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1.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 1519689, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028115

RESUMO

Based on the data of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Changzhou obtained by the Disabled Persons' Federation, this study sampled some children with CP and investigated their survival status, treatment cost, and family burden so as to provide scientific decision-making basis and policy suggestions for coping with disease hazards and improving children's quality of life. In this study, a simple random sampling method was used to conduct household surveys of the selected children with CP. The economic burden of CP is measured by direct and indirect methods, and the quality of life of patients of children with CP and their families is analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the EuroQol Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) Questionnaire. The average family economic burden of each case of CP in Changzhou was about 4,188,500 yuan, of which the direct medical burden was 205,800 yuan and the indirect economic burden was 3,982,700 yuan. The socioeconomic burden of CP in Changzhou is as high as about 2.244 billion yuan. From the EQ-5D measurement results of 55 children with CP, the average index score was 0.423, which was lower than the national general population level. The proportions of patients with CP who have problems in the five aspects of action, self-care, daily activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression are 72.73%, 81.82%, 81.82%, 83.64%, and 92.73%, respectively, which are significantly higher than those of the national general population. The average score of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is 58.09, which is significantly lower than the national general population level. The only major factor affecting the quality of life of patients with CP and their families is the health status represented by the EQ-5D score. To liberate and develop the labor ability of patients and their direct caregivers through clinical treatment, rehabilitation, and special education is the most effective way to reduce the socioeconomic burden of CP. Relevant government departments should perform their duties, integrate social assistance resources, implement early intervention, and launch targeted support and assistance policy.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 278: 118992, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973795

RESUMO

Acidic deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are promising media for lignin valorization and cellulose conversion due to their good ability in efficient deconstruction of plant cell wall. However, hemicellulose extraction from lignocellulose using acidic DESs remains a challenge. Herein, novel and green Brønsted acidic DESs (BDESs) were synthesized from natural organic acids and common polyols and successively adopted to deconstruct corncob for mild fractionation of hemicelluloses. Oxalic acid (OA)-based BDESs were preferred for corncob processing due to the high solubility of xylan. The results revealed that the suitable acidity of DESs and mild temperature effectively avoided the over-degradation of hemicelluloses. The chemical composition and structural features of the recovered hemicelluloses were investigated systematically. Moreover, after ethylene glycol (EG)-OA BDES was recycled and reused three times, the extraction still resulted in a satisfactory hemicellulose yield. The novel and eco-friendly processing offers a practical and sustainable route for hemicellulose extraction in acidic condition.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126075, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606922

RESUMO

Oligosaccharides are low-molecular-weight carbohydrates with crucial physical, chemical, and physiological properties, which are increasingly important in the fields of food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and biomedicine. Pretreating biomass in a cost-effective way is a significant challenge for oligosaccharides research. Hydrothermal pretreatment is a potentially eco-friendly technology to obtain oligosaccharides by deconstructing biomass. In this work, we compared the differences between hydrothermal pretreatment and the traditional pretreatment method. The fundamentals and classification of hydrothermal pretreatment, as well as the latest studies on hydrothermal preparation of oligosaccharides, were further reviewed and evaluated to provide a theoretical basis for the production and application of oligosaccharides. Some challenges and future trends to develop green and large-scale hydrothermal pretreatment were proposed for the production of oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos , Vapor , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Peso Molecular
4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 175-185, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634543

RESUMO

Exploring novel structures consisting of multiple highly active components is a crucial challenge for supercapacitor applications. Using an in-situ self-templated method, we demonstrate the controlled fabrication of a fibrous hierarchical nanocomposite made of carbon microfibers covered with a layer of metal-organic framework (MOF) derived from nickel-cobalt layered double-hydroxide (NiCo-LDH) nanosheets decorated with (NiCo)Se2 nanoparticles. The (NiCo)Se2 nanoparticles attached tightly onto the surface of the two-dimensional NiCo-LDH, both of which were generated by the decomposition of the NiCo-based MOF, and exhibited multiple active sites that contributed to improved electrical conductivity, high capacity, and structural stability. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the density of states near the Fermi level was significantly enhanced, favoured OH- adsorption, and promoted the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction. Benefiting from the intrinsic synergetic contributions from the hierarchical nanoscale structure, the electrode made from the nanocomposite delivered an impressive capacity of 1394.2 F g-1 (702.7 C g-1) at 1 A g-1. Furthermore, a hybrid supercapacitor based on the developed nanocomposite demonstrated an energy density of 50.6 W h kg-1 and a power density of 800 W kg-1 with high cyclic stability. Our results suggest that the hierarchical nanocomposite can be a powerful electrode for advanced next-generation supercapacitors.

5.
Biomark Med ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882011

RESUMO

Aim: The study aims to pinpoint hub genes and investigate their functions in order to gain insightful understandings of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: Bioinformatic approaches were adopted to investigate genes in databases including Gene Expression Omnibus, WebGestalt, STRING and Cytoscape, GEPIA2, Oncomine, Human Protein Atlas, TIMER2.0, UALCAN, cBioPortal, TargetScanHuman, OncomiR, ENCORI, Kaplan-Meier plotter, UCSC Xena, European Molecular Biology Laboratory - European Bioinformatics Institute Single Cell Expression Atlas and CancerSEA. Results: Five hub genes were ascertained. CHEK1 was overexpressed in a range of cancers, including LUAD. Promoter methylation, amplification and miRNA regulation might trigger CHEK1 upregulation, signaling poor prognosis. CHEK1 with its coexpressed genes were enriched in the cell cycle pathway. Intratumor heterogeneity of CHEK1 expression could be observed. Cell clusters with CHEK1 expression were more prone to metastasis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: CHEK1 might potentially act as a prognostic biomarker for LUAD.

6.
Front Oncol ; 11: 748341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917503

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative and postoperative malnutrition on postoperative short- and long-term outcomes for ampullary carcinoma after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 511 patients with ampullary carcinoma who underwent PD between June 2012 and June 2019. Nutritional status before and at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation was assessed by the scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). The patients were classified into well-nourished, moderately malnourished, and severely malnourished group according to the PG-SGA score. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to adjust baseline characteristics between preoperative group A (well-nourished and moderately malnourished group) and group B (severely malnourished group). After PSM, clinicopathological variables and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis was also conducted to investigate the prognostic factors of overall survival of patients with ampullary carcinoma who underwent PD. Results: Preoperatively, 122 (23.9%) patients were classified into well-nourished group, 189 (37.0%) into moderately malnourished group, and 200 (39.1%) into severely malnourished group. After PSM analysis, the incidence of overall postoperative complications was higher in group B than that in group A (50.5% vs. 32.5%, p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that severe malnutrition (PG-SGA score >9 scores) before operation [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.508; 95% CI, 1.103-2.061; p = 0.01] and at 6 months (HR = 4.148; 95% CI, 2.523-6.820; p < 0.001) and 12 months (HR = 5.272; 95% CI, 3.630-7.656; p < 0.001) after operation was an independent prognostic factor of patients who underwent PD for ampullary carcinoma. Conclusions: Severe malnutrition before and at 6 and 12 months after operation significantly affects the long-term survival of patients with ampullary carcinoma who underwent PD. Additionally, the preoperative malnutrition was closely related to postoperative complications.

7.
Small Methods ; 5(11): e2100878, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927978

RESUMO

The rational design and construction of cost-effective nickel-based phosphide or sulfide (photo)electrocatalysts for hydrogen production from water splitting has sparked a huge investigation surge in recent years. Whereas, nickel phosphides (Nix Py ) possess more than ten stoichiometric compositions with different crystalline. Constructing Nix Py with well crystalline and revealing their intrinsic catalytic mechanism at atomic/molecular levels remains a great challenge. Herein, an easy-to-follow phase-controllable phosphating strategy is first proposed to prepare well crystalline Nix Py (Ni3 P and Ni12 P5 ) modified CdS@Ni3 S2 heterojunction electrocatalysts. It is found that Ni3 P modified CdS@Ni3 S2 (CdS@Ni3 S2 /Ni3 P) exhibits remarkable stability and bifunctional electrocatalytic activities in both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Density functional theory results suggest that P-Ni sites and P sites in CdS@Ni3 S2 /Ni3 P, respectively, serve as OER and HER active sites during electrocatalytic water splitting processes. Moreover, benefiting from the advantageous photocatalyst@electrocatalyst core@shell structure, CdS@Ni3 S2 /Ni3 P delivers an advantaged photoassisted electrocatalytic water splitting property. The champion electrical to hydrogen and solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiencies of CdS@Ni3 S2 /Ni3 P, respectively, reach 93.35% and 4.65%. This work will provide a general guidance for synergistically using solar energy and electric energy for large-scale H2 production from water splitting.

8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) made improvements for staging pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) in its 8th Edition; however, multicenter studies were not included. METHODS: We collected multicenter datasets (n = 1,086, between 2004 and 2018) to validate the value of AJCC 8 and other coexisting staging systems through univariate and multivariate analysis for well-differentiated (G1/G2) pNETs. RESULTS: Compared to other coexisting staging systems, AJCC 7 only included 12 (1.1%) patients with stage III tumors. Patients with European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) stage IIB disease had a higher risk of death than patients with stage IIIA (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.376 vs. 4.322). For the modified ENETS staging system, patients with stage IIB disease had a higher risk of death than patients with stage III (HR: 6.078 vs. 5.341). According to AJCC 8, the proportions of patients with stage I, II, III, and IV were 25.7%, 40.3%, 23.6%, and 10.4%, respectively. As the stage advanced, the median survival time decreased (NA, 144.7, 100.8, 72.0 months, respectively), and the risk of death increased (HR: II = 3.145, III = 5.925, and IV = 8.762). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that AJCC 8 had a more reasonable proportional distribution and the risk of death was better correlated with disease stage.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742852

RESUMO

In recent years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are used for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility and lignin fractionation in pretreatment, while hemicellulosic fraction receives scant attention. Herein, we report a novel approach of applying alkaline deep eutectic solvents (ADESs) for dissociating hemicelluloses from woody biomass. Among these ADESs, choline chloride-monoethanolamine (C-M) was the most efficacious medium for deconstructing the recalcitrant structure of poplar and 63.3% of hemicelluloses was obtained at 80 °C. Structure analysis showed that the ADESs-extracted hemicelluloses retained partial of O-acetyl groups. Different ADESs could be used to obtain hemicelluloses with various degrees of branching. Furthermore, the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose was significantly increased by 6.6 times compared to that of the untreated poplar under the optimum conditions (C-M, 140 °C). This work provides a view on the dissociation behavior of hemicelluloses during ADESs pretreatment, which would be beneficial for devising DESs toward effective fractionation and comprehensive utilization of biomass.

10.
ACS Omega ; 6(45): 30826-30833, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805711

RESUMO

Plant bacteria such as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) have created huge obstacles to the global trade of food and economic crops. However, traditional chemical agents used to control these plant diseases have gradually become disadvantageous due to long-term irregular use. Therefore, finding new and efficient antibacterial and antiviral agents is becoming imperative. In this study, a series of myricetin derivatives containing a quinazolinone moiety were designed and synthesized, and the antibacterial and antiviral activities of these compounds were evaluated. The bioassay results showed that some target compounds exhibited good antibacterial activities in vitro and antiviral activities in vivo. Among them, the median effective concentration (EC50) value of compound L18 against Xac was 16.9 µg/mL, which was better than those of the control drugs bismerthiazol (BT) (62.2 µg/mL) and thiodiazole copper (TC) (97.5 µg/mL). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that compound L18 inhibited the growth of Xac by affecting the morphology of cells. Microscale thermophoresis (MST) test results indicated that the dissociation constant (K d) value of compound L11 against TMV-CP was 0.012 µM, which was better than that of the control agent ningnanmycin (2.726 µM). This study reveals that myricetin derivatives containing a quinazolinone moiety are potential antibacterial and antiviral agents.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 765216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760707

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly malignant disease characterized by insidious onset, rapid progress, and poor therapeutic effects. The molecular mechanisms associated with PC initiation and progression are largely insufficient, hampering the exploitation of novel diagnostic biomarkers and development of efficient therapeutic strategies. Emerging evidence recently reveals that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), extensively participate in PC pathogenesis. Specifically, lncRNAs can function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), competitively sequestering miRNAs, therefore modulating the expression levels of their downstream target genes. Such complex lncRNA/miRNA/mRNA networks, namely, ceRNA networks, play crucial roles in the biological processes of PC by regulating cell growth and survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis, cancer stem cell maintenance, metabolism, autophagy, chemoresistance, and angiogenesis. In this review, the emerging knowledge on the lncRNA-associated ceRNA networks involved in PC initiation and progression will be summarized, and the potentials of the competitive crosstalk as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets will be comprehensively discussed.

12.
Biomater Sci ; 9(24): 8202-8220, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727152

RESUMO

The response of immune systems is crucial to the success of biomedical implants in vivo and in particular, orthopedic implants must possess appropriate immunomodulatory functions to allow sufficient osteointegration. In this work, lithium (Li) is incorporated into titanium (Ti) implants by plasma electrolytic oxidation to realize slow and sustained release of Li ions. In vitro cellular behaviors of mice bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), including gene expression, cytokine secretion, and surface marker analysis suggest that a low dose of Li incorporation could enhance the recruitment of BMDMs, restrict pro-inflammatory polarization (M1 phenotype), and promote anti-inflammatory polarization (M2 phenotype). The in vivo air pouch implantation model is constructed to simulate the microenvironment associated with aseptic loosening and the histology results confirm that a small dose of Li could relieve inflammatory reactions surrounding the implants. Moreover, compared to the Li-free group, the macrophage-conditioned culture medium (MCM) from Li-doped samples is more beneficial for the osteogenic differentiation of the mouse embryo cell line (C3H10T1/2) and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which is further confirmed by better osteointegration ability in the bone implantation model of Li-incorporating Ti implants. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism study discloses that osteoimmunomodulatory activity of Li-incorporating Ti implants is achieved by regulating the cascade molecules in the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. This work reveals that favorable immune-modulated osteogenesis and osseointegration of bone implants can be realized by the incorporation of Li which broadens the strategy to develop the next generation of immunomodulatory biomaterials.

13.
Org Lett ; 23(22): 8834-8837, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730984

RESUMO

A method for the selective electrochemical aminoxyl-mediated Shono-type oxidation of pyrrolidines to pyrrolidinones is described. These transformations show the high selectivity and functional group compatibility. This chemistry also demonstrates the use of an operationally simple ElectraSyn 2.0 and cost-effective stainless-steel electrode for the electrochemical oxidation of functionalized pyrrolidines.

14.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The best anesthetic management strategy for patients with acute large vessel occlusion treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) remains uncertain. Most studies have focused on anterior-circulation stroke caused by large artery occlusion. Nevertheless, limited data are available on the appropriate choice of anesthetic for acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We aimed to investigate the effect of anesthetic method on clinical outcomes in patients with BAO undergoing MT. METHODS: Patients undergoing MT for acute BAO in the BASILAR registry (Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Study) were included. We divided patients into three groups according to the anesthetic technique used during MT: general anesthesia (GA), local anesthesia (LA), and conscious sedation (CS). Propensity score matching was performed to achieve baseline balance. RESULTS: 639 patients were included. GA was used in 257 patients (40.2%), LA was used in 250 patients (39.1%), and CS was used in 132 patients (20.7%). After 1:1 matching, favorable outcome, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation rates, as well as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 90 days, did not differ between the GA, LA, and CS groups. CONCLUSIONS: The choice of anesthetic strategy, GA, LA, or CS, did not affect the clinical outcomes of patients with acute BAO treated with MT in the BASILAR registry.

15.
ACS Omega ; 6(38): 24575-24584, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604639

RESUMO

Mg alloys are promising biodegradable orthopedic implants in the future. However, poor corrosion resistance and biocompatibility limit their wide applications. In this study, a pure Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) film on AZ31 was prepared through combining hydrofluoric acid pretreatment and hydrothermal treatment. Electrochemical analysis and the immersion test suggested that the as-prepared Mg-Al LDH-coated sample exhibited significantly enhanced corrosion resistance. The in vitro cell culture revealed that the Mg-Al LDH film was favorable for the alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen secretion, and osteogenesis-related gene expression of MC3T3-E1. Furthermore, the LDH-coated sample was beneficial for the migration, vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, and angiogenesis-related gene expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The subcutaneous implantation test demonstrated that the Mg-Al LDH film could protect the substrate from corrosion and induce milder inflammation. The femur implantation demonstrated that the Mg-Al LDH sample showed better bone regeneration and osseointegration than bare AZ31. In summary, the as-prepared pure Mg-Al LDH film is able to enhance the in vitro and in vivo performances of AZ31, indicating a promising application in the orthopedic field.

16.
ACS Omega ; 6(38): 25010-25018, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604681

RESUMO

Four Usnea longissima polysaccharides (ULPs; ULP15, ULP30, ULP50, and ULP70) were obtained from the lichen U. longissima via water extraction and graded ethanol precipitation. The obtained ULPs were all heteropolysaccharides with a few proteins, with which glucose was the major monosaccharide composition. With the increase in the precipitated ethanol concentrations, the content of galactose, xylose, and mannose increased, whereas that of glucose decreased. Moreover, the antioxidant activity test demonstrated that ULP15 exhibited better reducing power and stronger scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radicals. Importantly, ULP15 also had a better proliferative effect on human HaCaT keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Meanwhile, ULP15 protected HaCaT keratinocytes from UVB-induced proliferation inhibition and exhibited tyrosinase inhibition activity. Therefore, this work provides interesting insight into the preparation of cosmetic ingredients using the polysaccharide ULP15.

17.
Opt Express ; 29(15): 22922-22930, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614569

RESUMO

A novel embedded ultra-long period fiber grating (EULPFG) based on a graded index multimode fiber (GI-MMF) is proposed for temperature measurement. Due to the small RI difference of the modes near the GI-MMF self-imaging point, the resonant peak of transmission spectrum is wavelength-insensitive to refractive index (RI), strain and bending. However, the sensor is sensitive to temperature. The experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity of the EULPFG is 90.77 pm/°C. The sensitivities of other physical parameters are suppressed, and the suppressed sensitivities are at least one order of magnitude less than those of similar sensors. The EULPFG with anti-interference from other parameters is expected to be used in ocean monitoring systems to measure the temperature of the seawater.

18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 734673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660297

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic head ductal adenocarcinoma (PHDAC) patients with the same tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage may share different outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Therefore, a novel method to identify patients with poor prognosis after PD is urgently needed. We aimed to develop a nomogram to estimate survival in PHDAC after PD. Methods: To estimate survival after PD, a nomogram was developed using the Tongji Pancreatic cancer cohort comprising 355 PHDAC patients who underwent PD. The nomogram was validated under the same conditions in another cohort (N = 161) from the National Taiwan University Hospital. Prognostic factors were assessed using LASSO and multivariate Cox regression models. The nomogram was internally validated using bootstrap resampling and then externally validated. Performance was assessed using concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Clinical utility was evaluated using decision curve analysis (DCA), X-tile program, and Kaplan-Meier curve in both training and validation cohorts. Results: Overall, the median follow-up duration was 32.17 months, with 199 deaths (64.82%) in the training cohort. Variables included in the nomogram were age, preoperative CA 19-9 levels, adjuvant chemotherapy, Tongji classification, T stage, N stage, and differentiation degree. Harrell's c-indices in the internal and external validation cohorts were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.82) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.87), respectively, which were higher than those in other staging systems. DCA showed better clinical utility. Conclusion: The nomogram was better than TNM stage and Tongji classification in predicting PHDAC patients' prognosis and may improve prognosis-based selection of patients who would benefit from PD.

19.
Biotechnol Lett ; 43(12): 2199-2208, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626279

RESUMO

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or Nicotinamide-1-ium-1-ß-D-ribofuranoside 5'-phosphate is a nucleotide that can be converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in human cells. NMN has recently attracted great attention because of its potential as an anti-aging drug, leading to great efforts for its effective manufacture. The chemical synthesis of NMN is a challenging task since it is an isomeric compound with a complicated structure. The majority of biological synthetic routes for NMN is through the intermediate phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP), which is further converted to NMN by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt). There are various routes for the synthesis of PRPP from simple starting materials such as ribose, adenosine, and xylose, but all of these require the expensive phosphate donor adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Thus, an ATP regeneration system can be included, leading to diminished ATP consumption during the catalytic process. The regulations of enzymes that are not directly involved in the synthesis of NMN are also critical for the production of NMN. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the biological production of NMN with respect to the critical enzymes, reaction conditions, and productivity.

20.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1631-1636, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of high mobility group protein 1(HMGB1) on the proliferation and cytokine expression of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: Different concentrations of recombinant human HMGB1 protein (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ng/ml) were incubated with MSC for 24, 48, 72 h and the proliferation of MSC were detected respectively by using the CCK-8 method and flow cytometry. The best concentrations of HMGB1 incubated with MSC was determined (200 ng/ml, 1000 ng/ml), and the flow cytomerty was used to determine the effect of HMGB1 on the proliferation of MSC. The mRNA expression levels of IL-10, TGF- ß1, TSG-6 and IFN-γ in MSC incubated with HMGB1 protein were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: The result of MSC identification and flow cytometry showed that the CD105, CD73 and CD90 were expressed, but did not expression CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19 and HLA-DR; CCK-8 showed that HMGB1 at the concentrations of 100 ng/ml, 200 ng/ml and 400 ng/ml could promote the proliferation of MSC incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h as compared with the control group (P<0.05), and the most effective concentration was 200 ng/ml; flow cytometry showed that the compared with the control group, HMGB1 200 ng/ml could induce MSC from G1 phase to S phase to promote the proliferation of MSC; QPCR showed that the mRNA expression of MSC cytokines IL-10, TGF-ß1, TSG-6 increased while IFN-γ decreased at the concentration of 200 ng/ml HMGB1 as compared with the control group. ELISA experiments showed that the HMGB1 200 ng/ml acting on MSC for 48 h could significantly promoted the secretion of IL-10, TGF-ß 1 and TSG-6(P<0.05), while IFN-γ showed no significant difference as compared with control group. CONCLUSION: Recombinant human HMGB1 can promote the proliferation and secretion of MSC in healthy people.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
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