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1.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048042

RESUMO

Sapoviruses (SAVs), including several genogroups (GI to GV), are one of the causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In this study, viral metagenomics revealed the presence of sapoviruses of different genogroups in stool from children with AGE. Eight different complete SAV genomes were determined, of which five belonged to GI and the other three belonged to GII, GIV and GV, respectively. Although they were highly similar to published sequences, the GIV and GV were the first complete genome sequences of these SAVs found in China. In a prevalence investigation, 19% of subjects with AGE were positive for SAVs, while none of the control group was positive.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961130

RESUMO

Stacking order has a strong influence on the coupling between the two layers of twisted bilayer graphene (BLG), which in turn determines its physical properties. Here, we report the investigation of the interlayer coupling of the epitaxially grown single-crystal 30°-twisted BLG on Cu(111) at the atomic scale. The stacking order and morphology of BLG is controlled by a rationally designed two-step growth process, that is, the thermodynamically controlled nucleation and kinetically controlled growth. The crystal structure of the 30°-twisted bilayer graphene (30°-tBLG) is determined to have quasicrystal-like symmetry. The electronic properties and interlayer coupling of the 30°-tBLG are investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The energy-dependent local density of states with in situ electrostatic doping shows that the electronic states in two graphene layers are decoupled near the Dirac point. A linear dispersion originated from the constituent graphene monolayers is discovered with doubled degeneracy. This study contributes to controlled growth of twist-angle-defined BLG and provides insights on the electronic properties and interlayer coupling in this intriguing system.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 541, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992713

RESUMO

The fast development of high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) demands a background-noise-free substrate to support the specimens, where atomically thin graphene membranes can serve as an ideal candidate. Yet the preparation of robust and ultraclean graphene EM grids remains challenging. Here we present a polymer- and transfer-free direct-etching method for batch fabrication of robust ultraclean graphene grids through membrane tension modulation. Loading samples on such graphene grids enables the detection of single metal atoms and atomic-resolution imaging of the iron core of ferritin molecules at both room- and cryo-temperature. The same kind of hydrophilic graphene grid allows the formation of ultrathin vitrified ice layer embedded most protein particles at the graphene-water interface, which facilitates cryo-EM 3D reconstruction of archaea 20S proteasomes at a record high resolution of ~2.36 Å. Our results demonstrate the significant improvements in image quality using the graphene grids and expand the scope of EM imaging.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(6): 2726-2731, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985227

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors hold great promise in flexible electronics because of their intrinsic flexibility and high electrical performance. However, the lack of facile synthetic and subsequent device fabrication approaches of high-mobility 2D semiconducting thin films still hinders their practical applications. Here, we developed a facile, rapid, and scalable solution-assisted method for the synthesis of a high-mobility semiconducting oxyselenide (Bi2O2Se) thin film by the selenization and decomposition of a precursor solution of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O. Simply by changing the rotation speed in spin-coating of the precursor solution, the thicknesses of Bi2O2Se thin films can be precisely controlled down to few atomic layers. The as-synthesized Bi2O2Se thin film exhibited a high Hall mobility of ∼74 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is much superior to other 2D thin-film semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides. Remarkably, flexible top-gated Bi2O2Se transistors showed excellent electrical stability under repeated electrical measurements on flat and bent substrates. Furthermore, Bi2O2Se transistor devices on muscovite substrates can be readily transferred onto flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates with the help of thermal release tape. The integration of a high-mobility thin-film semiconductor, excellent stability, and easy transfer onto flexible substrates make Bi2O2Se a competitive candidate for future flexible electronics.

5.
Small ; 16(2): e1905202, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814302

RESUMO

Graphene has attracted great interests in various areas including optoelectronics, spintronics, and nanomechanics due to its unique electronic structure, a linear dispersion with a zero bandgap around the Dirac point. Shifts of Dirac cones in graphene creates pseudo-magnetic field, which generates an energy gap and brings a zero-magnetic-field analogue of the quantum Hall effect. Recent studies have demonstrated that graphene pseudo-magnetic effects can be generated by vacancy defects, atom adsorption, zigzag or armchair edges, and external strain. Here, a larger than 100 T pseudo-magnetic field is reported that generated on the step area of graphene; and with the ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy, the observed Landau levels can be effectively tailored by graphene phonons. The zero pseudo-Landau level is suppressed due to the phonon-mediated inelastic tunneling, and this is observed by the scanning tunneling spectroscopy spectrum and confirmed by the Vienna ab initio simulation package calculation, where graphene phonons modulate the flow of tunneling electrons and further mediate pseudo-Landau levels. These observations demonstrate a viable approach for the control of pseudo-Landau levels, which tailors the electronic structure of graphene, and further ignites applications in graphene valley electronics.

6.
Adv Mater ; 32(1): e1903266, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583792

RESUMO

Grain boundaries produced during material synthesis affect both the intrinsic properties of materials and their potential for high-end applications. This effect is commonly observed in graphene film grown using chemical vapor deposition and therefore caused intense interest in controlled growth of grain-boundary-free graphene single crystals in the past ten years. The main methods for enlarging graphene domain size and reducing graphene grain boundary density are classified into single-seed and multiseed approaches, wherein reduction of nucleation density and alignment of nucleation orientation are respectively realized in the nucleation stage. On this basis, detailed synthesis strategies, corresponding mechanisms, and key parameters in the representative methods of these two approaches are separately reviewed, with the aim of providing comprehensive knowledge and a snapshot of the latest status of controlled growth of single-crystal graphene films. Finally, perspectives on opportunities and challenges in synthesizing large-area single-crystal graphene films are discussed.

7.
Small ; 15(43): e1904482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512402

RESUMO

Bi2 O2 Se is emerging as a photosensitive functional material for optoelectronics, and its photodetection mechanism is mostly considered to be a photoconductive regime in previous reports. Here, the bolometric effect is discovered in Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors. The coexistence of photoconductive effect and bolometric effect is generally observed in multiwavelength photoresponse measurements and then confirmed with microscale local heating experiments. The unique photoresponse of Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors may arise from a change of hot electrons during temperature rises instead of photoexcited holes and electrons. Direct proof of the bolometric effect is achieved by real-time temperature tracking of Bi2 O2 Se photodetectors under time evolution after light excitation. Moreover, the Bi2 O2 Se bolometer shows a high temperature coefficient of resistance (-1.6% K-1 ), high bolometric coefficient (-31 nA K-1 ), and high bolometric responsivity (>320 A W-1 ). These findings offer a new approach to develop bolometric photodetectors based on Bi2 O2 Se layered materials.

8.
Small ; : e1902844, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490630

RESUMO

Bilayer or few-layer 2D materials showing novel electrical properties in electronic device applications have aroused increasing interest in recent years. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of interlayer contact conductance still remains a challenge, but is significant for improving the performance of bilayer or few-layer 2D electronic devices. Here, conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM) experiments are reported to explore the interlayer contact conductance between bilayer graphene (BLG) with various twisted stacking structures fabricated by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The current maps show that the interlayer contact conductance between BLG strongly depends on the twist angle. The interlayer contact conductance of 0° AB-stacking bilayer graphene (AB-BLG) is ≈4 times as large as that of 30° twisted bilayer graphene (t-BLG), which indicates that the twist angle-dependent interlayer contact conductance originates from the coupling-decoupling transitions. Moreover, the moiré superlattice-level current images of t-BLG show modulations of local interlayer contact conductance. Density functional theory calculations together with a theoretical model reproduce the C-AFM current map and show that the modulation is mainly attributed to the overall contribution of local interfacial carrier density and tunneling barrier.

9.
Adv Mater ; 31(42): e1903686, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489725

RESUMO

Quantum confined devices of 3D topological insulators are proposed to be promising and of great importance for studies of confined topological states and for applications in low-energy-dissipative spintronics and quantum information processing. The absence of energy gap on the topological insulator surface limits the experimental realization of a quantum confined system in 3D topological insulators. Here, the successful realization of single-electron transistor devices in Bi2 Te3 nanoplates using state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques is reported. Each device consists of a confined central island, two narrow constrictions that connect the central island to the source and drain, and surrounding gates. Low-temperature transport measurements demonstrate that the two narrow constrictions function as tunneling junctions and the device shows well-defined Coulomb current oscillations and Coulomb-diamond-shaped charge-stability diagrams. This work provides a controllable and reproducible way to form quantum confined systems in 3D topological insulators, which should greatly stimulate research toward confined topological states, low-energy-dissipative devices, and quantum information processing.

10.
Small ; 15(43): e1904216, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489776

RESUMO

Considerable efforts are devoted to relieve the critical lithium dendritic and volume change problems in the lithium metal anode. Constructing uniform Li+ distribution and lithium "host" are shown to be the most promising strategies to drive practical lithium metal anode development. Herein, a uniform Li nucleation/growth behavior in a confined nanospace is verified by constructing vertical graphene on a 3D commercial copper mesh. The difference of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and lithium growth behavior in the confined nanospace is further demonstrated by in-depth X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and line-scan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) methods. As a result, a high Columbic efficiency of 97% beyond 250 cycles at a current density of 2 mA cm-2 and a prolonged lifespan of symmetrical cell (500 cycles at 5 mA cm-2 ) can be easily achieved. More meaningfully, the solid-state lithium metal cell paired with the composite lithium anode and LiNi0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3 O2 (NCM) as the cathode also demonstrate reduced polarization and extended cycle. The present confined nanospace-derived hybrid anode can further promote the development of future all solid-state lithium metal batteries.

11.
Adv Mater ; 31(43): e1902978, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502709

RESUMO

Contamination is a major concern in surface and interface technologies. Given that graphene is a 2D monolayer material with an extremely large surface area, surface contamination may seriously degrade its intrinsic properties and strongly hinder its applicability in surface and interfacial regions. However, large-scale and facile treatment methods for producing clean graphene films that preserve its excellent properties have not yet been achieved. Herein, an efficient postgrowth treatment method for selectively removing surface contamination to achieve a large-area superclean graphene surface is reported. The as-obtained superclean graphene, with surface cleanness exceeding 99%, can be transferred to dielectric substrates with significantly reduced polymer residues, yielding ultrahigh carrier mobility of 500 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and low contact resistance of 118 Ω µm. The successful removal of contamination is enabled by the strong adhesive force of the activated-carbon-based lint roller on graphene contaminants.

12.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaaw8337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448331

RESUMO

Directly incorporating heteroatoms into the hexagonal lattice of graphene during growth has been widely used to tune its electrical properties with superior doping stability, uniformity, and scalability. However the introduction of scattering centers limits this technique because of reduced carrier mobilities and conductivities of the resulting material. Here, we demonstrate a rapid growth of graphitic nitrogen cluster-doped monolayer graphene single crystals on Cu foil with remarkable carrier mobility of 13,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a greatly reduced sheet resistance of only 130 ohms square-1. The exceedingly large carrier mobility with high n-doping level was realized by (i) incorporation of nitrogen-terminated carbon clusters to suppress the carrier scattering and (ii) elimination of all defective pyridinic nitrogen centers by oxygen etching. Our study opens up an avenue for the growth of high-mobility/conductivity doped graphene with tunable work functions for scalable graphene-based electronic and device applications.

13.
Adv Mater ; 31(39): e1901964, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389096

RESUMO

Atomically thin oxychalcogenides have been attracting intensive attention for their fascinating fundamental properties and application prospects. Bi2 O2 Se, a representative of layered oxychalcogenides, has emerged as an air-stable high-mobility 2D semiconductor that holds great promise for next-generation electronics. The preparation and device fabrication of high-quality Bi2 O2 Se crystals down to a few atomic layers remains a great challenge at present. Here, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of atomically thin Bi2 O2 Se films down to monolayer on SrTiO3 (001) substrate is achieved by co-evaporating Bi and Se precursors in oxygen atmosphere. The interfacial atomic arrangements of MBE-grown Bi2 O2 Se/SrTiO3 are unambiguously revealed, showing an atomically sharp interface and atom-to-atom alignment. Importantly, the electronic band structures of one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick Bi2 O2 Se films are observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), showing low effective mass of ≈0.15 m0 and bandgap of ≈0.8 eV. These results may be constructive to the synthesis of other 2D oxychalcogenides and investigation of novel physical properties.

14.
Nanoscale ; 11(27): 13117-13125, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268079

RESUMO

Using graphene as electrodes provides an opportunity for fabricating stable single-molecule field-effect transistors (FETs) operating at room temperature. However, the role of the unique graphene band structure in charge transport of single-molecule devices is still not clear. Here we report the Dirac-cone induced electrostatic gating effects in single-molecule FETs with graphene electrodes and a solid-state local bottom gate. With the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) as the dominating conduction channel and the graphene leads remaining intrinsic at zero gate voltage, electrostatic gating on the HOMO and the density of states of graphene at the negative gate polarity reinforces each other, resulting in an enhanced conductance modulation. In contrast, gating effects on the HOMO and the graphene states at the positive gate polarity are opposite. Depending on the gating efficiencies, the conductance can decrease, increase or remain almost unchanged when a more positive gate voltage is applied. Our observations can be well understood by a modified single-level model taking into account the linear dispersion of graphene near the Dirac point. Single-molecule FETs with Dirac-cone enhanced gating have shown high performances, with the modulation of a wide range of current over one order of magnitude. Our studies highlight the advantages of using graphene as an electrode material for molecular devices and pave the way for single-molecule FETs toward circuitry applications.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14446-14451, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286615

RESUMO

Contamination commonly observed on the graphene surface is detrimental to its excellent properties and strongly hinders its application. It is still a great challenge to produce large-area clean graphene film in a low-cost manner. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and scalable chemical vapor deposition approach to synthesize meter-sized samples of superclean graphene with an average cleanness of 99 %, relying on the weak oxidizing ability of CO2 to etch away the intrinsic contamination, i.e., amorphous carbon. Remarkably, the elimination of amorphous carbon enables a significant reduction of polymer residues in the transfer of graphene films and the fabrication of graphene-based devices and promises strongly enhanced electrical and optical properties of graphene. The facile synthesis of large-area superclean graphene would open the pathway for both fundamental research and industrial applications of graphene, where a clean surface is highly needed.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3457, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358759

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2386, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160591

RESUMO

The fast development of single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has made it more feasible to obtain the 3D structure of well-behaved macromolecules with a molecular weight higher than 300 kDa at ~3 Å resolution. However, it remains a challenge to obtain the high-resolution structures of molecules smaller than 200 kDa using single-particle cryo-EM. In this work, we apply the Cs-corrector-VPP-coupled cryo-EM to study the 52 kDa streptavidin (SA) protein supported on a thin layer of graphene and embedded in vitreous ice. We are able to solve both the apo-SA and biotin-bound SA structures at near-atomic resolution using single-particle cryo-EM. We demonstrate that the method has the potential to determine the structures of molecules as small as 39 kDa.


Assuntos
Biotina/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Estreptavidina/ultraestrutura , Grafite , Substâncias Macromoleculares/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estreptavidina/metabolismo
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(19): 7670-7674, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058498

RESUMO

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) enables the large-scale growth of high-quality graphene film and exhibits considerable potential for the industrial production of graphene. However, CVD-grown graphene film contains surface contamination, which in turn hinders its potential applications, for example, in electrical and optoelectronic devices and in graphene-membrane-based applications. To solve this issue, we demonstrated a modified gas-phase reaction to achieve the large-scale growth of contamination-free graphene film, i.e., superclean graphene, using a metal-containing molecule, copper(II) acetate, Cu(OAc)2, as the carbon source. During high-temperature CVD, the Cu-containing carbon source significantly increased the Cu content in the gas phase, which in turn suppressed the formation of contamination on the graphene surface by ensuring sufficient decomposition of the carbon feedstock. The as-received graphene with a surface cleanness of about 99% showed enhanced optical and electrical properties. This study opens a new avenue for improving graphene quality with respect to surface cleanness and provides new insight into the mechanism of graphene growth through the gas-phase reaction pathway.

19.
Nanoscale ; 11(22): 10622-10628, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139797

RESUMO

We report on phase-coherent transport studies of a Bi2O2Se nanoplate and on observation of universal conductance fluctuations and spin-orbit interaction induced reduction in fluctuation amplitude in the nanoplate. Thin-layered Bi2O2Se nanoplates are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transport measurements are made on a Hall-bar device fabricated from a CVD-grown nanoplate. The measurements show weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields at low temperatures, as a result of spin-orbit interaction, and a crossover toward weak localization with increasing temperature. Temperature dependences of characteristic transport lengths, such as spin relaxation length, phase coherence length, and mean free path, are extracted from the low-field measurement data. Universal conductance fluctuations are visible in the low-temperature magnetoconductance over a large range of magnetic fields and the phase coherence length extracted from the autocorrelation function is consistent with the result obtained from the weak localization analysis. More importantly, we find a strong reduction in amplitude of the universal conductance fluctuations and show that the results agree with the analysis assuming strong spin-orbit interaction in the Bi2O2Se nanoplate.

20.
Nat Mater ; 18(6): 520-524, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114064
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