vitro using isolated lung fibroblasts. Conditional inactivation of the WNT5a receptors Ror1 and Ror2 in alveolar myofibroblasts recapitulated the Wnt5aCAG phenotype, demonstrating that myofibroblast defects are the major cause of arrested alveologenesis in Wnt5aCAG lungs. Finally, we show that WNT5a is reduced in human BPD lung samples, indicating the clinical relevance and potential role for WNT5a in pathogenesis of BPD.

2.
Development ; 146(15)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331942

RESUMO

Postnatal alveolar formation is the most important and the least understood phase of lung development. Alveolar pathologies are prominent in neonatal and adult lung diseases. The mechanisms of alveologenesis remain largely unknown. We inactivated Pdgfra postnatally in secondary crest myofibroblasts (SCMF), a subpopulation of lung mesenchymal cells. Lack of Pdgfra arrested alveologenesis akin to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a neonatal chronic lung disease. The transcriptome of mutant SCMF revealed 1808 altered genes encoding transcription factors, signaling and extracellular matrix molecules. Elastin mRNA was reduced, and its distribution was abnormal. Absence of Pdgfra disrupted expression of elastogenic genes, including members of the Lox, Fbn and Fbln families. Expression of EGF family members increased when Tgfb1 was repressed in mouse. Similar, but not identical, results were found in human BPD lung samples. In vitro, blocking PDGF signaling decreased elastogenic gene expression associated with increased Egf and decreased Tgfb family mRNAs. The effect was reversible by inhibiting EGF or activating TGFß signaling. These observations demonstrate the previously unappreciated postnatal role of PDGFA/PDGFRα in controlling elastogenic gene expression via a secondary tier of signaling networks composed of EGF and TGFß.

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