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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700133

RESUMO

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is strongly suggested to define the proper drug dosage to overcome inter- and intra-patient variability in drug exposure, which is typically observed with oral anticancer agents, such as palbociclib (PALBO), ribociclib (RIBO) and letrozole (LETRO), all approved for the treatment of HR+, HER2- locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC). Optimal TDM implementation requires a blood sampling organization that can be hampered by limited availability of health and laboratory personnel. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) sampling is proposed to overcome such limitations. The aim of this work was the development of a new LC-MS/MS method to analyze DBS samples containing PALBO, RIBO, and LETRO. Analytes extraction from DBS was performed by adding a methanolic solution containing the corresponding internal standards. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed using a LC Nexera (Shimadzu) system coupled with an API 4000 QTrap (SCIEX) mass spectrometer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Luna Omega Polar C18 column (Phenomenex). The method was applied to 38 clinical samples collected by finger prick. The influence of hematocrit and spot size, sample homogeneity, stability, and correlation between finger prick and venous DBS measurement were assessed. The analytical validation was performed according to EMA and FDA guidelines. The analytical range of the method was 1 to 250 ng/mL for PALBO, 40 to 10000 ng/mL for RIBO, and 2 to 500 ng/mL for LETRO, where linearity was assessed, obtaining mean coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9979 for PALBO, 0.9980 for RIBO, and 0.9987 for LETRO). The LC-MS/MS method runtime was 6.6 min. Incurred sample reanalysis demonstrated reproducibility, as the percentage difference between the two quantifications was lower than 20% for 100% of PALBO, 81.8% of RIBO, and 90.9% of LETRO paired samples. Intra- and inter-day precision (CV (%)) was lower than 11.4% and intra- and inter-day accuracy was between 90.0 and 106.5%. DBS sample stability at room temperature was confirmed for 2.5 months. A positive correlation was observed between DBS and plasma concentrations for the 3 drugs, Lin's concordance correlation coefficients obtained by DBS normalization applying a selected strategy were 0.958 for PALBO, 0.957 for RIBO, and 0.963 for LETRO. In conclusion, a fast, easy, and reproducible DBS LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of palbociclib; ribociclib and letrozole was developed to be used in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/sangue , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Letrozol/sangue , Piperazinas/sangue , Purinas/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
2.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2941-2945, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osimertinib is a third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T790M-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. More recently, osimertinib demonstrated improved disease control compared to other EGFR-TKIs. Multiple mechanisms of resistance have been described in T790M-positive patients who experienced treatment failure with osimertinib. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 78-year-old non-smoker woman with stage IV EGFR L858R-positive lung adenocarcinoma presented with T790M mutation after five years of treatment with gefitinib. The patient was started on osimertinib, but after two and a half years of treatment experienced disease progression. The analyses of circulating tumor DNA using next-generation sequencing showed, together with the pre-existing T790M and exon 21 L858R, the presence of the EGFR C797G resistance mutation. CONCLUSION: Our case report revealed a rare EGFR-dependent acquired resistance mutation to osimertinib in circulating tumor DNA. Liquid biopsy appears to be a promising resource to understand the biology of osimertinib resistance by clonal evolution monitoring and the identification of novel resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Acrilamidas , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298718

RESUMO

Different de-escalation strategies have been proposed to limit the risk of cumulative toxicity and guarantee quality of life during the treatment trajectory of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Programmed treatment interruptions, defined as drug holidays (DHs), have been implemented in clinical practice. We evaluated the association between DHs and overall survival (OS). This was a retrospective study, conducted at the University Hospital of Udine and the IRCCS CRO of Aviano. We retrieved records of 608 consecutive patients treated for mCRC from 1 January 2005 to 15 March 2017 and evaluated the impact of different de-escalation strategies (maintenance, DHs, or both) on OS through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. We also looked at attrition rates across treatment lines according to the chosen strategy. In our study, 19.24% of patients received maintenance therapy, 16.12% DHs, and 9.87% both, while 32.07% continued full-intensity first-line treatment up to progression or death. In uni- and multivariate analyses first-line continuous treatment and early discontinuation (treatment for less than 3 months) were associated to worse OS compared to non-continuous strategies (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.22-2.32; p = 0.002 and HR,4.89; 95% CI, 3.33-7.19; p < 0.001, respectively). Attrition rates were 22.8%, 20.61%, and 19.64% for maintenance, DHs, or both, respectively. For continuous therapy and for treatment of less than 3 months it was 21.57% and 49%. De-escalation strategies are safe and effective options. DHs after initial induction chemotherapy may be considered in clinically selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

4.
Breast ; 57: 104-112, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapy (ET) plus cyclin-dependent-kinases 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) represents the standard treatment for luminal-metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, prospective head-to-head comparisons are still lacking for 1st line (L) options, and it is still crucial to define the best strategy between 1st and 2nd L. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 717 consecutive luminal-MBC pts treated between 2008 and 2020 were analyzed at the Oncology Department of Aviano and Udine, Italy. Differences about survival outcomes (OS, PFS and PPS) were tested by log-rank test. The attrition rate (AR) between 1st and 2ndL was calculated. RESULTS: At 1stL, pts were treated with ET (49%), chemotherapy (CT) (31%) and ET-CDKi (20%) while, at 2ndL, 33% received ET, 33% CT and 8% ET-CDKi. Overall AR was 10%, 7% for CT, 8% for ET and 17% for ET-CDKi. By multivariate analysis, 1stL ET-CDK4/6i showed a better mPFS1 and OS. Moreover, 2ndL ET-CDK4/6i demonstrated better mPFS2 compared to ET and CT. Notably, 1stL ET-CDKi resulted in higher mPFS than 2ndL ET-CDKi. Intriguingly, 1stL ET-CDK4/6i was associated with worse mPPS compared to CT and ET. Secondarily, 1stL ET-CDK4/6i followed by CT had worse OS compared to 1stL ET-CDK4/6i followed by ET. Notably, none of baseline characteristics at 2ndL influenced 2ndL treatment choice (ET vs. CT) after ET-CDKi. CONCLUSION: Our real-world data demonstrated that ET-CDKi represents the best option for 1stL luminal-MBC compared to ET and CT. Also, the present study pointed out that 2ndL ET, potentially combined with other molecules, could be a feasible option after CDK4/6i failure, postponing CT on later lines.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/uso terapêutico , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Oncologist ; 26(4): e694-e703, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triage procedures have been implemented to limit hospital access and minimize infection risk among patients with cancer during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. In the absence of prospective evidence, we aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of a triage system in the oncological setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzes hospital admissions to the oncology and hematology department of Udine, Italy, during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 30 to April 30, 2020). A total of 3,923 triage procedures were performed, and data of 1,363 individual patients were reviewed. RESULTS: A self-report triage questionnaire identified 6% of triage-positive procedures, with a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.0%-85.4%), a specificity of 94.3% (95% CI, 93.5%-95.0%), and a positive predictive value of 5.9% (95% CI, 4.3%-8.0%) for the identification of patients who were not admitted to the hospital after medical review. Patients with thoracic cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13-2.53, p = .01), younger age (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.01, p < .01), and body temperature at admission ≥37°C (OR, 9.52; 95% CI, 5.44-16.6, p < .0001) had increased risk of positive triage. Direct hospital access was warranted to 93.5% of cases, a further 6% was accepted after medical evaluation, whereas 0.5% was refused at admission. CONCLUSION: A self-report questionnaire has a low positive predictive value to triage patients with cancer and suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) symptoms. Differential diagnosis with tumor- or treatment-related symptoms is always required to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Body temperature measurement improves the triage process's overall sensitivity, and widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing should be implemented to identify asymptomatic carriers. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This is the first study to provide data on the predictive performance of a triage system in the oncological setting during the coronavirus disease outbreak. A questionnaire-based triage has a low positive predictive value to triage patients with cancer and suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) symptoms, and a differential diagnosis with tumor- or treatment-related symptoms is mandatory to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Consequently, adequate recourses should be reallocated for a triage implementation in the oncological setting. Of note, body temperature measurement improves the overall sensitivity of the triage process, and widespread testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection should be implemented to identify asymptomatic carriers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Triagem/métodos , Idoso , Infecções Assintomáticas , Temperatura Corporal , Teste para COVID-19 , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 34(3): 550-563, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745351

RESUMO

Approximately 40% of malignant melanomas are diagnosed in patients older than 65 years. Elderly patients with melanoma present clinicopathological features related to a more aggressive biology, and they are often diagnosed with advanced stage of disease. Interestingly, in older patients the immune system can be altered with changes both in the innate system and in the adaptive immune system with the acquisition of a pro-inflammatory and immune suppressive phenotype. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has reshaped the treatment strategies and prognosis of patients with melanoma, and particularly, older age should not be considered a contraindication for immunotherapy. However, data regarding efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in elderly population are still limited because frail older patients are generally excluded from clinical trials. Recently, real-world data have shed light on similar efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in older population compared with younger counterpart. The aim of the present review was to summarize the available knowledge on the underlying immune system in older patients with a diagnosis of melanoma and the immunotherapeutic approaches in this population.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/terapia , Idoso , Humanos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Prognóstico
7.
Clin Nutr ; 40(1): 286-294, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body composition, has been established as a risk factor for colorectal cancer diagnosis and disease progression. Aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of adiposity, especially visceral fat (VAT), in patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 71 MCRC pts treated between 2013 and 2017 was evaluated. VAT was measured as cross-sectional (cm2) area at the L3 level divided by the square of the height (m2). A ROC analysis was performed to define a prognostic threshold according to VAT. RESULTS: Before first-line therapy start, 40 pts (56%) had a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2. The obtained cut-off value for VAT was 44. Median OS was 30.97 months. At univariate analysis, primary tumor resection (HR 0.40, p = 0.029), VAT>44 (HR 2.85, p = 0.011) and metastasectomy (HR 0.22, p = 0.005) were significantly associated with OS. By multivariate analysis, VAT>44 (HR 2.6; p = 0.020) and metastasectomy were still significantly associated with OS. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study suggests a prognostic role for VAT in MCRC pts, with higher VAT values predicting worse outcome.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
Future Oncol ; 16(32): 2645-2660, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776795

RESUMO

Background: 'Drug holidays' (DH) for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were introduced to preserve quality of life. We studied factors associated to a DH offer in first line. Materials & methods: We retrospectively analyzed 754 consecutive patients treated with chemotherapy for mCRC in two Italian institutions between 2005 and 2017. Associations between baseline clinical-pathological factors and DH (56 or more days of treatment interruption) were investigated. Results: In 754 patients, previous metastasectomy, previous thermoablation and previous surgery of primary tumor were independently associated with DH. Excluding procedures or clinical trials: primary rectal cancer and resection of primary tumor were significantly associated to DH. Conclusions: DH was offered to patients with lower burden of disease, but further investigations are needed to safely guide a holiday strategy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Drugs Aging ; 37(9): 677-689, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) for the treatment of older patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still a matter of debate, despite the advent of immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with first-line PBC prescription and, secondly, to evaluate the impact of first-line PBC on survival, treatment intensity, risk of hospitalization, and subsequent treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of 474 older patients (age ≥ 70 years) diagnosed with stage IIIB-IV NSCLC at the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Udine, Italy from January 2009 to March 2017. RESULTS: Overall, 198 patients were deemed eligible, and 65.2% received a PBC. At multivariate analysis, older age was the only factor associated with PBC prescription. In the whole cohort, 46 patients (23.2%) were hospitalized for chemotherapy-related toxicity. Both PBC prescription (odds ratio [OR] 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.87, p = 0.04) and tumor burden (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.07-5.32, p = 0.03) emerged as independent risk factors for hospitalization. Moving to significant predictors of patterns of care, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status > 0 was associated with greater risk of first-line failure (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.15-4.20, p = 0.02), while bone metastases (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12-0.69, p = 0.005) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84, p = 0.016) independently predicted lower probability of receiving second-line therapy. Remarkably, PBC did not significantly impact overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.61-1.14, p = 0.24) and progression-free survival (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.28, p = 0.73) compared to single-agent chemotherapy (SAC). However, according to an exploratory landmark analysis, patients who received four cycles of treatment or maintenance therapy experienced prolonged overall survival, regardless of PBC use. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the real-world use of PBC in older patients with NSCLC, offering an insight into the determinants of its prescription and the pattern of care of these patients. Of note, PBC use was associated with a higher likelihood of hospitalization for chemotherapy-related toxicity, with no benefit on survival compared to SAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Future Oncol ; 16(27): 2059-2073, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598185

RESUMO

Aim: A monitoring strategy for metastatic breast cancer patients (M-MBC) has been little studied. Materials & methods: This retrospective study analyzed a consecutive cohort of 382 MBC patients to analyze different M-MBC strategies to identify factors influencing intensive M-MBC. Results: Elevated baseline serum tumor markers (STM) was the strongest factor associated with increased use of STM tests. Having more frequent oncology office visits was associated with more intensive chemotherapy/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using. Increased use of imaging tests was associated with participation to clinical trial. Single and elderly patients were less likely to have frequent testing. Having clinically measurable disease was less likely to have more intensive M-MBC. Conclusion: STM testing and scans were frequently ordered in M-MBC. In the present study, strategies are little influenced by clinico-pathological characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Radiografia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Radiografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Conduta Expectante
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471250

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Targeted agents such as bevacizumab (BEV) or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) which have been added as concomitant or maintenance therapies have been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (PS rOC). In the absence of direct comparison, we performed a network meta-analysis considering BRCA genes status. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE for trials involving patients with PS rOC treated with BEV or PARPi. Different comparisons were performed for patients included in the PARPi trials, according to BRCA genes status as follows: all comers (AC) population, BRCA 1/2 mutated (BRCAm), and BRCA wild type patients (BRCAwt). RESULTS: In the overall population, PARPi prolonged PFS with respect to BEV (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.91). In the BRCA mutated carriers, the PFS improvement in favor of PARPi appeared to be higher (HR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.36-0.59) while in BRCAwt patients the superiority of PARPi over BEV failed to reach a statistically significance level (HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.63-1.20); however, according to the SUCRA analysis, PARPi had the highest probability of being ranked as the most effective therapy (90% and 60%, for PARPi and BEV, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: PARPi performed better as compared with BEV in terms of PFS for the treatment of PS rOC, especially in BRCAm patients who had not previously received PARPi.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7010, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332763

RESUMO

High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are respectively associated with systemic inflammation and immune suppression and have been associated with a poor outcome. Plasmatic exosomes are extracellular vesicles involved in the intercellular communication system that can exert an immunosuppressive function. Aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between the immune system and circulating exosomes in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A threshold capable to classify patients according to MLR, NLR and PLR, was computed through a receiving operator curve analysis after propensity score matching with a series of female blood donors. Exosomes were isolated from plasma by ExoQuick solution and characterized by flow-cytometry. NLR, MLR, PLR and exosomal subpopulations potentially involved in the pre-metastatic niche were significantly different in MBC patients with respect to controls. MLR was significantly associated with number of sites at the onset of metastatic disease, while high levels of MLR and NLR were found to be associated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, exosomal subpopulations varied according to NLR, MLR, PLR and both were associated with different breast cancer subtypes and sites of distant involvement. This study highlights the nuanced role of immunity in MBC spread, progression and outcome. Moreover, they suggest potential interaction mechanisms between immunity, MBC and the metastatic niche.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
Oncologist ; 25(8): 661-668, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are circulating biomarkers that provide information about tumor-related inflammation and immune suppression. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of MLR and LDH in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This multicentric study analyzed a consecutive cohort of 528 patients with mCRC treated in 2009-2017. The whole population was randomly divided in training and validation cohort. The first was used to identify a threshold for MLR and to create the prognostic model with MLR and MLR-LDH combined (group 1: MLR-LDH low; group 2: MLR or LDH high; group 3: MLR-LDH high). The second cohort was used to validate the model. RESULTS: At the median follow-up of 55 months, median overall survival (OS) was 22 months. By multivariate analysis, high MLR >0.49 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [C.I.], 1.39-4.04), high LDH (HR, 1.73; 95% C.I., 1.03-2.90) in the first model, group 2 (HR, 2.74; 95% C.I.; 1.62-4.66), and group 3 (HR, 3.73; 95% C.I., 1.94-7.18) in the combined model, had a worse prognosis in terms of OS. These data were confirmed both in the validation set and then in the whole cohort. CONCLUSION: MLR and LDH are circulating cost-effective biomarkers, readily available in clinical practice, that can be useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with mCRC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: High monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels could be a sign of a tumor's recruitment of suppressive and inflammatory cells worsening prognosis of different types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Currently, no data are available for metastatic CRC regarding a cutoff definition for MLR or the prognostic impact of MLR and MLR-LDH combined. The present study showed in the training cohort and confirmed in the validation and whole cohort that MLR is a reliable and independent laboratory biomarker, which is easy to use, to predict clinical outcomes in patients with mCRC. Moreover, MLR and composite MLR-LDH could potentially result in an incremental improvement in the prognostic value of these biomarkers, being used as stratification tools for patients with mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Linfócitos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032379

RESUMO

A novel LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of the new cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) palbociclib and ribociclib and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole used in combinatory regimen. The proposed method is appropriate to be applied in clinical practice due to the simple and fast sample preparation based on protein precipitation, the low amount of patient sample necessary for the analysis (10 µL) and the total run time of 6.5 min. It was fully validated according to FDA and EMA guidelines on bioanalytical method validation. The linearity was assessed (R2 within 0.9992-0.9983) over the concentration ranges of 0.3-250 ng/mL for palbociclib, 10-10000 ng/mL for ribociclib and 0.5-500 ng/mL for letrozole that properly cover the therapeutic plasma concentrations. A specific strategy was implemented to reduce the carryover phenomenon, formerly known for these CDKIs. This method was applied to quantify the Cmin of palbociclib, ribociclib and letrozole in plasma samples from patients enrolled in a clinical study. The same set of study samples was analysed twice in separate runs to assess the reproducibility of the method by means of the incurred samples reanalysis. The results corroborated the reliability of the analyte concentrations obtained with the bioanalytical method, already proved by the validation process. The percentage differences were always within ±10% for all the analytes and the R2 of the correlation graph between the two quantifications was equal to 0.9994.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Letrozol/sangue , Piperazinas/sangue , Purinas/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450641

RESUMO

Background: Elevated plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are associated with worse prognosis in various malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Nevertheless, no data are available on the prognostic role of LDH as a dynamic biomarker during first-line treatment in unselected MBC. Methods: We reviewed data of 392 women with MBC to evaluate the association between LDH variation after 12 weeks of first-line treatment and survival. The prognostic impact was tested by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Plasmatic LDH was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor in MBC. Patients who maintained elevated LDH levels after 12 weeks of first-line treatment experienced worse progression-free survival (PFS, HR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.40-5.89, p = 0.0038) and overall survival (OS, HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.16-5.86, p = 0.02) compared to patients with stable normal LDH levels, even after adjustment for other prognostic factors. Notably, LDH low-to-high variation emerged as an unfavorable prognostic factor for PFS (HR 3.96, 95% CI 2.00-7.82, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Plasmatic LDH and its variation during first-line treatment predict PFS and OS in MBC, providing independent prognostic information. It would be worthwhile to prospectively evaluate the association between LDH variation and therapeutic benefit in MBC, and explore how it may affect treatment strategies.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295913

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent oncologic cause of death among women and the improvement of its treatments is compelling. Platinum salts (e.g., carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin) are old drugs still used to treat BC, especially the triple-negative subgroup. However, only a subset of patients see a concrete benefit from these drugs, raising the question of how to select them properly. Therefore, predictive biomarkers for platinum salts in BC still represent an unmet clinical need. Here, we review clinical and preclinical works in order to summarize the current evidence about predictive or putative platinum salt biomarkers in BC. The association between BRCA1/2 gene mutations and platinum sensitivity has been largely described. However, beyond the mutations of these two genes, several other proteins belonging to the homologous recombination pathways have been linked to platinum response, defining the concept of BRCAness. Several works, here reviewed, have tried to capture BRCAness through different strategies, such as homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score and genetic signatures. Moreover, p53 and its family members (p63 and p73) might also be used as predictors of platinum response. Finally, we describe the mounting preclinical evidence regarding base excision repair deficiency as a possible new platinum biomarker.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Reparo do DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Mutação , Farmacogenética
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226812

RESUMO

Mucositis is one of the most common debilitating side effects related to chemotherapy (CT), radiation therapy (RT), targeted agents and immunotherapy. It is a complex process potentially involving any portion of the gastrointestinal tract and injuring the mucosa, leading to inflammatory or ulcerative lesions. Mechanisms and clinical presentation can differ according both to the anatomic site involved (oral or gastrointestinal) and the treatment received. Understanding the pathophysiology and management of mucosal injury as a secondary effect of anti-cancer treatment is an important area of clinical research. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate management of complications are essential to increase therapeutic success and, thus, improve the survival outcomes of cancer patients. This review focuses on the pathobiology and management guidelines for mucositis, a secondary effect of old and new anti-cancer treatments, highlighting recent advances in prevention and discussing future research options.

18.
Melanoma Res ; 29(5): 510-515, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702508

RESUMO

Advanced melanoma (AM) represents the leading cause of death from skin cancer. To date, the crucial role of the immune system in AM pathogenesis and progression is well known, but the prognostic value of clinicopathological characteristics remains unclear. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an ascertained prognostic indicator and previous data showed that AM patients treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors with normal LDH values and fewer than three metastatic sites achieved a better outcome. Moreover, the neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) have been suggested as other potential prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of LMR together with other clinical biomarkers in patients with AM. We retrospectively analyzed 162 consecutive patients with AM treated between January 2010 and March 2016. Outcome was measured in terms of overall survival (OS). In our cohort, the BRAF mutation was present in 74 (46%) patients. Overall, 42 and 26% of the patients received targeted therapy and immunotherapy, respectively. After 48 months of follow-up, 129 (78%) patients died; the median OS was 12.8 months. High LMR was associated with the following clinicopathological characteristics: absence of central nervous system localization (P = 0.011), fewer than three metastatic sites (P = 0.014), and normal LDH (P = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status >1 [hazard ratio (HR) 7.87, P = 0.001], high LDH (HR 2.76, P = 0.006), and high LMR (HR 0.76, P = 0.033) were associated significantly with OS. In conclusion, LMR seems to be associated with OS. Further prospective investigations are needed to confirm these data and introduce peripheral blood cell count in daily clinical use.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/citologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Monócitos/citologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(2): 368-377, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients have multiple risk factors for sarcopenia and loss of skeletal muscle mass (LSMM), which may cause greater treatment toxicities, reduced response to cancer therapy, prolonged hospitalization, impaired quality of life, and worse prognosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on advanced PC patients treated at the Department of Oncology of Udine, Italy, from January 2012 to November 2017. Among 162 patients who received chemotherapy, 94 consecutive patients with an available computed tomography (CT) scan were retrospectively analyzed. The primary objective of our study was to explore if an early LSMM ≥ 10% (measured at first radiological evaluation and compared with baseline) and/or baseline sarcopenia may impact prognosis. Baseline sarcopenia was defined according to Prado's criteria. Skeletal muscle area was measured as cross-sectional areas (cm2 ) using CT scan data through the Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) image system. RESULTS: In the whole cohort, 48% of patients were ≤70 years old, and 50% had metastatic disease. At baseline, 73% of patients had sarcopenia, and 16% presented a visceral fat area ≥ 44 cm2 /m2 . Overall, 21% experienced an early LSMM ≥ 10%. Approximately 33% of sarcopenic patients at baseline and ~35% of patients with early LSMM ≥ 10% had a body mass index > 25 kg/m2 . Of note, 71% of patients were evaluated by a nutritionist, and 56% received a dietary supplementation (oral and/or parenteral). After a median follow-up of 30.44 months, median overall survival (OS) was 11.28 months, whereas median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.72 months. By multivariate analysis, early LSMM ≥ 10% was significantly associated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR): 2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-3.78; P = 0.007] and PFS (HR: 2.31; 95% CI 1.30-4.09; P = 0.004). Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that inflammatory indexes, such as neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio variation, impact early LSMM ≥ 10% (odds ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.06-1.61, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Early LSMM ≥ 10% has a negative prognostic role in advanced PC patients. Further prospective investigations are needed to confirm these preliminary data.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/epidemiologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 72: 7-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414986

RESUMO

The post-neoadjuvant setting in early breast cancer represents an attractive scenario for adjuvant clinical trials, offering the opportunity to test new drugs or combinations in high-risk patients who did not achieve pathologic complete response after primary treatment. No standard therapies are routinely proposed to patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and few trials have explored this setting. To date, only one randomized phase III study showed the benefit of additional capecitabine after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and international guidelines recommend at least to consider its use, particularly for triple negative breast cancer. Therefore, the management of these patients is still a clinical challenge, with limited data supporting the use of an additional adjuvant non-cross-resistant chemotherapy. Escalation strategies are currently under evaluation, with new agents proposed as supplementary post-neoadjuvant treatment (e.g. platinum salts, capecitabine, poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors). Based on these premises, selection criteria are critical to identify patients who may benefit from post-neoadjuvant therapies, through the validation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers for a reliable risk assessment and estimation of benefit. The present review summarizes the efforts in introducing new therapeutic options for patients with breast cancer and residual disease after neoadjuvant treatment, with a particular focus on the ongoing clinical trials and useful biomarkers for risk stratification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos
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