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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 3(24)2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907691

RESUMO

Heterozygosity for human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dominant-negative (DN) mutations underlies an autosomal dominant form of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). We describe patients with an autosomal recessive form of HIES due to loss-of-function mutations of a previously uncharacterized gene, ZNF341 ZNF341 is a transcription factor that resides in the nucleus, where it binds a specific DNA motif present in various genes, including the STAT3 promoter. The patients' cells have low basal levels of STAT3 mRNA and protein. The autoinduction of STAT3 production, activation, and function by STAT3-activating cytokines is strongly impaired. Like patients with STAT3 DN mutations, ZNF341-deficient patients lack T helper 17 (TH17) cells, have an excess of TH2 cells, and have low memory B cells due to the tight dependence of STAT3 activity on ZNF341 in lymphocytes. Their milder extra-hematopoietic manifestations and stronger inflammatory responses reflect the lower ZNF341 dependence of STAT3 activity in other cell types. Human ZNF341 is essential for the STAT3 transcription-dependent autoinduction and sustained activity of STAT3.

3.
Front Immunol ; 9: 168, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472924

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is activated downstream of many key cytokine receptors expressed by lymphocytes. As such, it plays a critical role in regulating B cells as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Patients with clinically significant immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation resulting from loss-of-function or gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 have been described. These individuals provide insight into the critical role of this transcription factor in the regulation of immune responses and the balance between effective immune protection and autoimmunity.

4.
J Immunol ; 199(6): 1949-1958, 2017 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874415

RESUMO

Cytokine-mediated intracellular signaling pathways are fundamental for the development, activation, and differentiation of lymphocytes. These distinct processes underlie protection against infectious diseases after natural infection with pathogens or immunization, thereby providing the host with long-lived immunological memory. In contrast, aberrant cytokine signaling can also result in conditions of immune dysregulation, such as early-onset autoimmunity. Thus, balanced signals provided by distinct cytokines, and delivered to specific cell subsets, are critical for immune homeostasis. The essential roles of cytokines in human immunity have been elegantly and repeatedly revealed by the discovery of individuals with mutations in cytokine ligands, receptors, and downstream transcription factors that cause primary immunodeficiency or autoimmune conditions. In this article, we review how the discovery and characterization of such individuals has identified nonredundant, and often highly specialized, functions of specific cytokines and immune cell subsets in human lymphocyte biology, host defense against infections, and immune regulation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/imunologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunomodulação , Ativação Linfocitária , Transdução de Sinais
5.
J Immunother Cancer ; 5(1): 69, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is responsible for almost 700,000 deaths annually worldwide. Therapeutic vaccination is a promising alternative to conventional treatment for colorectal cancer, using vaccines to induce targeted immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. In this study, we have developed chimaeric virus-like particles (VLP), a form of non-infectious non-replicative subunit vaccine consisting of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) VP60 capsid proteins containing recombinantly inserted epitopes from murine topoisomerase IIα and survivin. These vaccines were developed in mono- (T.VP60, S.VP60) and multi-target (TS.VP60) forms, aiming to elucidate the potential benefits from multi-target vaccination. METHODS: Chimaeric RHDV VLP were developed by recombinantly inserting immune epitopes at the N-terminus of VP60. Vaccines were tested against a murine model of colorectal cancer by establishing MC38-OVA tumours subcutaneously. Unmethylated CpG DNA oligonucleotides (CpGs) were used as a vaccine adjuvant. Statistical tests employed included the Mantel-Cox log-rank test, ANOVA and unpaired t-tests depending on the data analysed, with a post hoc Bonferroni adjustment for multiple measures. RESULTS: Chimaeric RHDV VLP were found to form a composite particle in the presence of CpGs. Overall survival was significantly improved amongst mice bearing MC38-OVA tumours following vaccination with T.VP60 (60%, 9/15), S.VP60 (60%, 9/15) or TS.VP60 (73%, 11/15). TS.VP60 significantly prolonged the vaccine-induced remission period in comparison to each mono-therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Chimaeric VLP containing multiple epitopes were found to confer an advantage for therapeutic vaccination in a model of colorectal cancer based on the prolongation of remission prior to tumour escape.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/química , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Ilhas de CpG , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/genética , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/metabolismo , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Survivina , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(4): 993-1006.e1, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follicular helper T (TFH) cells underpin T cell-dependent humoral immunity and the success of most vaccines. TFH cells also contribute to human immune disorders, such as autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and malignancy. Understanding the molecular requirements for the generation and function of TFH cells will provide strategies for targeting these cells to modulate their behavior in the setting of these immunologic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the signaling pathways and cellular interactions required for the development and function of TFH cells in human subjects. METHODS: Human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) resulting from monogenic mutations provide a unique opportunity to assess the requirement for particular molecules in regulating human lymphocyte function. Circulating follicular helper T (cTFH) cell subsets, memory B cells, and serum immunoglobulin levels were quantified and functionally assessed in healthy control subjects, as well as in patients with PIDs resulting from mutations in STAT3, STAT1, TYK2, IL21, IL21R, IL10R, IFNGR1/2, IL12RB1, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in STAT3, IL10R, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK reduced cTFH cell frequencies. STAT3 and IL21/R LOF and STAT1 gain-of-function mutations skewed cTFH cell differentiation toward a phenotype characterized by overexpression of IFN-γ and programmed death 1. IFN-γ inhibited cTFH cell function in vitro and in vivo, as corroborated by hypergammaglobulinemia in patients with IFNGR1/2, STAT1, and IL12RB1 LOF mutations. CONCLUSION: Specific mutations affect the quantity and quality of cTFH cells, highlighting the need to assess TFH cells in patients by using multiple criteria, including phenotype and function. Furthermore, IFN-γ functions in vivo to restrain TFH cell-induced B-cell differentiation. These findings shed new light on TFH cell biology and the integrated signaling pathways required for their generation, maintenance, and effector function and explain the compromised humoral immunity seen in patients with some PIDs.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Memória Imunológica , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
8.
Ther Deliv ; 5(11): 1223-40, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25491672

RESUMO

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an effective means of establishing both prophylactic and therapeutic immunity against their source virus or heterologous antigens. The particulate nature and repetitive structure of VLPs makes them ideal for stimulating potent immune responses. Epitopes delivered by VLPs can be presented on MHC-II for stimulation of a humoral immune response, or cross-presented onto MHC-I leading to cell-mediated immunity. VLPs as particulate subunit vaccine carriers are showing promise in preclinical and clinical trials for the treatment of many conditions including cancer, autoimmunity, allergies and addiction. Supporting the delivery of almost any form of antigenic material, VLPs are ideal candidate vectors for development of future vaccines.


Assuntos
Antígenos/administração & dosagem , Vacinação , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antígenos/química , Antígenos/genética , Antígenos/imunologia , Química Farmacêutica , Epitopos , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/química , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/genética , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
9.
J Immunol ; 192(5): 2514-21, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24477907

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that NK cells act to promote effective T cell-based antitumor responses. Using the B16-OVA melanoma model and an optimized Gram-positive bacteria-dendritic cell (DC) vaccination strategy, we determined that in vivo depletion of NK cells at time of tumor challenge abolished the benefit of DC immunotherapy. The contribution of NK cells to DC immunotherapy was dependent on tumor Ag presentation by DC, suggesting that NK cells act as helper cells to prime or reactivate tumor-specific T cells. The absence of NK cells at tumor challenge resulted in greater attenuation of tumor immunity than observed with selective depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cell subsets. Although successful DC immunotherapy required IFN-γ, perforin expression was dispensable. Closer examination of the role of NK cells as helper cells in enhancing antitumor responses will reveal new strategies for clinical interventions using DC-based immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Imunidade Celular , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinação , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/imunologia
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