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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881534

RESUMO

The integration of high-k gate dielectrics with two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting channel materials is essential for high-performance and low-power electronics. However, the conformal deposition of a uniform high-k dielectric with sub-1 nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and high interface quality on high-mobility 2D semiconductors is still challenging. Here, we report a facile approach to synthesize a uniform high-k (εr ∼ 22) amorphous native oxide Bi2SeOx on the high-mobility 2D semiconducting Bi2O2Se using O2 plasma at room temperature. The conformal native oxide can directly serve as gate dielectrics with EOT of ∼0.9 nm, while the original properties of underlying 2D Bi2O2Se is preserved. Furthermore, high-resolution area-selective oxidation of Bi2O2Se is achieved to fabricate discrete electronic components. This facile integration of a high-mobility 2D semiconductor and its high-k native oxide holds high promise for next-generation nanoelectronics.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787178

RESUMO

Graphene grown on Cu by chemical vapor deposition is rough due to the surface roughening of Cu for releasing interfacial thermal stress and/or graphene bending energy. The roughness degrades the electrical conductance and mechanical strength of graphene. Here, by using vicinal Cu(111) and flat Cu(111) as model substrates, we investigated the critical role of original surface topography on the surface deformation of Cu covered by graphene. We demonstrated that terrace steps on vicinal Cu(111) dominate the formation of step bunches (SBs). Atomically flat graphene with roughness down to 0.2 nm was grown on flat Cu(111) films. When SB-induced ripples were avoided, as-grown ultraflat graphene maintained its flat feature after transfer. The ultraflat graphene exhibited extraordinary mechanical properties with Young's modulus ≈ 940 GPa and strength ≈ 117 GPa, comparable to mechanical exfoliated ones. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed the mechanism of softened elastic response and weakened strength of graphene with rippled structures.

3.
ACS Nano ; 14(9): 10796-10803, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840993

RESUMO

The last 10 years have witnessed significant progress in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene films. However, major hurdles remain in achieving the excellent quality and scalability of CVD graphene needed for industrial production and applications. Early efforts were mainly focused on increasing the single-crystalline domain size, large-area uniformity, growth rate, and controllability of layer thickness and on decreasing the defect concentrations. An important recent advance was the discovery of the inevitable contamination phenomenon of CVD graphene film during high-temperature growth processes and the superclean growth technique, which is closely related to the surface defects and to the peeling-off and transfer quality. Superclean graphene represents a new frontier in CVD graphene research. In this Perspective, we aim to provide comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic growth contamination and the experimental solution of making superclean graphene and to provide an outlook for future commercial production of high-quality CVD graphene films.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643300

RESUMO

We exploit a high-performing resistive-type trace oxygen sensor based on 2D high-mobility semiconducting Bi2 O2 Se nanoplates. Scanning tunneling microscopy combined with first-principle calculations confirms an amorphous Se atomic layer formed on the surface of 2D Bi2 O2 Se exposed to oxygen, which contributes to larger specific surface area and abundant active adsorption sites. Such 2D Bi2 O2 Se oxygen sensors have remarkable oxygen-adsorption induced variations of carrier density/mobility, and exhibit an ultrahigh sensitivity featuring minimum detection limit of 0.25 ppm, long-term stability, high durativity, and wide-range response to concentration up to 400 ppm at room temperature. 2D Bi2 O2 Se arrayed sensors integrated in parallel form are found to possess an oxygen detection minimum of sub-0.25 ppm ascribed to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. These advanced sensor characteristics involving ease integration show 2D Bi2 O2 Se is an ideal candidate for trace oxygen detection.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542959

RESUMO

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has become a promising approach for the industrial production of graphene films with appealing controllability and uniformity. However, in the conventional hot-wall CVD system, CVD-derived graphene films suffer from surface contamination originating from the gas-phase reaction during the high-temperature growth. Shown here is that the cold-wall CVD system is capable of suppressing the gas-phase reaction, and achieves the superclean growth of graphene films in a controllable manner. The as-received superclean graphene film, exhibiting improved optical and electrical properties, was proven to be an ideal candidate material used as transparent electrodes and substrate for epitaxial growth. This study provides a new promising choice for industrial production of high-quality graphene films, and the finding about the engineering of the gas-phase reaction, which is usually overlooked, will be instructive for future research on CVD growth of graphene.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2002034, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529704

RESUMO

The rich and complex arrangements of metal atoms in high-index metal facets afford appealing physical and chemical properties, which attracts extensive research interest in material science for the applications in catalysis and surface chemistry. However, it is still a challenge to prepare large-area high-index single crystals in a controllable and cost-efficient manner. Herein, entire commercially available decimeter-sized polycrystalline Cu foils are successfully transformed into single crystals with a series of high-index facets, relying on a strain-engineered anomalous grain growth technique. The introduction of a moderate thermal-contact stress upon the Cu foil during the annealing leads to the formation of high-index grains dominated by the thermal strain of the Cu foils, rather than the (111) surface driven by the surface energy. Besides, the designed static gradient of the temperature enables the as-formed high-index grain seed to expand throughout the entire Cu foil. The as-received high-index Cu foils can serve as the templates for producing high-index single-crystal Cu-based alloys. This work provides an appealing material basis for the epitaxial growth of 2D materials, and the applications that require the unique surface structures of high-index metal foils and their alloys.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2002831, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583941

RESUMO

Bismuth oxyselenide (Bi2 O2 Se), a new type of 2D material, has recently attracted increased attention due to its robust bandgap, stability under ambient conditions, and ultrahigh electron mobility. In such complex oxides, fine structural distortion tends to play a decisive role in determining the unique physical properties, such as the ferrorotational order, ferroelectricity, and magnetoelasticity. Therefore, an in-depth investigation of the fine structural symmetry of Bi2 O2 Se is necessary to exploit its potential applications. However, conventional techniques are either time consuming or requiring tedious sample treatment. Herein, a noninvasive and high-throughput approach is reported for characterizing the fine structural distortion in 2D centrosymmetric Bi2 O2 Se by polarization-dependent third-harmonic generation (THG). Unprecedentedly, the divergence between the experimental results and the theoretical prediction of the perpendicular component of polarization-dependent THG indicates a fine structural distortion, namely, a <1.4° rotation of the oxygen square in the tetragonal (Bi2 O2 ) layers. This rotation breaks the intrinsic mirror symmetry of 2D Bi2 O2 Se, eventually reducing the symmetry from the D4h to the C4h point group. The results demonstrate that THG is highly sensitive to even fine symmetry variations, thereby showing its potential to uncover hidden phase transitions and interacting polarized sublattices in novel 2D material systems.

8.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 955-958, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048042

RESUMO

Sapoviruses (SAVs), including several genogroups (GI to GV), are one of the causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In this study, viral metagenomics revealed the presence of sapoviruses of different genogroups in stool from children with AGE. Eight different complete SAV genomes were determined, of which five belonged to GI and the other three belonged to GII, GIV and GV, respectively. Although they were highly similar to published sequences, the GIV and GV were the first complete genome sequences of these SAVs found in China. In a prevalence investigation, 19% of subjects with AGE were positive for SAVs, while none of the control group was positive.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Sapovirus/classificação , Sapovirus/genética
9.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096644

RESUMO

At the mesoscopic level of commercial lithium ion battery (LIB), it is widely believed that the poor contacts between current collector (CC) and electrode materials (EM) lead to weak adhesions and large interfacial electric resistances. However, systematic quantitative analyses of the influence of the interfacial properties of CC are still scarce. Here, we built a model interface between CC and electrode materials by directly growing hierarchical graphene films on commercial Al foil CC, and we performed systematic quantitative studies of the interfacial properties therein. Our results show that the interfacial electric resistance dominates, i.e. ∼2 orders of magnitude higher than that of electrode materials. The interfacial resistance could be eliminated by hierarchical graphene interlayer. Cathode on CC with eliminated interfacial resistance could deliver much improved power density outputs. Our work quantifies the mesoscopic factors influencing the battery performance and offers practical guidelines of boosting the performance of LIBs and beyond.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(6): 2726-2731, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985227

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors hold great promise in flexible electronics because of their intrinsic flexibility and high electrical performance. However, the lack of facile synthetic and subsequent device fabrication approaches of high-mobility 2D semiconducting thin films still hinders their practical applications. Here, we developed a facile, rapid, and scalable solution-assisted method for the synthesis of a high-mobility semiconducting oxyselenide (Bi2O2Se) thin film by the selenization and decomposition of a precursor solution of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O. Simply by changing the rotation speed in spin-coating of the precursor solution, the thicknesses of Bi2O2Se thin films can be precisely controlled down to few atomic layers. The as-synthesized Bi2O2Se thin film exhibited a high Hall mobility of ∼74 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is much superior to other 2D thin-film semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, flexible top-gated Bi2O2Se transistors showed excellent electrical stability under repeated electrical measurements on flat and bent substrates. Furthermore, Bi2O2Se transistor devices on muscovite substrates can be readily transferred onto flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates with the help of thermal release tape. The integration of a high-mobility thin-film semiconductor, excellent stability, and easy transfer onto flexible substrates make Bi2O2Se a competitive candidate for future flexible electronics.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 541, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992713

RESUMO

The fast development of high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) demands a background-noise-free substrate to support the specimens, where atomically thin graphene membranes can serve as an ideal candidate. Yet the preparation of robust and ultraclean graphene EM grids remains challenging. Here we present a polymer- and transfer-free direct-etching method for batch fabrication of robust ultraclean graphene grids through membrane tension modulation. Loading samples on such graphene grids enables the detection of single metal atoms and atomic-resolution imaging of the iron core of ferritin molecules at both room- and cryo-temperature. The same kind of hydrophilic graphene grid allows the formation of ultrathin vitrified ice layer embedded most protein particles at the graphene-water interface, which facilitates cryo-EM 3D reconstruction of archaea 20S proteasomes at a record high resolution of ~2.36 Å. Our results demonstrate the significant improvements in image quality using the graphene grids and expand the scope of EM imaging.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Microscopia Eletrônica/instrumentação , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Fenômenos Químicos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Elétrons , Desenho de Equipamento , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Membranas , Polímeros , Proteínas
12.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961130

RESUMO

Stacking order has a strong influence on the coupling between the two layers of twisted bilayer graphene (BLG), which in turn determines its physical properties. Here, we report the investigation of the interlayer coupling of the epitaxially grown single-crystal 30°-twisted BLG on Cu(111) at the atomic scale. The stacking order and morphology of BLG is controlled by a rationally designed two-step growth process, that is, the thermodynamically controlled nucleation and kinetically controlled growth. The crystal structure of the 30°-twisted bilayer graphene (30°-tBLG) is determined to have quasicrystal-like symmetry. The electronic properties and interlayer coupling of the 30°-tBLG are investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The energy-dependent local density of states with in situ electrostatic doping shows that the electronic states in two graphene layers are decoupled near the Dirac point. A linear dispersion originated from the constituent graphene monolayers is discovered with doubled degeneracy. This study contributes to controlled growth of twist-angle-defined BLG and provides insights on the electronic properties and interlayer coupling in this intriguing system.

13.
Small ; 16(2): e1905202, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814302

RESUMO

Graphene has attracted great interests in various areas including optoelectronics, spintronics, and nanomechanics due to its unique electronic structure, a linear dispersion with a zero bandgap around the Dirac point. Shifts of Dirac cones in graphene creates pseudo-magnetic field, which generates an energy gap and brings a zero-magnetic-field analogue of the quantum Hall effect. Recent studies have demonstrated that graphene pseudo-magnetic effects can be generated by vacancy defects, atom adsorption, zigzag or armchair edges, and external strain. Here, a larger than 100 T pseudo-magnetic field is reported that generated on the step area of graphene; and with the ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy, the observed Landau levels can be effectively tailored by graphene phonons. The zero pseudo-Landau level is suppressed due to the phonon-mediated inelastic tunneling, and this is observed by the scanning tunneling spectroscopy spectrum and confirmed by the Vienna ab initio simulation package calculation, where graphene phonons modulate the flow of tunneling electrons and further mediate pseudo-Landau levels. These observations demonstrate a viable approach for the control of pseudo-Landau levels, which tailors the electronic structure of graphene, and further ignites applications in graphene valley electronics.

14.
Adv Mater ; 32(1): e1903266, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583792

RESUMO

Grain boundaries produced during material synthesis affect both the intrinsic properties of materials and their potential for high-end applications. This effect is commonly observed in graphene film grown using chemical vapor deposition and therefore caused intense interest in controlled growth of grain-boundary-free graphene single crystals in the past ten years. The main methods for enlarging graphene domain size and reducing graphene grain boundary density are classified into single-seed and multiseed approaches, wherein reduction of nucleation density and alignment of nucleation orientation are respectively realized in the nucleation stage. On this basis, detailed synthesis strategies, corresponding mechanisms, and key parameters in the representative methods of these two approaches are separately reviewed, with the aim of providing comprehensive knowledge and a snapshot of the latest status of controlled growth of single-crystal graphene films. Finally, perspectives on opportunities and challenges in synthesizing large-area single-crystal graphene films are discussed.

15.
Small ; 16(15): e1902844, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490630

RESUMO

Bilayer or few-layer 2D materials showing novel electrical properties in electronic device applications have aroused increasing interest in recent years. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of interlayer contact conductance still remains a challenge, but is significant for improving the performance of bilayer or few-layer 2D electronic devices. Here, conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM) experiments are reported to explore the interlayer contact conductance between bilayer graphene (BLG) with various twisted stacking structures fabricated by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The current maps show that the interlayer contact conductance between BLG strongly depends on the twist angle. The interlayer contact conductance of 0° AB-stacking bilayer graphene (AB-BLG) is ≈4 times as large as that of 30° twisted bilayer graphene (t-BLG), which indicates that the twist angle-dependent interlayer contact conductance originates from the coupling-decoupling transitions. Moreover, the moiré superlattice-level current images of t-BLG show modulations of local interlayer contact conductance. Density functional theory calculations together with a theoretical model reproduce the C-AFM current map and show that the modulation is mainly attributed to the overall contribution of local interfacial carrier density and tunneling barrier.

16.
Small ; 15(43): e1904482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512402

RESUMO

Bi2 O2 Se is emerging as a photosensitive functional material for optoelectronics, and its photodetection mechanism is mostly considered to be a photoconductive regime in previous reports. Here, the bolometric effect is discovered in Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors. The coexistence of photoconductive effect and bolometric effect is generally observed in multiwavelength photoresponse measurements and then confirmed with microscale local heating experiments. The unique photoresponse of Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors may arise from a change of hot electrons during temperature rises instead of photoexcited holes and electrons. Direct proof of the bolometric effect is achieved by real-time temperature tracking of Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors under time evolution after light excitation. Moreover, the Bi2 O2 Se bolometer shows a high temperature coefficient of resistance (-1.6% K-1 ), high bolometric coefficient (-31 nA K-1 ), and high bolometric responsivity (>320 A W-1 ). These findings offer a new approach to develop bolometric photodetectors based on Bi2 O2 Se layered materials.

17.
Adv Mater ; 31(43): e1902978, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502709

RESUMO

Contamination is a major concern in surface and interface technologies. Given that graphene is a 2D monolayer material with an extremely large surface area, surface contamination may seriously degrade its intrinsic properties and strongly hinder its applicability in surface and interfacial regions. However, large-scale and facile treatment methods for producing clean graphene films that preserve its excellent properties have not yet been achieved. Herein, an efficient postgrowth treatment method for selectively removing surface contamination to achieve a large-area superclean graphene surface is reported. The as-obtained superclean graphene, with surface cleanness exceeding 99%, can be transferred to dielectric substrates with significantly reduced polymer residues, yielding ultrahigh carrier mobility of 500 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and low contact resistance of 118 Ω µm. The successful removal of contamination is enabled by the strong adhesive force of the activated-carbon-based lint roller on graphene contaminants.

18.
Adv Mater ; 31(42): e1903686, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489725

RESUMO

Quantum confined devices of 3D topological insulators are proposed to be promising and of great importance for studies of confined topological states and for applications in low-energy-dissipative spintronics and quantum information processing. The absence of energy gap on the topological insulator surface limits the experimental realization of a quantum confined system in 3D topological insulators. Here, the successful realization of single-electron transistor devices in Bi2 Te3 nanoplates using state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques is reported. Each device consists of a confined central island, two narrow constrictions that connect the central island to the source and drain, and surrounding gates. Low-temperature transport measurements demonstrate that the two narrow constrictions function as tunneling junctions and the device shows well-defined Coulomb current oscillations and Coulomb-diamond-shaped charge-stability diagrams. This work provides a controllable and reproducible way to form quantum confined systems in 3D topological insulators, which should greatly stimulate research toward confined topological states, low-energy-dissipative devices, and quantum information processing.

19.
Small ; 15(43): e1904216, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489776

RESUMO

Considerable efforts are devoted to relieve the critical lithium dendritic and volume change problems in the lithium metal anode. Constructing uniform Li+ distribution and lithium "host" are shown to be the most promising strategies to drive practical lithium metal anode development. Herein, a uniform Li nucleation/growth behavior in a confined nanospace is verified by constructing vertical graphene on a 3D commercial copper mesh. The difference of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and lithium growth behavior in the confined nanospace is further demonstrated by in-depth X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and line-scan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) methods. As a result, a high Columbic efficiency of 97% beyond 250 cycles at a current density of 2 mA cm-2 and a prolonged lifespan of symmetrical cell (500 cycles at 5 mA cm-2 ) can be easily achieved. More meaningfully, the solid-state lithium metal cell paired with the composite lithium anode and LiNi0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3 O2 (NCM) as the cathode also demonstrate reduced polarization and extended cycle. The present confined nanospace-derived hybrid anode can further promote the development of future all solid-state lithium metal batteries.

20.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaaw8337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448331

RESUMO

Directly incorporating heteroatoms into the hexagonal lattice of graphene during growth has been widely used to tune its electrical properties with superior doping stability, uniformity, and scalability. However the introduction of scattering centers limits this technique because of reduced carrier mobilities and conductivities of the resulting material. Here, we demonstrate a rapid growth of graphitic nitrogen cluster-doped monolayer graphene single crystals on Cu foil with remarkable carrier mobility of 13,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a greatly reduced sheet resistance of only 130 ohms square-1. The exceedingly large carrier mobility with high n-doping level was realized by (i) incorporation of nitrogen-terminated carbon clusters to suppress the carrier scattering and (ii) elimination of all defective pyridinic nitrogen centers by oxygen etching. Our study opens up an avenue for the growth of high-mobility/conductivity doped graphene with tunable work functions for scalable graphene-based electronic and device applications.

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