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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 374-380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress is a state of threat to the balance of the organism, which can cause biological and psychological changes. In hypertensive patients, stress can interfere with blood pressure levels, influence on food choices and neglect of the diet. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the relationship between stress and dietary intake of hypertensive patients. METHODS: A transversal study was carried out at the Arterial Hypertension Clinic of the Cardiology Institute of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants were aged ≥ 18 years and hypertensive. Blood pressure, food consumption and anthropometric measurements were collected. The variables related to stress were evaluated by the Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory (LSSI) for adults. Significance level of 5% has been considered for all analyzed data. RESULTS: The number of participants was 100. There was a higher prevalence of the female sex (67%), the mean age of the study population was 55.87 ± 12.55 years. Among the participants, 86% were classified in some of the stress phases, on which 57% were in the resistance phase. It was observed that there was no correlation between the presence of stress (as well as their actions), pressure levels and food consumption. The consumption of foods rich in lipids and individuals with a prevalence of psychological symptoms of stress displayed a significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Rich in fat dietary has been the first choice in patients with psychological symptoms of stress. Further studies regarding remodeled dietary intake and blood pressure levels in relation to the stress phases are suggested. These findings are important to contribute to the development of prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 374-380, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038553

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Stress is a state of threat to the balance of the organism, which can cause biological and psychological changes. In hypertensive patients, stress can interfere with blood pressure levels, influence on food choices and neglect of the diet. Objective: This study aims to describe the relationship between stress and dietary intake of hypertensive patients. Methods: A transversal study was carried out at the Arterial Hypertension Clinic of the Cardiology Institute of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants were aged ≥ 18 years and hypertensive. Blood pressure, food consumption and anthropometric measurements were collected. The variables related to stress were evaluated by the Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory (LSSI) for adults. Significance level of 5% has been considered for all analyzed data. Results: The number of participants was 100. There was a higher prevalence of the female sex (67%), the mean age of the study population was 55.87 ± 12.55 years. Among the participants, 86% were classified in some of the stress phases, on which 57% were in the resistance phase. It was observed that there was no correlation between the presence of stress (as well as their actions), pressure levels and food consumption. The consumption of foods rich in lipids and individuals with a prevalence of psychological symptoms of stress displayed a significant association. Conclusions: Rich in fat dietary has been the first choice in patients with psychological symptoms of stress. Further studies regarding remodeled dietary intake and blood pressure levels in relation to the stress phases are suggested. These findings are important to contribute to the development of prevention and treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.


Resumo Fundamento: O estresse é um estado de ameaça ao equilíbrio do organismo, podendo causar alterações biológicas e psicológicas. No paciente hipertenso o estresse pode interferir nos níveis pressóricos e gerar influência nas escolhas alimentares e negligência da dieta. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever a relação entre o estresse e consumo alimentar de pacientes hipertensos. Métodos: Estudo transversal, desenvolvido no Ambulatório de Hipertensão Arterial do Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. Participaram da pesquisa indivíduos hipertensos com idade > 18 anos. Foram coletados dados de pressão arterial, consumo alimentar e medidas antropométricas. As variáveis relacionadas ao estresse foram avaliadas pelo inventário de sintomas de stress para adultos de Lipp (ISSL). Em todas as análises foi considerando um nível de significância 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: O número de participantes foi de 100. Houve maior prevalência no sexo feminino (67%), a idade média da população estudada foi 55,87 ± 12,55 anos. Dos participantes, 86% se classificaram em alguma das fases do estresse, sendo que destes, 57% estavam na fase de resistência. Observou-se que não houve correlação entre a presença de estresse (bem como suas fases), níveis pressóricos e consumo alimentar. O consumo de alimentos ricos em lipídios em hipertensos com sintomas de estresse apresentou significância estatística. Conclusão: Os alimentos ricos em gordura prevaleceram entre as escolhas alimentares nos pacientes com sintomas psicológicos de estresse. Sugere-se mais estudos em relação a alteração do consumo alimentar e níveis pressóricos em relação às fases do estresse.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(1): 60-61, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411293
6.
Front Psychol ; 10: 584, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949102

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a gratitude intervention on a community sample of adults in relation to aspects involving well-being and mental health. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 1,337 participants, composed of an intervention group (Gratitude group, n = 446), and two control groups (Hassles group, n = 444 and Neutral Events group, n = 447). Participants assigned to the intervention condition were asked to write daily gratitude lists for 14 days, listing moments they had been grateful for during the day. The outcomes analyzed were affect, depression, happiness and life satisfaction. Participants completed the positive affect and negative affect schedule (PANAS), center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D), subjective happiness scale (SHS), and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) three times: pre- and post-intervention and at 14 days after the end of the intervention. Due to attrition, the number of participants analyzed was 410. Results: Before the intervention, the groups did not differ in any of the variables examined, and loss to follow-up was random among the three groups. The gratitude intervention managed to increase positive affect, subjective happiness and life satisfaction, and reduce negative affect and depression symptoms. This change was greater than the changes in the control groups in relation to positive affect. In the other outcomes analyzed, similar changes were observed in the gratitude intervention and the neutral events intervention. Conclusion: Some similarities were found between the Gratitude and the Neutral Events groups probably because participants in the last group usually recorded positive events from their days on the lists, turning it into an activity very similar to that proposed to the gratitude group. Some limitations of the study are discussed, such as the high dropout rate for self-performed online interventions. It is necessary to investigate which characteristics of an intervention ensure better results when the intervention is performed online. Trial Registration: The study is registered in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry, under No. RBR-9j9myd. Trial URL: http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-9j9myd/.

7.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 5, 2019 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the intake of yerba mate (YM) and green tea (GT) on serum levels of leptin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), compared to control. METHODS: Controlled, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that evaluated 142 men and women affected by overweight or obesity aged 35-60 years, untreated dyslipidemia and no history of coronary artery disease. Participants were randomized to ingest 1000 mL GT, YM or apple tea (AT, control group) daily, during eight weeks. Serum PON-1 and leptin levels were analyzed by ELISA immunoassay at the beginning (baseline) and after eight weeks of intervention. RESULTS: The intake of 1 l of YM/day resulted in significant increase in serum levels of PON-1 (9.7%; p = 0.005). The consumption of GT induced no significant difference in the levels of PON-1 (p = 0.154) and leptin (p = 0.783). Intergroup analysis showed a significant difference (p = 0.036) in the variation of PON-1 levels in the YM group when compared to GT and AT groups. In addition, the increase in PON-1 levels in the YM group was significantly associated with increased HDL-c (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The intake of yerba mate increased the antioxidant capacity by increasing serum levels of PON-1 and was positively associated with increased HDL-c, stressing the protective role of this beverage against atherosclerotic diseases. GT intake had no significant effect on serum levels of PON-1 and leptin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under protocol number NCT00933647.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Ilex paraguariensis , Leptina/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Chá , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Bebidas , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
8.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 37(1): 65-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physical activity level and functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease and to describe correlations between functionality, surgical and echocardiographic findings, metabolic and inflammatory profile and differences between acyanotic and cyanotic heart defects. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including children and adolescents with congenital heart disease between six and 18 years old that were evaluated with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess functional capacity. The short version form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was performed to evaluate physical activity levels. Also, echocardiography and blood collection, to evaluate the metabolic (blood glucose, lipids, insulin) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein), were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-five individuals were evaluated. Of them, 14 had acyanotic heart defects and 11 cyanotic heart defects. Mean age was 12.0±3.7 years, and 20 (80%) were male. IPAQ showed that six (24%) individuals were very active, eight (32%) were active, nine (36%) had irregular physical activity, and two (8%) were sedentary. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT, considering all studied individuals, was 464.7±100.4 m, which was 181.4±42.0 m less than the predicted (p=0.005). There was a positive correlation between Z score 6MWT and the number of surgical procedures (r=-0.455; p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease have low functional capacity, but they are not completely sedentary.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Exercício , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 65-72, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985130

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the physical activity level and functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease and to describe correlations between functionality, surgical and echocardiographic findings, metabolic and inflammatory profile and differences between acyanotic and cyanotic heart defects. Methods: A cross-sectional study including children and adolescents with congenital heart disease between six and 18 years old that were evaluated with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess functional capacity. The short version form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was performed to evaluate physical activity levels. Also, echocardiography and blood collection, to evaluate the metabolic (blood glucose, lipids, insulin) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein), were assessed. Results: Twenty-five individuals were evaluated. Of them, 14 had acyanotic heart defects and 11 cyanotic heart defects. Mean age was 12.0±3.7 years, and 20 (80%) were male. IPAQ showed that six (24%) individuals were very active, eight (32%) were active, nine (36%) had irregular physical activity, and two (8%) were sedentary. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT, considering all studied individuals, was 464.7±100.4 m, which was 181.4±42.0 m less than the predicted (p=0.005). There was a positive correlation between Z score 6MWT and the number of surgical procedures (r=-0.455; p=0.022). Conclusions: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease have low functional capacity, but they are not completely sedentary.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de atividade física e a capacidade funcional de crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita, além de descrever correlações entre funcionalidade, achados cirúrgicos e ecocardiográficos, perfil metabólico e inflamatório e diferenças entre cardiopatias congênitas acianótica e cianótica. Métodos: Estudo transversal com crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita entre seis e 18 anos de idade. Foi realizado o teste de caminhada de 6 minutos para avaliar a capacidade funcional, e aplicou-se a versão curta do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ) para avaliar os níveis de atividade física. Foram feitos também: exame ecocardiográfico, coleta de sangue para avaliação de perfil metabólico e inflamatório (glicemia, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - HDL-colesterol, lipoproteína de baixa densidade - LDL-colesterol, hemograma completo, proteína C reativa, insulina). Resultados: Foram avaliados 25 indivíduos, dos quais 14 tinham cardiopatia congênita acianótica e 11 cianótica. A média de idade foi de 12,0±3,7 anos, e 20 (80%) eram do sexo masculino. O IPAQ mostrou que seis (24%) indivíduos eram muito ativos, oito (32%) eram ativos, nove (36%) tinham atividade física irregular e dois (8%) eram sedentários. A média de distância percorrida no teste de caminhada dos 6 minutos, considerando todos os indivíduos estudados, foi de 464,7±100,4 m, sendo 181,4±42,0 m menor do que o previsto (p=0,005). Encontrou-se correlação entre o escore Z do teste de caminhada de 6 minutos e o número de procedimentos cirúrgicos realizados (r=-0,455; p=0,022). Conclusões: Crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita têm baixa capacidade funcional, mas não são completamente sedentários.

11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(6): 810-821, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-973805

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia may develop early endothelial damage leading to a high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins have been shown to be effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events in adults. The effect of statin treatment in the pediatric population is not clearly demonstrated. Objective: To systematically review the literature to evaluate the effects of different statins and dosages in total cholesterol levels in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. We also aimed to evaluate statin safety in this group. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO and LILACS databases, were searched for articles published from inception until February 2016. Two independent reviewers performed the quality assessment of the included studies. We performed a meta-analysis with random effects and inverse variance, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: Ten trials involving a total of 1543 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our study showed reductions in cholesterol levels according to the intensity of statin doses (high, intermediate and low): (-104.61 mg/dl, -67.60 mg/dl, -56.96 mg/dl) and in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: [-105.03 mg/dl (95% CI -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (95% CI -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (95% CI -67.83, -50.11), I2 93.8%. The duration of statin therapy in the studies ranged from 8 to 104 weeks, precluding conclusions about long-term effects. Conclusion: Statin treatment is efficient in lowering lipids in children with FH. There is need of large, long-term and randomized controlled trials to establish the long-term safety of statins.


Resumo Fundamentos: Crianças com hipercolesterolemia familiar podem desenvolver dano endotelial precoce, aumentando o risco de desenvolver doenças cardiovasculares. As estatinas tiveram sua eficácia em diminuir níveis de colesterol LDL e eventos cardiovasculares em adultos comprovada. O efeito das estatinas na população pediátrica não está claramente demonstrado. Objetivo: Revisar sistematicamente a literatura para avaliar os efeitos e a segurança de diferentes estatinas e suas dosagens nos níveis de colesterol total em crianças e adolescentes com hipercolesterolêmica familiar. Métodos: Artigos publicados desde o início até fevereiro de 2016 foram pesquisados nas bases PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO e LILACS. Dois revisores independentes avaliaram a qualidade dos estudos incluídos. Realizamos meta-análise com efeitos aleatórios e variância inversa. Análises de subgrupos foram realizadas. Resultados: Dez ensaios envolvendo 1.543 pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Em nosso estudo, as análises demostraram reduções nos níveis de colesterol, de acordo com a intensidade das doses de estatina (alta, intermediária e baixa): (-104,61 mg/dl, -67,60 mg/dl, -56,96 mg/dl) e no nível de lipoproteínas de baixa densidade: [-105,03 mg/dl (IC95% -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (IC95% -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (IC95% -67.83, -50.11), I2 93,8%. A duração da terapia com estatina variou de 8 a 104 semanas, impedindo conclusões sobre os efeitos a longo prazo. Conclusão: O tratamento com estatinas é eficiente na redução de lipídios em crianças com hipercolesterolemia familiar. É necessário realizar ensaios controlados randomizados de longo prazo para estabelecer a segurança do uso de estatinas a longo prazo.

13.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(6): 810-821, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia may develop early endothelial damage leading to a high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins have been shown to be effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events in adults. The effect of statin treatment in the pediatric population is not clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature to evaluate the effects of different statins and dosages in total cholesterol levels in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia. We also aimed to evaluate statin safety in this group. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO and LILACS databases, were searched for articles published from inception until February 2016. Two independent reviewers performed the quality assessment of the included studies. We performed a meta-analysis with random effects and inverse variance, and subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS: Ten trials involving a total of 1543 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our study showed reductions in cholesterol levels according to the intensity of statin doses (high, intermediate and low): (-104.61 mg/dl, -67.60 mg/dl, -56.96 mg/dl) and in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: [-105.03 mg/dl (95% CI -115.76, -94.30), I2 19.2%], [-67.85 mg/dl (95% CI -83.36, -52.35), I2 99.8%], [-58.97 mg/dl (95% CI -67.83, -50.11), I2 93.8%. The duration of statin therapy in the studies ranged from 8 to 104 weeks, precluding conclusions about long-term effects. CONCLUSION: Statin treatment is efficient in lowering lipids in children with FH. There is need of large, long-term and randomized controlled trials to establish the long-term safety of statins.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(3): 356-361, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term safety, effectiveness and criteria for treatment with statins in children are still unclear in clinical practice. There is very limited evidence for the use of medication to treat children with dyslipidemia secondary to obesity who do not respond well to lifestyle modification. OBJECTIVE: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials of statin use to treat children and adolescents with dyslipidemia secondary to obesity. METHODS: We performed a search in PubMed, EMBASE, Bireme, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and LILACS for data to evaluate the effect of statins on: improvement of surrogate markers of coronary artery disease in clinical outcomes of adulthood; increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipropotein B (APOB); and decreased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) from inception to February 2016. Participants were children and adolescents. RESULTS: Of the 16793 potentially relevant citations recovered from the electronic databases, no randomized clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for children with dyslipidemia secondary to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We found no specific evidence to consider statins in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia secondary to obesity in children. The usual practice of extrapolating findings from studies in genetic dyslipidemia ignores the differences in long-term cardiovascular risks and the long-term drug treatment risks, when compared to recommendation of lifestyle changes. Randomized clinical trials are needed to understand drug treatment in dyslipidemia secondary to obesity.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(2): 200-206, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-894107

RESUMO

Abstract Objective Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. Results The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. Conclusion In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth.


Resumo Objetivo O Brasil é um país grande, heterogêneo e diverso, marcado por desigualdades sociais, econômicas e regionais. A natimortalidade é uma preocupação global, principalmente em países de renda baixa e média. Este estudo investigou a prevalência e os possíveis determinantes da natimortalidade em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Métodos Estudo transversal que incluiu todas as mulheres em idade reprodutiva que estiveram grávidas nos últimos cinco anos registradas na Pesquisa Nacional sobre Demografia e Saúde (PNDS-2006/07). A regressão logística foi usada para avaliar a relação entre região e outras características maternas e risco de natimortalidade. Resultados A prevalência de natimortos no Brasil foi de 14,82 a cada 1.000 nascimentos, com grande variação de acordo com a região do país e uma prevalência mais alta entre as mais precárias. As regiões Norte e Nordeste tiveram as taxas de natimortalidade mais altas em comparação com a região Centro-Oeste, que perdurou após o ajuste das diversas variáveis de confusão - inclusive nível de pobreza e etnia. A baixa idade e a obesidade maternas também estavam relacionadas a taxas de natimortalidade mais elevadas. Conclusão No Brasil, a região influencia o risco de natimortalidade, com riscos muito mais altos no Norte e no Nordeste. A variação no nível de pobreza não explica esse achado. Futuras pesquisas sobre o assunto devem explorar outras possíveis explicações, como cuidado pré-natal e tipo de parto, bem como o papel dos sistemas de saúde público e privado com relação à natimortalidade. As estratégias de prevenção devem ser direcionadas a essas regiões historicamente desfavorecidas, como garantir acesso e qualidade da assistência durante a gravidez e perto do momento do nascimento.

16.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 94(2): 200-206, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. RESULTS: The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth.


Assuntos
Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(9): 736-740, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-896408

RESUMO

Summary Objective: To verify the knowledge about food and nutrition and its association with the nutritional status of obese patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and to identify the relationship between information sources and level of knowledge. Method: Cross-sectional study that included 263 outpatients of a cardiology referral hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants filled out a questionnaire on socioeconomic data and knowledge about food and nutrition and had their nutritional status evaluated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). Results: BMI showed a significant inverse association with the percentage of correct answers (p=0.002), as well as WC (p=0.000) and WHR (p<0.001). This was also true for education (p<0.001) and female gender (p=0.005) compared to males. More than 60% of patients reported using television and 23% reported using newspaper as sources of nutritional information. Conclusion: Our study revealed a significant association between BMI and the level of knowledge about foods, showing that there is need for more information on obesity-related NCDs for greater understanding by patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Verificar os conhecimentos sobre alimentação e nutrição e sua associação com o estado nutricional de pacientes obesos portadores de doenças crônicas, e identificar a relação das fontes de informação com o nível de conhecimentos. Método: Estudo transversal realizado com 263 pacientes ambulatoriais de um hospital de referência em cardiologia em Porto Alegre, RS. Os indivíduos preencheram um questionário sobre dados socioeconômicos e conhecimentos sobre alimentação e nutrição, tendo seu estado nutricional avaliado por meio de índice de massa corporal (IMC), circunferência da cintura (CC) e relação cintura quadril (RCQ). Resultados: O IMC apresentou associação inversa e significativa com o percentual de acertos (p=0,002), assim como a CC (p<0,001) e a RCQ (p<0,001). E também a escolaridade (p<0,001) e o sexo feminino (p=0,005) em relação ao masculino. Mais de 60% dos pacientes relataram utilizar televisão e 23% jornal como fontes de informação sobre alimentação. Conclusão: No presente estudo, houve associação significativa entre IMC e nível de conhecimento sobre alimentação, demonstrando que há necessidade de maior divulgação sobre as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) para que haja maior entendimento por parte dos pacientes.

18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 63(9): 736-740, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the knowledge about food and nutrition and its association with the nutritional status of obese patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and to identify the relationship between information sources and level of knowledge. METHOD: Cross-sectional study that included 263 outpatients of a cardiology referral hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants filled out a questionnaire on socioeconomic data and knowledge about food and nutrition and had their nutritional status evaluated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). RESULTS: BMI showed a significant inverse association with the percentage of correct answers (p=0.002), as well as WC (p=0.000) and WHR (p<0.001). This was also true for education (p<0.001) and female gender (p=0.005) compared to males. More than 60% of patients reported using television and 23% reported using newspaper as sources of nutritional information. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a significant association between BMI and the level of knowledge about foods, showing that there is need for more information on obesity-related NCDs for greater understanding by patients.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(4): 357-367, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887951

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. Objective: To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) with systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Results: Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. The meta-analysis of the data of maximum heart rate (HR) reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls.


Resumo Fundamento: Crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatia congênita frequentemente apresentam alterações na sua capacidade de exercício que pode ser avaliada através de vários testes funcionais. Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade funcional de crianças e adolescentes com cardiopatias congênitas (CC) através de revisão sistemática e metanálise. Métodos: A revisão incluiu estudos observacionais, dados da primeira avaliação de ensaios clínicos randomizados ou acompanhamento após ensaios clínicos que avaliaram a capacidade funcional através teste de exercício cardiopulmonar, teste ergométrico, teste de caminhada de seis minutos ou teste do degrau em crianças e adolescentes. Foram incluídos indivíduos com CC, idade entre seis e 18 anos e seus controles saudáveis. A avaliação quantitativa foi realizada por metanálise, comparando o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max) entre crianças e adolescentes com CC e seus pares saudáveis. Resultados: Vinte e cinco dos 2.683 estudos identificados na pesquisa atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. A medida do VO2máx mostrou que os pacientes com CC apresentaram uma diminuição de 9,31 ml/Kg/min (IC 95%: -12,48 a -6,13; I2, 94,3%, P para heterogeneidade < 0,001) em comparação ao grupo controle. A metanálise dos dados de frequência cardíaca máxima (FCM) alcançada durante o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar e teste ergométrico, avaliado por 18 estudos, mostrou um valor de -15,14 bpm (IC 95%: -20,97 a -9,31; I2; 94,3%, P para heterogeneidade < 0,001) em comparação ao grupo controle. Conclusão: Crianças e adolescentes com CC apresentam menor VO2máx e FCM em relação a controles saudáveis.

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